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Full text of "Report"

LIBRARY-COLLEGE PARK 




w mr ciEciiiAT 



Digitized by tine Internet Archive 
in 2013 



Iittp://archive.org/details/report00mary_75 



STATE OF MARYLAND 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 
EIGHTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 

Of The 

State Board of Education 

SHOWING CONDITION 

Of Th9 

Public Schools of Maryland 

For The 

Year Ending June 30, 1947 




BALTIMORE, MD. 



STATE OF MARYLAND 

STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION— OCTOBER, 1947 



Name Address 
TASKER G. LOWNDES, Pres. .. Cumberland 
WENDELL D. ALLEN, Vice-Pres. Baltimore 

HARRY Y. GEORGE Brunswick 

HORACE M. MORGAN Queen Anne 



Name Address 

NICHOLAS OREM Hyattsville 

MRS. ALVIN THALHEIMER Baltimore 

OSCAR B. COBLENTZ Catonsville 



THOMAS G. PULLEN, Jr., Secretary-Treasurer, Catonsville 



OFFICE OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 

1111 Lexington Building, Baltimore-1 



State Superintendent of Schools 
THOMAS G. PULLEN, JR. 

Ass't. State Sup't. for Vocational Education 
JOHN J. SEIDEL 

Directors 

JAMES E. SPITZNAS, Instruction 
MERLE S. BATEMAN. Certification, 

Accreditation, Publications 
BESSIE C. STERN, Finance, Statistics, 

Educational Measurements 

Supervisors 

GRACE L. ALDER, Elementary Schools 
E. CLARKE FONTAINE, High Schools 
WILBUR DEVILBISS, High Schools 
PAUL E. HUFFiNGTON, Colored Schools 
ELISABETH AMERY, Home Economics 
R. FLOYD CROMWELL, Guidance 
HERSHEL M. JAMES, Industrial 
Education 

HARRY M. McDonald, Agriculture 

MRS. GLADYS T. HOPKINS, Curriculum 

DAVID W. ZIMMERMAN, Spec. Ed., At- 
tend., Transport., On-the-Job-Training 

THOMAS C. FERGUSON, Physical Educa- 
tion and Recreation 

MRS. GERTRUDE N. BOWIE, School 
Lunch Program 

JAMES L. REID, School Lunch and 
Surplus Property Program 

R. CHRISTINE HOGAN, Finance, Sta- 
tistics, Educational Measurements 

WILLIAM O'DELL, Surplus Property 
Program 

*W. G. ECKLES, Buildings and Plant 
*GLEN D. BROWN, Industrial Ed. for 
Adults 

Assistant Supervisors 

ETHEL E. SAMMIS, Physical Education 

and Recreation 
CHARLES C. CONLON, Jr., Accreditation 
M. ELEANOR RICE, Certification 
CHARLES V. AKELEY, Finance, Sta- 

tistics 

MARIE WHEATLEY, Curriculum 
DOROTHY SHIRES, Elementary Schools 
GEORGE M. CRAWFORD, Curriculum 
E. B. DEXTER, Surplus Property 



Consultant Architect 
*F. J. THUMAN 

Auditor 

BR.AN M. BENSON 

Administrative Assistant, I 
RUTH E. HOBBS 

Clerk 

E. SUE WALTER 

Statisticians 

HELEN D. GEORGE, I 
\Y LL AM C. FEADER. I 
MAR ON FREYER, II 
MRS. GENEVIEVE J. NEKERVIS, II 

Principal Account Clerks 

MRS. GRACE STEELE TRAVERS, I 
BLANCHE E. KEEN, II 
M.NNiE GERBER, II 

Stenographer-Secretaries 
EL ZABETH McGINNITY 
ELS.E F. FORMAN 
MARGARET E. ALBAUGH 
CARRYE HAMBURGER 
E. DRUSILLA CHAIRS 

Senior Stenographers 

MARTHA LEE MARSH 

MRS. BETTY JEAN WAGGONER 

DENA BORES 

MRS. HELEN C. KATENKAMP 

MARTHA SAPPINGTON 

MARGARET G. BROOKS 

HELEN P. ELLIS 

MRS. DOROTHY LANGRALL 

JEANNE SCHREIBER 

ZITA AVALDERMAN 

ELVA MAE WALLER 

MRS. BEATRICE KIRK 

Stenographei"- Accounting 

MRS. LAURA M. GAITHER 

Senior Clerk 

MRS. CATHERINE L. OWINGS 

Senior Typist 

MARGARET H. MILLER 



DIVISION OF VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION 
1112 Lexington Building, BaItimore-1, Md. 



Director 

R. C. THOMPSON 
Supervisors 

W. BIRD TERWILLIGER, Guidance, 

Training, Placement 
LIONEL BURGESS, Case Services 
GEORGE W. KELLER, Services for the 
Blind 
Counselor 

MYRTLE E. CHELL, Tuberculosis Cases 



Medical Consultant 
*DEAN W. ROBERTS, M.D. 

2612 N. Charles St., Baltimore 18. 
Stenographer-Secretary 

KATHLEEN E. SCHEVE 
Senior Stenographers 
ANNE NUSINOV 
MRS. C. ELAINE SHIPLEY 
CHARLOTTE A. SYLVESTER 



Part-time 



Branch Offices, Division of Vocational Rehabilitation 



Baltimore Branch 
500 Liberty Building, Baltimore 

District Supervisor 
THOMAS D. BRAUN 

Rehabilitation Counselors 
R. KENNETH BARNES 
CHARLES P. FONDA 
CHARLES L. HILL 
FOY L. LUNSFORD 
IRWIN D. MEDINGER - 
JEWELL M. PRESNELL 
RUTH F. RING 
H. SMITH SHUMWAY 

Stenographer-Secretary 
EMMA E. LUECKERT 

Senior Stenographers 
MILDRED R. ECK 
MRS. CHRISTINE HATCH 

DOROTHY c. McLaughlin 

BELL M. SKLAR 

Senior Clerk 

MRS. MARGARET A. SCHROFF 



i" At 108 Washington St., Cumberland 



Western Maryland Branch 
170 W. Washington St., Hagerstovk'n 

District Supervisor 

KENNETH G. STONER 
Rehabilitation Counselor 

ILEO G. DELANEY 
Senior Stenographer 

MRS. ALFREDA E. COFFMAN 
Eastern Shore Branch 
109 Calvert Building, Salisbury 
District Supervisor 

RAYMOND H. SIMMONS 
Rehabilitation Counselor 
GEORGE W. ENGLE 
Senior Stenographer 

MRS. PAULINE P. DAW^SON 

Southern INIaryland Branch 
4700 Baltimore Blvd., Hyattsville 
District Supervisor 

MERE D. MYERS 
Rehabilitation Counselor 
HENRY D. DEVLIN 
Senior Stenographer 

MRS. LILLIAN MAY BELT 



DIVISION OF LIBRARY EXTENSION 
400 Cathedral St., Baltimore 1 



Director 

HELEN M. CLARK 
Supervisors 
ANNE FARRINGTON, County and In- 
stitutional Libraries 
MAE GRAHAM, School and Children's 
Libraries 
Counselors 

IVEN CASE. Readers' Counselor 
CATHARINE M. BARNHART, Technical 
Counselor 



Librarians 

M. E. NAOMI JOHNSON 
JOSEPHINE M. BALDWIN, Assistant 
MRS. SUZANNE V. PEARCE, Sr. Asst. 
MRS. BEVERLY BURMEISTER, Jr. Asst. 

Senior Stenographer 
RUTH TIMANUS 

Junior Typist 

CATHERINE A. HOLLAND 



PRESIDENTS OF STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES 



EARLE T. HAWKINS, Towson 
LILLIAN C. COMPTON, Frostburg 



J. D. BLACKWELL, Salisbury 
WILLIAM E. HENRY, JR., Bowi 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES. MARYLAND TEACHERS 
RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

911 Lexington Building, Baltimore 1 



HOOPER S. MILES, State Treasurer, 
Chairman 

JAMES J. LACY, State Comptroller 
THOMAS G. PULLEN, JR., State Sup't 
of Schools 

EDWIN W. BROOME, Sup't of Schools, 
Montgomery County, Vice Chairman 

ALTHEA FULLER, Principal, Allegany 
County 



J. P. MANNION, Director 
THOMAS I. HAYS, Executive Secretary 
MINNIE HAMILTON, Stenographer- 
Secretary 

HELEN M. KIRKMAN, Principal Clerk 
MRS. MAMIE RUSSELL TODD, Senior 
Clerk 

BERNADETTE DUFFY. Senior Typist 



3 

151207 



MARYLAND COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS AND SUPERVISORS, 

1947-48 



County -Address 

ALLEGANY— Cumberland 
Charles L. Kopp, Supt. 
Richard T. Rizer, Asst. Supt. 
Ruby M. Adams, Dir. El. Education 
Jane E. Botsford, Supv. Elementary 
Winifred Greene, Supv. Primary 
Mildred Willison, Supv. Elementary 
Joseph T. Dov^^ney, Supv. Maintenance 
Julius D. Lonnholm, Supv. Voc, Adult Ed. 
Jack E. Piatt, Supv. Music 
Evelyn Miller, Supv. Home Economics 
William P. Cooper, Dir. Cafeterias 
Mrs. Gladys Miller Eaton, Supv. Cafeterias 
Ralph E. Kessler, Dir. Spec. Ed. 
Arthur G. Ramey, Supv. Pupil Personnel 

ANNE ARUNDEL— Annapolis 
David S. Jenkins, Supt. 
R. Harold McCann, Dir. Trans., Supv. 

Maintenance. 
*Howfard A. Kinhart, Supv. High Schools 
Ruth V. Dudderar, Supv. Jr. High Schools 
Mrs. Dorothy S. Kirkley, Supv. El. Schools 
Mrs. Virginia D. Moore, Supv. El. Schools 
Sarah V. Jones, Supv. Colored El. Schools 
Frank C. Gunderloy, Supv. Voc. Ed., Vets. 

Training 

Lee W. Adkins, Supv. Ag., Cafeterias 
Mrs. Eleanor B. Waring, Sr. Supv. Pupil 

Personnel 
Mary Moss, Supv. Pupil Personnel 
Mrs. Flora Andrews, Supv. Pupil Per- 
sonnel 

BALTIMORE— Towson 

Raymond S. Hyson, Supt. 
Edvvard G. Stapleton, Assoc. Supt. 
M. Lucetta Sisk, Asst. Supt. Curric, Instr. 
J. A. Sensenbaugh, Asst. Supt. EL Schools 
C. James Velie, Supv. Music 
Olive Jobes, Supv. Art 
James B. O'Toole, Jr., Supv. Jr. High 
Schools 

Herbert R. Steiner, Supv. Phys. Ed., 
Health 

Mary E. Kelleher, Supv. Home Economics 
Anna Meeks, Supv. Guidance 
T. M. Greene, Supv. Business Subj., Adul' 
Ed. 

Jennie E. Jessup, Supv. El. Schools 
Myrtle S. Eckhardt, Supv. El. Schools 
Anna G. Sheppard, Supv. El. Schools 
M. Katharine Dost, Supv. El. Schools 
Mrs. Pauline Hobbs. Supv. Col. Jr. H. El. 
Schools 

Arthur A. Dick, Supv. Trans., Maintenance 
Herman C. Burton, Supv. Pupil Personnel 

CALVERT— Prince Frederick 
Harry R. Hughes, Supt. 
Clarence W. Mason, Supv. El. and High 
Schools 

C. Elizabeth Rieg, Supv. Pupil Personnel 
James P. Layne, Supv. Colored Schools 

CAROLINE— Denton 

W. Stew^art Fitzgerald, Supt. 
Fred G. Usilton. Jr., Supv. High Schools 
A. May Thompson, Supv. El. Schools 
Mrs. Elizabeth A. Stone, Supv. Pupil Per- 
sonnel, II 

*Mrs. Lula D. Ward, Supv. Col. Schools 



County Address 

CARROLI^Westminster 
Samuel M. Jenness, Supt. 
John F. Wooden, Jr., Supv. Sec. Ed. 
Ruth E. DeVore, Supv. El. Ed. 
Charles E. Reck, Supv. El. 
Maye E. Grimes, Supv. Pupil Personnel 
*Philip S. Royer, Supv. Music 
*Mrs. Josephine West, Supv. Home Ec, 
Cafeterias 

*Mae E. Prince, Supv. Colored Schools 

CECIL— Elkton 

H. E. McBride, Supt. 
Edw^in B. Fockler, Supv. High Schools 
Olive L. Reynolds, Supv. El. Schools 
Paul S. Hyde, Supv., El. Schools 
Edwin H. Barnes, Supv. Pupil Personnel 
*Rachel E. Eoyd, Supv. Home Economics 



CHARLES— La Plata 
F. B. Gwynn, Supt. 
B. Lucile Bowie, Supv. El. Schools 
.*Milt:on M. Somers, Supv. High Schools 
Mrs. Cecelia Farrall, Supv. Pupil Per- 
sonnel 

Joseph C. Parks, Supv. Colored Schools 



DORCHESTER— Cambridge 
W. Theodore Boston, Supt. 
Albert S. Farver, Supv. High Schools 
Evelyn E. Johnson, Supv. El. Schools 
John T. Comer, Jr., Supv. Pupil Personnel 
Mrs. Viola J. Comegys, Supv. Colored 
Schools 



FREDERICK— Frederick 
Eugene W. Pruitt, Supt. 

A. Drucilla Worthington, Supv. El. Schools 
Mrs. Louise F. Thompson, Supv. El. 
Schools 

Mrs. Charlotte E. Burrier, Supv. El. Jr. 

High Schools 
Duval W. Sweadner, Supv. High Schools 
Gertrude Smith, Supv. Pupil Personnel 
Warren R. Evans, Supv. Health and Phys. 

Ed. 

*Charles C. T. Stull, Supv. Music 
*Mrs. Dorothy S. Ranck, Supv. Home 
Economics 

*Charles E. Henson, Supv. Colored Schools 

GARRETT— Oakland 

Franklin E. Rathbun, Supt. 
Kate Bannatyne, Supv. El. Schools 
Mrs. Caroline Wilson, Supv. El. Schools 
John L. Fitzwater, Supv. Pup. Personnel, 
II 



HARFORD— Bel Air 

Charles W. Willis, Supt. 
Benjamin S. Carroll, Asst. Supt. 
Hazel L. Fisher, Supv. El. Schools 
Mary L. Grau, Supv. EL Schools 
Dorothy A. Mudd, Supv. Jr. High Schools 
*Estella Everett, Supv. Pupil Personnel, II 
*Percy V. Williams, Supv. Colored Schools 



Part-time supervisor 



4 



County Address 
HOWARD— Ellicott City 
Herbert C. Brown, Supt. 
Gail Chadwick, Supv. El. Schools 
Eleanor M. Dries, Supv. High Schools 
Harry T. Murphy, Supv. Pupil Personnel 
♦Morris L. Woodson, Supv. Col. Schools 

KENT— Chestertown 
Reade W. Corr, Supt. 
G. Watson Algire, Supv. High Schools 
Louise Hepbrom, Supv, El. Schools 
Mrs. May H, Beck, Supv. Pupil Personnel 
♦Mrs. Sara B. Chambers, Supv. Col. El. 
Schools 

MONTGOMERY— Rockville 
Edwin W. Broome, Supt. 
Edgar M. Douglass, Asst. Supt. Adm. 
Mrs. Fern D. Schneider, Supv. High 
Schools 

Maxwell E. Burdette, Supv. High Schools 
William E. Feddeman, Supv. Spec. Ed. 
Julia W. Watkins, Supv. Home Arts, 

Cafeterias 
C. Mabel Smith, Supv. Curr. Div. 
Etheleen Daniel, Supv. El. Schools 
Sarah S. Glass, Supv. El, Schools 
Lillian L. Gore, Supv. El. Schools 
Lucille E. Johnson, Supv. Music 
Marjorie J. Billows, Supv. Art 
Crescent J. Bride, Supv, Phys, Ed. 
Edward V. Taylor, Supv, Col. Schools 
T. H. Owen Knight, Supv. Pupil Personnel 
Mrs. Alice Rawson Marshall, Supv. Pupil 

Personnel 
Mrs. Helen P. Bready, Supv. Pupil 

Personnel 

Mrs. Louise S. Walker, Supv, Aud, Vis. 
Aids El. 

William B, Marks, Dir. Trans, Vis. Aids 
High 

PRINCE GEORGE'S— Upper Marlboro 
G. Gardner Shugart, Supt. 
Paul D. Cooper, Asst. Secy. 
William B. Schmidt, Dir. Instruction 
Eleanor G. Weagly, Supv. Cafeterias 
John W. Heim, Supv. Transportation 
Arthur E. Robinson, Supv. Maintenance 
Rowanette S. Allen, Supv. Jr. High 
Schools 

Mrs. Catherine T. Reed, Supv. El. Schools 
Anne Mildred Hoyle, Supv, El. Schools 
Eunice E. Burdette, Supv. El. Schools 
Mrs. Mary B, Wackwitz, Supv, Art. 
Mrs, Mary J, A. Carey, Supv, Music 
Mrs. Leo L. Quinn, Supv. Phys. Ed. 

♦Elmer K. Zeller, Supv. Ind. and Adult Ed. 

♦M. Gladys Dickerson, Supv. Home Ec. 
Kathleen Shears, Supv. Pupil Personnel 
Doswell E. Brooks, Supv. Col. Schools 
William W. Hall, Asst. Supv. Col. Sch. 



Part-time supervisor 



County Address 
QUEEN ANNE'S— Centreville 
Franklin D. Day, Supt. 
George T. Pratt, Supv. High Schools 
Mrs. Margaret S. Stack, Supv. El. Sch, 
Mrs. Lola P. Brown, Supv. Pupil Person- 
nel, Col. Schools 



ST, MARY'S— Leonardtown 
Lettie M. Dent, Supt, 
E, Violette Young, Supv. El. Schools 
Harriet H. Reeder, Supv. Pupil Personnel 
Ralph S. Waters, Supv. Col. Schools 



SOMERSET— Princess Anne 
C. Allen Carlson, Supt. 
Clinton W. Corbin, Asst. Supt. High 

Schools 

Alice Mae Coulbourn, Supv. El. Schools 
♦Kermit Cottman, Supv. Col. Schools 



TALBOT— Easton 

J. Willard Davis, Supt. 
M. Lillian Cheezum, Supv. El. Schools 
Arthur R. Higginbottom, Supv. High 
Schools 

Mrs. Virginia Darrow, Supv. Pupil Per- 
sonnel 

*W. H. Fauntleroy, Supv. Col. Schools 



WASHINGTON— Hagerstown 
William M. Brish, Supt. 
William C. Diehl, Ass't. Supt. 
Katharine L. Healy, Supv. El. SchQols 
Anne H. Richardson, Supv. El. Schools 
Pauline Blackford, Supv. El. Schools. 
Miriam L. Hoffman, Supv. Music 
Wilbur M. Phillips, Supv. Pupil Personnel 



WICOMICO— Salisbury 
James M. Bennett, Supt. 
Mrs, Leah M. Phillips, Supv. El. Schools 
Lester A. Hall, Supv. High Schools 
Charles E. Tilghman, Supv. Pupil Person- 
nel 

Marie A, Dashiell, Supv. Col. Schools 



WORCESTER— Snow Hill 
William S. Sartorius, Supt. 
Mrs. Margaret Laws Engle, Supv. EI. 
Schools 

Mrs. Lucy S. Pilchard, Supv. Pupil Per- 
sonnel 

♦Mrs. Annie B. Downing, Supv. Col. SchooU 



5 



CONTENTS 



Page 



Letter of Transmittal 7 

1947 Legislation Affecting Education 9 

The State Public School Budgets for 1947, 1948, and 1949 30 

The 1946 Maryland School Census 33 

Dates of Opening and Closing Schools and Length of Session 38 

Births, Enrollment in Public and Non-Public Schools 39 

Percent and Index of Attendance 45 

Grade Enrollment; Non-Promotions in Elementary Schools 49 

Education for Handicapped Children in Counties and City 57 

High School Graduates: Number, Persistence and Occupations 60 

Colleges Attended by 1946 County Graduates in and out of State 68 

High School Enrollment by Year and Subject 73 

High School Failures and Withdrawals 83 

Teachers by Subjects, Clerks, Certification, Experience, Resignations, 

Turnover, Sex, Summer School Attendance 86 

Number Belonging and Average Salary per Teacher 101 

Number and Size of Schools 114 

Vocational Rehabilitation; Baltimore City Adult Education and Sum- 
mer Schools 119 

Costs of Maryland Schools 1946-47 

Total, Percent from State, Distribution of School Tax Dollar 122 

Cost per Pupil 128 

Financing the Vocational Education Program; the Adult Education 

Program 141 

Transportation of Pupils 146 

Capital Outlay, Bonds Outstanding, Value of School Property 150 

1947-48 County Levies; Percent of Levies Used for Schools; Assess- 
ments; Wealth per Pupil; Tax Rates 154 

State Individual Income Tax per Capita 162 

Per Capita Income by States and by Year in Maryland 163 

Other Than Public Funds; Parent-Teacher Associations 164 

State and County School Administration and Supervision 

Conferences of State Department Stalf 165 

County School Administration 165 

Dr. Pullen's Proposals for Improving Public Education in 

Maryland 166 

Financing the Proposals 192 

Certification, Absence for Illness, Juvenile Delinquency, Health, 
Physical Education and Recreation, Surplus Property, School 

Buildings 197 

Supervision of White Elementary Schools 208 

The Child Study Program 209 

Supervision of High Schools 214 

1946 and 1947 Workshops 222 

Supervision of Colored Schools 226 

High School Equivalence Examinations, Approval of Schools for 

Veterans Training, On-the-job Training 232 

The Maryland State Teachers Colleges — Towson, Frostburg, Salis- 
bury, Bowie 236 

Library Extension; Aid to School Libraries 248 

School Lunches 252 

Contributions of Teachers to State Teachers' Retirement System 255 

The State and County Health Program for School Children 256 

List of Financial Statements and Statistical Tables 259 

Index 306 



6 



Honorable William Preston Lane 
Governor of Maryland 
Annapolis, Maryland 

My dear Governor Lane: 



Jan. 1, 1948 
Baltimore, Md. 



In accordance with Section 24 of Article 77 of the Laws of Maryland, 
the eighty-first "annual report, covering all operations of the State De- 
partment of Education and the support, condition, progress, and needs of 
education throughout the State" for the school year ending in June, 1947, 
is herewith presented to you. 

Continuing the policy during the emergency created by war conditions 
of limiting State reports to the most important and essential data, an ab- 
breviated report has been prepared similar to the one issued for the last 
six years, omitting the verbal analysis of information included in tables 
and charts. 

The year 1947 will go down in Maryland's educational history for the 
outstanding legislation enacted with your courageous and realistic support. 
The effect will be more far-reaching than anything that happened in the 
past, except for the legislation of 1916 after the Maryland School Survey 
and that of 1922 establishing the equalization fund, setting up more ade- 
quate salary schedules and requiring supervision of elementary schools. 

The new 1947 salary schedules for teachers, principals, supervisors 
and superintendents which went into effect in the school year 1947-48 
should put Maryland among the leading States in the country which are 
attempting to hold in the schools and attract to the teaching profession 
personnel of the highest character and qualifications. Although legislation 
for smaller elementary school classes does not take effect until 1951, its 
enactment in 1947 makes it possible to plan for the necessary building 
facilities and to try to prepare and secure the teachers who will be needed 
to take care of the smaller classes in 1951. 

Provision of State aid for county supervisors of high schools has been 
the stimulus for employing the staff needed to insure more efficient instruc- 
tion for high school pupils; while more adequate state funds for super- 
visors of pupil personnel (formerly attendance officers) and for visiting 
teachers in the larger counties should bring about more understanding 
treatment of maladjusted children which should help to reduce juvenile 
delinquency. 

The enactment of recommendations of the Commission on the Distribu- 
tion of State Revenues providing aid per teacher ($400) and aid per pupil 
($20) to replace the aid formierly distributed on the basis of census of 
ages 6-14 years, aggregate days of attendance in elementary schools, high 
school staff, pupils enrolled (books and materials), federal census of popu- 
lation in the counties, has simplified the calculation of aid, eliminated in- 
equities which affected Baltimore City and Baltimore County, and increased 
State aid so that the State which has a broader tax base than the local 
units is carrying a larger proportion of the burden. The establishment of the 
incentive fund for buildings also recommended by the Sherbow Commission 
makes available for the first time State aid for school capital outlay. This 
comes at a time when the requirements for school construction are stu- 
pendous because of the backlog due to the lack of building during the 
war period, the necessity of providing for the twelfth grade in twenty 
counties as a result of the 1945 legislation, the unusual increase in popu- 
lation due to migration during the war period, and the abnormal increase 
in children born during the early 1940's who are now old enough to enter 
school. 

A study of the tables on withdrawals of white county teachers shows 
that the number in 1946-47 was higher than in any previous year; and 
the percent withdrawn was only higher in the year 1942-43. The need for 
the new salary schedules of 1947 as one means of combating the with- 
drawal of teachers is indeed evident. 

The second full year of the child-study program in which Maryland 
by carrying it on a State wide basis is the pioneer in the country, enlisted 
the active participation of 30 percent of the white and 66 percent of the 



colored county teaching staff. Objective anecdotes recording observations 

of one child in each of their classes are prepared by the teachers and 
additional data are collected about the environmental background so that 
with the pertinent scientific principles, reasons for the causes of the child's 
behavior emerge and teachers are helped to become more understanding 
of and sympathetic toward the problems which children have to' face. 

A workshop for child study leaders, and summer workshops in 1946 
and 1947 on the curriculum and on supervisory problems brought leading 
teachers, principals, and supervisors from every county together to work 
constructively on meeting the needs of boys and girls in a more functional 
way. 

In seven counties the members of the county boards of library trustees 
whom you appointed began functioning and received their first county 
aid of two cents and State aid for books for which $20,000 was provided 
for the first time in the State budget for the year 1946-47. The Pratt 
Library in Baltimore City also received $5,000 from the State fund to be 
used for the purchase of books. These developments resulted from the 
legislation of 1945. 

The interest in securing certificates of high school equivalence in- 
creased so greatly that over 2400 veterans and civilian adults who had 
not completed a high school course applied for the examinations during 
the year. The department supplied the guidance needed and administered 
the examinations. Those who passed were able to continue their education 
or secure promotion or jobs requiring higher educational qualifications. 

The department also continued approval of educational institutions in 
which veterans might take advantage of the opportunity for continuing 
their education at the expense of the Federal government. Also the ap- 
proval of business establishments desiring to offer on-the-job training of 
veterans and supervision of the training offered was carried on by the 
State Department staff in ever increasing volume with the aid of State 
and Federal funds. The 1945 legislation requiring the approval of private 
trade schools was strengthened in 1947 by the enactment of legislation 
requiring approval of all schools charging fees except those operated by 
religious groups, and those previously chartered. The 1948 State budget 
carries funds for the staff needed to make the necessary investigations. 

Junior colleges were started in Bethesda, Hagerstown and Baltimore 
City and at the State teachers colleges to help take care of high school 
graduates and others who could not enter the old established colleges be- 
cause they were overcrowded with veterans. The State gave $10,000 to 
Montgomery County, to Washington. County, and to Baltimore City to aid 
in the operation of the junior colleges in existing high school buildings 
which were made available in the afternoons and evenings. 

With continued interest of patrons and parent-teacher associations, 
the greater financial support, of county commissioners, the legislature and 
the administration in insuring a better program of education for the boys 
and girls of Maryland, the school officials and teachers carry on with re- 
nevred inspiration. 

The excellent law which governs the Maryland school program, its 
simple and efficient plan of organization for administration and financing, 
as well as the sincere cooperation received from ail county teachers, prin- 
cipals, supervisors, superintendents, and their office staffs who have been 
given the general moral and financial support of their patrons, county 
boards of education, county commissioners and members of the legislature 
and the Governor have made possible the conditions shown in this report. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Thomas G. Pullen, Jr. 

Secretary -Treasurer. 

State Board of Education 
Tasker G. Lowndes, President Nicholas Orem 

Wendell D. Allen, Vice-President Harry Y. George 

Fannie Thalheimer Horace M. Morgan 

Oscar Coblentz 

8 



MARYLAND 1947 LEGISLATION EFFECTING CHANGES 
IN ARTICLE 77 

County Board of Education Members, Ch. 509, S.B. 171. 

7A. See Calvert County, page 22. 

Accreditation of Schools Charging Fees, ^h. 489, S.B. 34. 
14A. Every school or educational institution which charges tuition 
or fees for attendance, except those operated by church organizations, 
must secure a certificate of approval issued by the State Superintendent 
of Schools. This requirement will not apply to any school or college now 
operating under a charter granted by the Legislature. 

Any school affected by this section must have conditions of entrance, 
scholarship, educational qualifications, standards and facilities adequate 
and appropriate for the purposes, program, training, and courses taught 
or given. Provisions are made for revocation of any certificate and for ap- 
peal from such revocation. 

The State Superintendent is authorized to issue rules and regulations 
to the schools and institutions affected. 

Financial Reports, Allegany, Garrett, Montgomery, Ch. 743, H.B. 410. 
57. See Allegany County, page 20. 

Smaller Elementary School Classes beginning July 1, 1951, 
Ch. 533, S.B. 285. 
79. On and after July 1, 1951, whenever an elementary school numbers 
more than thirty children in average enrollment, an assistant may be em- 
ployed by the county board of education, or Board of School Commissioners 
of Baltimore City; and for every additional thirty children, one teacher 
shall be appointed. 

Increased Salaries for Maryland Teachers and Principals, Ch. 535, S.B. 287. 

93. Minimum salaries for Maryland county and Baltimore City teach- 
ers and principals are fixed at the following amounts: 

Teachers without degees holding regular certificates shall receive minimum salaries 
of $2,000 to $3,600 with $100 increments if certificates are rated first class. 

Teachers with degrees shall receive salaries of $2,200 to $3,800, with $100 incre- 
ments, if certificates are rated first class. 

Teachers who have had twelve or fewer years of experience and whose certificates 
are rated first class shall be placed on the schedule where their experience 
justifies. They shall receive one increment of $100 each year thereafter until 
they reach the maximum. 

Teachers in charge of two-teacher schools shall receive $200 additional. 

Principals without a year of graduate work in schools having two or 
more assistant teachers shall receive the following amounts over the ap- 
propriate teacher's salary schedule for the number of assistant teachers 
indicated: 

No. of Assistant Teachers Additional Payment 

2-5 $300 
6-9 400 
10 or more 600 

Principals who have a year of graduate work, including satisfactory 
completion of the courses required for the position held, shall receive cer- 
tain sums above the amounts to which they are entitled on the salary 
schedule for teachers with degrees. The salaries of such principals will 
vary with the number of assistant teachers as follows: 

No. of Assistant Teachers Additional Payment 

1 $400 

2-5 500 

6-9 700 

10-14 900 

15-19 1000 

20-29 1100 

30 or more 1200 



9 



10 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Teachers with third grade certificates shall receive $1100 and those 
with second grade certificates shall receive $1300. 

Teachers holding provisional certificates shall receive $200 less than 
teachers holding regular certificates of the same grade. 

At county expense, counties may pay salaries in excess of those 
provided in the State minimum salary schedule. 

Pensions to Teachers in Caroline, Frederick, and Washington Counties, 

Ch. 372, H.B. 454. 
97A. See Caroline County, page 23. 
Beneficiary of Member of Retirement System Need Not Have Insurable 
Interest in His Life, Ch. 118, H.B. 17. 
99(6). The provision requiring the beneficiary of a member of the 
Teachers' Retirement System to have an insurable interest in his life is 
eliminated. 

Repeal of State Aid For Textbooks and Materials, Ch. 331, H.B. 132. 
129-130. In line with the desire for simplification of State aid for 
schools as recommended by the Sherbow Commission, specific State aid 
for textbooks and materials, in existence since 1896, was repealed. State 
aid for books and materials is provided for through the Equalization 
Fund or through aid per teacher and per pupil. 

Increase in Salary of Maryland Superintendents, Ch. 333, H.B. 134. 
131. The minimum salaries of superintendents of which the State 
pays two-thirds are fixed in accordance with experience and size of staff as 
follows : 

Number of Years of Experience as Superintendent 

Teachers 1-4 5-7 8 plus 

Fewer than 150 $5000-$5500 

150 to 299 5500 $6000 $6500 

300 or more 6500 7000 7500 

At county expense counties may pay salaries in excess of those pro- 
vided in the State minimum salary schedule. 

Supervision for High Schools Provided and Supervisors' Salaries Increased, 

Ch. 332, H.B. 133. 

142. (1) By eliminating the word "elementary" wherever it appears, 
high school as well as elementary school supervisors are provided for in 
all Counties and Baltimore City. A supervisor with a Bachelor's Degree 
will receive $900 and one with a Master's Degree $1100 more than the 
salary for a teacher with a degree. Experience as a teacher, principal, 
and supervisor will be counted in determining salary. A helping teacher, 
and supervisor without a degree shall receive $500 more than the salary 
for a teacher without a degree. Baltimore City is to receive State aid on 
the same basis as other units. The State will pay two-thirds of the 
amounts in the minimum salary schedule for supervisors. The counties 
may at their own expense employ more supervisors than are required 
and, similarly, may pay salaries in excess of the State minimum schedule. 
Supervisor of Pupil Personnel and in Larger Counties Visiting Teacher (s) 
to Prevent Maladjustments and Irregular Attendance, Ch. 708, H. B. 131. 

142. (2) Each county shall appoint a supervisor of pupil personnel 
I or II, and in the larger counties also a visiting teacher for each 5000 
pupils or fraction thereof above an initial 5000 pupils. The duties of this 
staff "shall be to study the causes of and work out solutions for irregular 
school attendance and pupil maladjustment, that every child may receive 
the benefits of education and juvenile delinquency may be reduced." For 
the supervisor of pupil personnel I who has a Bachelor's Degree, salaries 
are fi^xed at $700 more than for a teacher with a degree, and, for one with 
a year of appropriate graduate work at $900 more than the salary for the 
teacher with a degree. A supervisor of pupil personnel II without a degree 
receives $600 less than a supervisor of pupil personnel I with a Bachelor's 
degree. A visiting teacher will be paid the degree salary for teachers. The 
State will pay two-thirds of these minimum salaries. Baltimore City will 
be treated on the same basis as the counties. Local units may, at their 
own expense, employ more visiting teachers and pay higher salaries than 
the minimum requirement. 



1947 Educational Legislation 



11 



Supervisor of School Property in Montgomery Eliminated, Ch. 96, H.B. 181. 
142. (3) See Montgomery County, page 26. 

Supervisor of Pupil Personnel I or II Replaces Attendance Officer, 
Ch. 534, S. B. 286. 

142. (4) County commissioners are required to levy funds to pay 
the salaries provided for the professional and clerical staff as enacted in 
1947. The former title of "attendance officer" is changed to "supervisor 
of pupil personnel I or H" and the title "visiting teacher" is added. Pro- 
vision for percentage salary reductions in effect from 1934 to 1937 are 
eliminated. 

Repeal of Provisions for State High School Aid, Ch. 200, H.B. 60 and 

Ch. 199, H.B. 59. 

188-189. In line with the simplification of State aid for schools in ac- 
cordance with the recommendations of the Sherbow Commission, Section 
188, which provided specific State aid for high schools, in existence since 
1910, was repealed. Section 189 was amended to read as follows: "The 
State Board of Education shall adopt rules and regulations fixing the ratio 
of high school teachers to pupils enrolled and in attendance for high schools 
varying in size." 

County Tax Rate Required for Receipt of Equalization Fund Raised from 
56 to 65 Cents, Ch. 541, S.B. 301. 
196. Provision is made for new services and funds not previously in- 
cluded, such as basic aid per pupil, public libraries, adult education, and 
the incentive fund for buildings, while aid for books and materials of in- 
struction and high school aid are eliminated. In calculating the equaliza- 
tion fund, there is included in the cost of the minimum program 100 per 
cent of the cost of transporting children to high school. The county levy 
required for participation in the equalization fund is increased from 56 to 
65 cents. A proportion of the registration fees returned to the counties 
for passenger cars, station wagons, and motor cycles is allowed for schools, 
to replace the loss of taxes received from the former county assessments 
on motor vehicles. See also Ch. 99, S. B. 104, page 16. 

Repeal of State Public School Tax of 15 Cents, Ch. 188, H.B. 19. 
197. The separate 15-cent tax for school purposes, not in effect since 
1931, was repealed. 

Part-Payment of Salaries Provides for Supervisors of Pupil Personnel 

and Visiting Teachers, Chapter 320, H.B. 61. 
199. Provision is made for part-payment of salaries of "supervisors 
of pupil personnel I or 11" and "visiting teachers" instead of "attendance 
officers". 

Basic Aid Per Teacher Increased from $150 to $400, Ch. 322, H.B. 64. 
199A. Basic aid per classroom unit, increased from $150 to $400, is 
made available for each classroom unit in which a full-time teacher is 
employed. The former provision that the aid shall not exceed the number 
of teachers required or permitted by Sections 79, 189, and 220 is eliminated. 
The date of the second quarterly payment is changed from January 1 to 
the fifteenth day of December. The last paragraph in Section 199A in 
effect in 1945-46 and 1946-47 is eliminated. 

Basic Aid per Pupil, Ch. 321, H.B. 63. 
199B. The Board of Education of each County and the City of Balti- 
more shall be paid Twenty Dollars ($20.00) a year multiplied by the 
number of pupils enrolled in all public schools in said Counties and the 
City of Baltimore. For the purpose of this Section, the phrase "number 
of pupils enrolled" shall mean the average number of pupils enrolled in 
public schools in the month having the highest average pupil enrollment 
in the current school year in which the payments provided for are to be 
made. The financial assistance authorized shall not be given to any County 
or to Baltimore City wherein any teacher receives a salary lower than 
that established by Section 93. 



12 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Incentive Fund for Buildings, Ch. 190, H.B. 24. 
199D. An incentive fund is created and established for the purpose 
of granting State aid to the City of Baltimore and to the Counties to 
finance the construction of school buildings and school facilities. The State 
will provide the difference between $2.00 up to $10.00 per pupil and the 
amount levied by the county from one cent up to a maximum of five cents, 
respectively. 

Repeal of State Aid Distributed on Basis of School Census and Aggregate 
Days of Attendance, Ch. 202, H.B. 66; Ch. 201, H.B. 65. 

200. Provision for the distribution of State funds on the basis of the 
school census and aggregate days of attendance is repealed. 

201. The first two sentences are repealed. The last sentence reads as 
follows: ''The Comptroller shall withhold from any County or from the 
City of Baltimore any installment from the General State Fund on notifi- 
cation from the State Superintendent of Schools that said County or City 
of Baltimore is not complying with the provisions of this article." 

Changes in Compulsory School Attendance Law, Ch. 508, S.B. 166; 
Ch. 908, H.B. 147. 

212-217, 220-221. The compulsory school attendance law as of July 1, 
1949 was amended by repealing Sections 213-217, inclusive, and Section 
221, and by amending Sections 212 and 220. 

212. In the counties, as well as in Baltimore City, after July 1, 1949, 
regular school attendance of children between the ages of seven and six- 
teen years shall be required. The existing provision permitting children 
between 14 and 16 years of age who are regularly and lawfully employed 
to withdraw from school w^ill be eliminated, except in the case of any 
child legally w^ithdrawn from school before July 1, 1949. The penalties 
formerly in Sections 214 and 215 wiW be added to Section 212. 

220. The title of "attendance officer" is changed to "supervisor of 
pupil personnel", and principals are required to report the names of all 
children enrolled who have been absent or irregular in attendance, with- 
out lawful excuse, or who show evidence of maladjustment, so that the 
causes may be studied and solutions worked out. 

223, 226. The school attendance of every partially or totally deaf or 
blind child between six and eighteen years of age is required. The State's 
Attorney in the county in which the child resides is charged with enforcing 
the school attendance of such a child w^ho is unable to progress satisfac- 
torily in ordinary public and private schools. 

Bond Issues for Teachers Colleges, Ch. 694, S.B. 494. 

The State debt of $11,695,000 authorized includes the following 
amounts for the State Teachers Colleges: 

Purpose Bowie Towson Frostburg Salisbury 

Dormitory $35,000 $31,000 $75,000 

Deferred maintenance, 

alterations, improvements 

and equipment 17,000 50,000 $15,000 

Total $52,000 $81,000 $15,000 $75,000 

OTHER 1947 GENERAL LEGISLATION AFFECTING EDUCATION* 
Advocates of Overthrow of Government Not to Hold Office, 
Ch. 721, H.B. 309. 

An amendment to Article 15 of the Constitution of Maryland is pro- 
posed by the addition of Section 11 relating to the eligibility of persons to 
hold any office, elective or appointive in the State, any county or munici- 
pality or other political subdivision of this State, who are members of any 
organization that advocates the overthrow of existing Governments in the 
United States or the State of Maryland through force or violence. The 
proposed amendment shall be submitted to the voters for acceptance or re- 
jection at the election to be held in November, 1948. 

* Arranged in order of Article and Section as they appear in the Maryland code. 



1947 General Legislation Affecting Education 



13 



State Aviation Commission to License Air Schools and Aeronautics 
Instructors except in Public Schools a/id Approved Higher Institutions, 

Ch. 896, S.8. 308. 
Amends Article lA, Sec. 80, 95. 

Counties Required to Adopt Calendar Year or Fiscal Year Ending June 30 
For Financial Reports, to Use Uniform Accounts and Report Forms, and 
to File Required Reports, Ch. 328, H.B. 100. 

Sections 49 to 59 are added to Article 19 providing for the adoption 
by each county and incorporated place on or before June 30, 1948 as the 
period for reporting all its fiscal transactions, either the calendar year or 
the fiscal year from July 1 to June cO. After it has once made its selection 
it cannot change it without the written consent of the State Comptroller. 
All records and reports shall be keot so that they will permit the division 
of all data into half-yearly periods. 

The Maryland Commission oit Uniform Accounts composed of nine 
members shall establish on or before October 1, 1948 a unifomi system of 
accounting for all counties and incorporated units. These shall show the 
funds collected and received frori every source whatsoever, including the 
income derived from the use of pablic property, the total amount expended 
and the purpose for which expended, and the assets, liabilities and sur- 
plus of each reporting unit. They shall establish the forms of financial 
reports to be used. There shall provided a statement on the entire pub- 
lic debt of each county and incorporated unit together with the purpose 
thereof and all other pertinent data. As soon as is practicable after Jan- 
uary 1, 1950, each county and ircorporated town shall adopt and maintain 
the uniform system of accounts for its grade established by the Maryland 
Commission on Uniform Accounts. The State Auditor shall supply the 
necessary forms at cost. 

Each county and incorpoi ated unit shall within 30 days after the close 
of the fiscal year selected file with the State Comptroller and with the 
Director of the State Fiscal Research Bureau its financial report covering 
the full period of each such fiscal year. The forms for these reports shall 
be supplied by the State Co nptroller. 

The penalty for failure or refusal to adopt or continue the use of the 
uniform system of account? or to file the required reports at the proper 
time with the State Comptroller and the Director of the State Research 
Bureau shall be the discontinuance of State aid from the income tax, tax 
on racing, the recordation i^x, the tax on amusements, and the license tax. 

Provision is made for audit of the books, accounts and records of each 
county and incorporated town once each year, the cost of the audit to be 
paid by the county or local district. 

Extends Time for Bond Issues to Take Advantage of Federal Aid, 
Ch. 811, H.B. 664. 

In amending Section ?0 of Article 31, the time is extended to June 1, 
1949, during which bonds may be issued for public works by the political 
subdivisions of the State to secure the benefits of any agency of the Federal 
government engaged in l works program, to encourage public works, to 
reduce unemployment, t( promote the public welfare, and to aid in a pro- 
gram of public health, medical research, or medical care, and they may 
accept assistance of any agency of the Federal government to include the 
construction or acquisition of public works made necessary by and con- 
nected with post-war reconstruction. 

Attendance at Meetings by State Board Members, Ch. 329, H.B. 104. 

Section 3A is ad-led to Article 41 to provide that any member of any 
State Board or Commission appointed by the Governor who shall fail to 
attend the meetings of the Board or Commission of which he is a 
member for a period of twelve consecutive months shall be considered 
to have resigned and the Chairman of said Board or Commission shall 
forward or cause his name to be forwarded to the Governor, with the 
statement of such ron-attendance, and the Governor shall thereupon ap- 
point his successor lor the remainder of the term. 



14 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



State Departments Required to File Reports, Ch. 651, S.B. 378. 

Section 103 of Article 41 is amended to require that every regular and 
temporary officer, board, institution, commission of the State shall file with 
the Department of Legislative Reference two copies of every regular or 
special report issued whether in printed or other form, and also to file with 
the State library and with the Hall of Records at least one copy of such 
report or other publication. Also see Chapter 7, Senate Bill 90. 

State Fiscal Research Bureau to be Established in Department of 
Legislative Reference to Collect, Tabulate, and Publish Comprehensive 
Data on Each County and Incorporated Unit; to Study State and Local 
Taxation or State and Local Fiscal Relationships, Ch. 605, S.B. 44. 

Sections 7, 8, and 9 of Article 31 are repealed and Sections 103A 
through 103H are added to Article 41. 

A comprehensive report is to be filed at least once in each year on the 
financial condition of each county and incorporated unit showing: 

4\ (a) Assessed valuation of all taxable and tangible personal property. 

(b) Total Indebtedness 

(1) Bonded indebtedness redeemable from taxes 

(2) Self liquidating bonded indebtedness 

(3) Temporary or floating indebtedness or obligations incurred in anticipation 
of tax collections 

(4) Current bills payable 

(5) Contingent liabilities 

(c) Sinking Funds 

(d) Amount of tax levy and collection and the same for special assessments 

(e) Levies for three preceding fiscal years and uncollected taxes outstanding 

(f) Population according to most recent census and official and unofficial estimates 

(g) Other needed and pertinent data 

The Director of the State Fiscal Research Bureau shall continuously 
conduct studies of the operation, administration, personnel, physical plants 
of all State departments, institutions, authorities and agencies, including 
the General Assembly, and submit reports and recommendations, if any, 
to the Governor, the General Assembly, the Director of Legislative Refer- 
ence, and the Legislative Council. 

The State Fiscal Research Bureau shall have forms available for 
collecting the above information and distribute them at or before the end 
of the fiscal year of each unit. Certified copies of the financial statements 
may be available upon payment of a fee of $2.00. 

The Treasurer or other authorized financial officer responsible for sub- 
mitting the required data ''shall be personally liable to a penalty collect- 
ible in the name of the State of Maryland in the amont of $10 a day, for 
every day or fraction thereof" after the time limit prescribed the report 
is not received, and for failure to respond in ten days to requests for data 
to replace incomplete or inadequate statements. 

State Board of Health Program for Non-Institutional Services for 
Mentally 111, Ch. 716, H.B. 256. 

Section 44B added to Article 43 reads as follows: 

44B The State Board of Health is hereby designated as the agency 
of the State to administer a program of non-institutional services for 
mentally ill or those who are suffering from conditions which may lead to 
mental illness and to coordinate and supervise the administration of those 
services included in the program which are not administered directly by 
it. The purpose of such program shall be to develop, extend and improve 
services for locating persons who are suffering from some mental illness 
and to provide facilities for diagnosis and corrective treatment of non- 
institutional cases. 

Distribution of Fees for Certain Licenses to Counties and Cities, 
Ch. 487, S.B. 30. 

Section IIB is added to Article 56, to provide that the clerk of court 
issuing certain licenses shall retain as a fee of his office 5% in the counties 
and IVr in Baltimore City of all license revenues collected plus the addi- 
tional issuance fee now allowed, and 3% additional of license revenues 
to be paid into the general fund of the State to defray the expenses of the 
State License Bureau. All net proceeds remaining from the issue of cer- 



1947 General Legislation Affecting Education 



15 



tain licenses shall be paid to the incorporated town or city in which the 
licensed business or activity is located. Where the licensed business or 
activity is not located in an incorporated town or city, the net proceeds 
remaining shall be paid to the county. This distribution to the towns and 
counties shall apply only to licenses issued after June 30, 1947. 

Arrangement for and Distribution of Funds Collected from Admission 
Taxes, Ch. 601, S.B. 10. 

Section 74 of Article 56 is amended to provide (1) for a tax at the 
rate of y2 of 1% of the gross receipts of every person, firm, or corpora- 
tion operating, offering, or maintaining for profit any place of amusement, 
any form of entertainment or any facilities for sport or recreation within 
Maryland, from the sale of admission tickets, cash admissions, charges, 
or fees. (2) Any incorporated town or city of the State shall have the 
power by ordinance to levy an additional tax on the items listed above 
received by a person, firm, or corporation located within the incorporated 
town levying the same. And any county shall have the power by resolu- 
tion or ordinance of the County Commissioners to levy an additional 
tax on similar items received by a person, firm, or corporation operating 
for profit within the county but not situated in any incorporated town. 
If such taxes are levied, they shall be collected by the State Comptroller. 

The proper officials of an incorporated town or city or county shall 
notify the Comptroller at least 60 days in advance of the date on which 
the additional taxes levied shall take effect, and all such additional taxes 
levied shall take effect at the beginning of a calendar month. 

(3) No tax shall be levied or collected upon admissions or other charges 
devoted exclusively to charitable, religious or educational purposes, or upon 
the part of the proceeds from any entertainment or amusement which go 
to volunteer fire companies. 

Section 74B provides that places of amusement operated for profit 
shall pay these taxes to the Comptroller on or before the tenth day of the 
month following the month of their collection. Within twenty days fol- 
lowing the end of each calendar quarter, the Comptroller shall deduct and 
retain the amount expended by the Comptroller for the Admissions Tax 
Division and shall pay the balance to Baltimore City or to any incorpor- 
ated town from which the tax was collected. ''If the tax is collected frgm 
a place of amusement not located within Baltimore City, an incorporated 
town or city other than Baltimore City, the Comptroller shall pay the net 
proceeds of the tax, as hereinabove provided to the County Commissioners 
of the respective counties in which the tax is collected, except in Somerset 
County, where the Comptroller shall pay the net proceeds of the tax as 
hereinabove provided to the County Treasurer for the use of the County 
Board of Education, with the approval of the County Commissioners, in 
constructing, altering, modifying, maintaining, and operating school build- 
ings in Somerset County." 

Membership on Board of Mental Hygiene, Ch. 327, H.B. 94. 

Section 15 of Article 59 is amended to provide for a Board of Mental 
Hygiene to include the Commissioner of Mental Hygiene as chairman and 
six appointed members. In addition there shall be five advisory members, 
of whom one shall be the Supervisor of Special Education in the State 
Department of Education. 

Pension Rights of State Employees Including Teachers Absent in 
Military Service, Ch. 782, H.B. 537. 

Section 96 of Article 65 regarding the pension rights of State em- 
ployees including teachers absent in military service is amended to pro- 
vide that the State shall make on behalf of such employee not only the 
State's contribution, but also the contribution which such employee would 
have made had he not been absent and had retained his status as an em- 
ployee during the period of his absence. The Teachers' Retirement Sys- 
tem shall refund or reimburse members for any contributions which have 
been made or shall hereafter be made by them or on their behalf for the 
period of their absence while in such military service The same re- 



16 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



quirements prevail regarding the status and rights of such an employee 
as a member of a retirement system as previously were in effect; viz. 
(a) That no part of accumulated contributions are withdravi^n; (b) that 
he is actively reemployed by his employer or employing unit within one 
year of the time he is relieved from active military duty or service; and 
(c) that he shall not have previously taken other employment. 



Changes Affecting Motor Vehicles, Including School Buses, 
Ch. 99, S.B. 104. 

A new subsection 32 is added to Section 7 of Article 81 to provide 
that Class A Passenger Motor Vehicles, including station wagons and 
Class D Motorcycles shall be exempt from taxation by the State and local 
units. 

Instead, Sections 74 to 76 of Article 66V2 are amended to provide for 
registration fees to be paid in advance to the Department of Motor Vehi- 
cles for the registration plates and certificates of registrations for the fol- 
lowing classes of vehicles: 

Class A — All passenger cars and station wagons having a manufacturer's shipping 
weight up to and including 3700 pounds — registration fee $15; over 3700 
pounds — registration fee $23 

Class D — -All motorcycles — registration fee $5 

The Department of Motor Vehicles shall pay to the county or Balti- 
more City where the owner resides the following from the above fees: 

Municipality or special 
taxing area receives 
Class Registration Fee County to Receive from county 

A $15 $5 $2.50 

A 23 8 4.00 

D 5 2 1.00 

(See page 11 for changes in Section 196 of Article 77 providing that schools shall get 
from above county receipts the proportion that school tax rate is of total county tax rate.) 

Class H. (Pneumatic Tires) School buses, publicly or privately owned 
under contract to the Boards of Education of the political subdivisions, 
an.d/or owned or under contract by accredited schools, shall pay a flat 
registration fee of $15 when operating for the purpose of transporting 
pupils between home and school or between designated points of collection 
and school. When operating for this purpose and for this purpose alone, 
they shall carry the usual school bus insignia, front and rear, and "stop" 
signals, front and rear. When operating a school bus for any purpose 
other than the scheduled operation of transporting pupils between home 
and school or operating as a charter bus for hire and for other than school 
purposes, the owner shall take out an additional license plate for which 
the charge shall be $30 per year. When operating a school bus for any 
purpose other than the scheduled operation of transporting pupils between 
home and school, the operator of the bus shall cover the school bus license 
plates as well as all markings on the bus indicating it to be a school bus. 
The Department of Motor Vehicles shall issue a distinctive plate to be used 
on buses operating on a schedule for the transporting of pupils between 
home and school. 

Ch. 513, S. B. 209 provides that any person who shall have paid taxes 
for the year 1947 on any Class A or Class D motor vehicle under the law 
as it existed prior to the passage of Chapter 99 of the Acts of 1947 shall 
be entitled to a refund of such taxes for the year 1947 only upon furnish- 
ing the State, County, or City official to whom such taxes were paid satis- 
factory evidence (the 1947 registration card) that a registration fee for 
such motor vehicle for the year 1947 has been paid to the Department of 
Motor Vehicles as required by Chapter 99 of the Acts of 1947. Repay- 
ments of such 1947 taxes paid over to other State, city or county officials 
shall be made to the State, county, or city official required to make the 
refund to the taxpayer. 



1947 General Legislation Affecting Education 



17 



Provision for High School Students Taking a Course in Driver 
Education and Training, Ch. 661, S.B. 409. 

Section 82 of Article 66 V2 is amended to provide a new subsection 
(e) which reads as follows: 

**(e) Nothwithstanding the provisions of sub-sections (a) to (d), 
inclusive, of this Section, any student fifteen years of age or older 
enrolled in a high school or junior high school course in driver educa- 
tion and training may operate a dual control motor vehicle without 
obtaining an instruction and examination permit, when such student 
is under instruction and accompanied by a qualified driver training 
instructor of said course. Any person who presents to the Commis- 
sioner of Motor Vehicles a certificate of satisfactory completion of a 
high school or junior high school course in driver education and train- 
ing within one year after the date of completion of the course, and 
who pays a fee of one dollar ($1.00) may take the final examin- 
ation for an operator's or chauffeur's license without first obtaining 
an instruction and examination permit. 

''The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles may accept such certificate 
as proof of such applicant's knowledge of the traffic laws of the State 
without further examination as to such knowledge." 

Transfer between Retirement Systems in the State of Maryland. 
Ch. 664, S.B. 416. 

New Sections 25 to 28 of Article 73 B provide for the transfer without 
loss of pension benefits by members of any retirement system operated 
on an actuarial basis under the law^s of this State or any political sub- 
division thereof to any other retirement system operating under sim.ilar 
conditions. The conditions for such transfer read as follows: 

"A member of one retirement system on June 1, 1947, who was a 
member of another such system immediately prior to entering his 
present system may now effect such a transfer, provided he deposits 
the amount of the contributions paid or payable to him from such 
other retirement system prior to the expiration of one year following 
June 1, 1947, and within five 'years of the date as of which such con- 
tributions first became payable to him from such other retirement 
system." 

Department of Public Improvements Headed by Chief Engineer to 
Supervise Surveys, Plans, Specifications, Construction, Maintenance, 
and Repair of Public Buildings Now Owned or to Be Constructed 
or Acquired by State of Maryland or Any State Department with 
State Funds; Certain Exceptions Include the Counties, 
Ch. 171, S.B. 191. 

Section 177 is added to Article 41. Article 78 A is amended by adding 
Sections 8C and 8J. 

Sums Available to Counties for Tax on Racing May Be Available for 
Schools, Ch. 502, S.B. 101. 

Section 17 which replaces former Section 15A of Article 78B was 
amended to read as follows: 

17. All sums collected by the Racing Commission, under the pro- 
visions of this Article, shall be paid over to the Comptroller, and shall be 
disbursed and distributed as follows: 

(2) There shall be divided among and allocated and paid to the 
several counties of the State and to Baltimore City on the basis of popu- 
lation, according to the latest available Federal census: 

(a) One-half of all revenues collected from licensees licensed under 
Section 7 of this Article; (This refers to the so-called one-mile race 
tracks). 

(b) One-quarter of all revenues collected from licensees licensed 
under Section 14 of this Article; (This refers to the half-mile race tracks). 

(c) One-half of all revenues collected from licensees licensed under 
Section 16 of this Article; (This refers to trotting and pacing meetings.) 



18 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

From the funds allocated to each County under the provisions of this 
Section, the County Commissioners of the County shall allocate and pay 
to each incorporated town in the County a share of such funds in the 
ratio which the population of each such town (figured on the best and 
most reliable figures available in the opinion of the County Commission- 
ers) bears to the total population of the County, provided, however, that 
such distribution shall be made if and only if the two following conditions 
are met: (a) only if such funds are used for the construction or main- 
tenance of streets, or sewerage facilities or water systems, or garbage 
collections and disposal within the town; and (b) only if such town shall 
raise by taxation and apply for the same purpose as is the distributed 
funds an amount equal to any funds so distributed. The share which any 
incorporated town failing to comply with the provisions of this Section 
would have received upon such compliance shall be retained by the County. 

Any funds allocated and paid to any County of the State under the 
provisions of this Section, which shall not be distributed to incorporated 
towns in the County as hereinabove provided, shall be used by the County 
only for the construction and maintenance of capital assets, including 
roads, schools, water systems, electric light and power systems, gas sys- 
tems, bridges and grade-crossing elimination. 

Tax on Earned Incomes Increased from 2% to 2 1/2% Beginning January 
1, 1948 and on Corporations Increased from 1V2% to 4% Beginning 
January 1, 1949, Ch. 295, S.B. 426. 
Section 230 of Article 81 is amended. 

Distribution of State Individual Income Tax to Counties and Incorporated 
Towns, Ch. 483, S.B. 9. 
Section 258 of Article 81 is amended to provide that from the State 
income taxes collected from individual residents the Comptroller shall pay 
to the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore and to the County Commis- 
sioners of each county 1 V2 % of the tax on all investment income and 
.625% of the tax on all other income. Where the taxed income is that of 
a resident of an incorporated city, town, or village of any county, the 
amount paid over by the Comptroller shall be equally divided between the 
incorporated place and the county. 

Levy on Assessments Made by State Tax Commission Shall Be for 
Calendar Year, Ch. 603, S.B. 20. 

Section 26 (c) of Article 81 is amended to read, "All State, County 
and/or City taxes required to be levied upon assessments made by the 
State Tax Commission, and all State, County, Municipal and other local 
taxes on tangible personal property by whomsoever assessed, shall be levied 
for the calendar year and as of the first day of January of such year as 
the date of finality". 

Rate and Distribution of Proceeds of Recordation Tax, 
Ch. 914 and 484, H.B. 598 and S.B. 11. 

Section 220 of Article 81 is amended so that the recordation tax on 
instruments conveying title to property or securing a debt, shall be at the 
rate of 55 cents for each $500 of the actual consideration paid or to be 
paid or of the principal amount of the debt secured, respectively. The 
special charge of 50 cents formerly collected by the clerks is eliminated. 

Section 221 of Article 81 is amended to provide that the proceeds 
from the sale of stamps to persons offering instruments for record which 
are subject to tax and from recordation charges, shall be paid to the 
county commissioners of the county or the Mayor and City Council of Bal- 
timore in which the tax is collected; provided that the revenue produced 
from the recordation of instruments conveying title to or creating liens or 
encumbrances upon real or personal property situated in two or more 
counties or in the City of Baltimore and one or more counties shall be 
paid to the Comptroller for the general funds of the State. 



1947 General Legislation Affecting Education 



19 



Changes in Reporting Annuity Income for State Income Tax Purposes of 
Interest to Retired Teachers, Ch. 153, S.B. 71. 

Section 222 (1) of Article 81 is amended to read as follows: 
"Annuity income" means an amount equal to three per cent (3%) per 
annum of the aggregate premiums or consideration paid for any annuity; 
provided, however, that after the amount excluded equals the cost or 
consideration paid for the annuity all subsequent payments shall be taxable 
in their entirety as ordinary income and not as investment income. 

2% Retail Sales Tax, Ch. 281, H.B. 545. 

Sections 259 to 307 are added to Article 81 to provide for a tax of 2% 
on certain retail sales in this State: 

260. On each sale where the price is 

from 9(^- to SO^'-, both inclusive, the tax is 1^^. 
from 51(* to $1.00, both inclusive, the tax is 2(^'. 
On each 50(^ or fraction thereof in excess of $1.00, the tax is 1<*. 

261. Some of the items to which the tax does not apply are listed 
below : 

(a) Sales to the State of Maryland or any of its subdivisions 
(d) Sa/es of motor vehicles and liquid fuel on which there are other State 
taxes 

(g) Sales of new or used motor vehicles 

(i) Sales to any person operating a non-profit religious, charitable, scientific, 
literary, or educational organization in Maryland when such tangible 
personal property is purchased for use in carrying on the work of the in- 
stitution or organization 

(m) Sales of crutches, artificial limbs, eyes or hearing devices, when they are 
to be worn by the owner or user, and sales of orthopedic appliances 

(p) Sales of water delivered to the purchaser through pipes or conduits 

(q) Sales of tickets to places of amusement on which admission taxes are 
levied 

Maryland 27c Use Tax, Ch. 681, S.B. 462. 

Sections 308 to 336 are added to Article 81 to provide for an excise 
tax of 27c on the use, storage, and consumption of tangible personal 
property purchased from a vendor within or without this State, for use, 
storage or consumption within the State. 

State Planning Commission: Membership of Nine to Require Reports 
from State Departments on Major State Improvement Projects 
and on Current Research Work, Ch. 598, 597, and 596, 
S.B. 6, 5, and 4 respectively. 

Sections 1, 4 and 5 of Article 88C ate amended. 

RESOLUTIONS PASSED IN 1947 AND SIGNED BY GOVERNOR LANE 

JR 19, SJR 17 authorizes the Governor to name a Maryland Commis- 
sion of 11 members for the study of the Child Labor Laws to determine 
whether there is need to revise the existing Child Labor Laws of Maryland 
and to report its recommendations to the Governor and Legislative Council 
before September 1, 1948. 

JR 5, HJR 7 requests the Governor to appoint a Commission of five 
persons to study the present provisions and the administration of the 
Maryland law with respect to the employment of physically handicapped 
persons in State jobs and to report its recommendations to the next session 
of the General Assembly. 

JR 6 and 8, HJR 5 and 10, express the disapproval of the General 
Assembly to any proposal to carry out the recommendations of the Mary- 
land Commission on Higher Education, the so-called Marbury Commission, 
in the report of February 1, 1947, to discontinue the Frostburg State Teach- 
ers College and St. Mary's Seminary. Protest is registered against any edu- 
cational policy which would abandon the use of valuable educational plants 
and leave two great sections of the State without the educational oppor- 
tunities they long have enjoyed and utilized. 



LEGISLATION AFFECTING EDUCATION IN INDIVIDUAL COUNTIES 

Allegany County 

Ch. 747, H. B. 427. 

Section 620A of the Allegany County local laws is amended to provide 
the following schedule of salaries for teachers and for principals of ele- 
mentary schools: 







Salary of 






Yrs. 




Teacher 




OvGr Amoiint 


of 


Without With 


POSITION 




Exp. 


Degree" 


Degree ° 




Column. & or b 


1 


$2,200 


$2,400 


Teacher in charge of two-teacher school 


$ 200 


2 


2,200 


2,400 






3 


2,300 


2,500 


Principal of an elementary school having 




4 


2,400 


2,600 


following number of assistant teachers : 




6 


2,500 


2,700 






6 


2,600 


2,800 


2-5 


300 


7 


2,700 


2,900 


6-9 


400 


8 


2,800 


3,000 


10-14 


600 


9 


2,900 


3,100 


15-19 


800 


10 


3,000 


3,200 


20-29 


1000 


11 


3,100 


3,300 


30 or more 


1200 


12 


3,200 


3,400 






13 


3,300 


3,500 






14 


*3,400 


*3,600 






15 


t3,500 


t3,700 






16 


3,600 


3.800 






17 


3,700 


3.900 







° With education courses to meet required certificate standards for elementary or high 

school teaching. 
* Maximum for 1947-48 t Maximum for 1948-49. 

Increments may be earned only by teachers whose certificates are rated 
first class, and only one increment of $100 may be paid in any year. 

Teachers holding provisional certificates shall receive $200 less than 
the above amounts. 

Ch. 419, H. B. 629 

Serial bonds of $2,000,000 are authorized at a rate of interest not 
exceeding 5% of which at least $80,000 shall mature each year to be used 
for the acquisition of sites and the erection, furnishing and equipping of a 
new elementary junior-senior high school at Mount Savage, a junior and 
senior high school at Lonaconing, and an elementary school at Ellerslie. 
Any balance shall be used to pay the interest on or to redeem the above 
bonds. The proceeds of this bond issue shall be added to the $800,000 sold 
under the provisions of Ch. 416 of the Acts of 1941. 

Ch. 743, H. B. 410 

Section 54 of Article 77 is amended to provide that the county boards 
of education of Allegany, Garrett, and Montgomery Counties shall also 
submit to their respective Boards of County Commissioners within 30 days 
after the close of its fiscal year an annual report showing: (1) source and 
application of all funds received and expended and balance remaining in 
each account; (2) a consolidated statement showing the operating results, 
receipts, expenditures, and balances of the operations and activities con- 
ducted by the public schools of the counties. The schools shall follow a 
uniform method of reporting, to be prescribed by the County Superin- 
tendent of Schools. All monies, including money derived from independent 
school activities in excess of $250 shall be included in these reports. These 
two reports are to be published at least twice in newspapers of the re- 
spective counties. 

The County Commissioners of Allegany, Garrett, and Montgomery 
Counties, if they deem the action necessary, may appoint an auditor of 
their own selection to audit the books and accounts of the County Super- 
intendent of Schools and County Board of Education. 



20 



1947 Educational Legislation Affecting Allegany and Anne Arundel 21 

Counties 

Ch. 343, H. B. 263 

Section 99A is added to the Allegany County Local Laws, to provide 
that supplies and equipment costing not over $500 needed by the county 
departments may be purchased on an order passed by the County Commis- 
sioners. When the cost is over $500, the clerk to the County Commissioners 
shall advertise for bids for one week in two county papers. The County 
Commissioners shall accept the lowest responsible bid which shall be con- 
sidered reasonable, or they may, in their discretion reject all bids. 

Ch. 449, H. B. 702 

Section 573 is added to the Allegany County Local Laws to provide 
that any person, association, or corporation who re-sells or offers for re- 
sale any ticket or other evidence of admission to any high school athletic 
contest in Allegany County at a price greater than the original selling 
price therefor shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction there- 
of shall be fined not more than $500. 

Ch. 375. H. B. 472 

The Mayor and City Council of Cumberland are authorized to issue 
$150,000 in serial bonds, at an interest rate not in excess of 4%, subject 
to a referendum. Any Federal or State grants in aid of construction of 
public playgrounds and recreational facilities may be accepted. 

Ch. 617, S. B. 201 

Section 119 A of the Allegany County Local Laws, which gives the 
County Commissioners the power to exempt from county taxes the property 
of factories, industries, establishments, plants and the like for a period of 
not more than ten years from the date of their location, and to ratify 
any contracts heretofore made for the purpose of inducing their location in 
Allegany County is amended by adding the following paragraph: 

"When in the opinion of the County Commissioners of Allegany 
County the public welfare so requires that the extension, growth and 
development of factories, industries, establishments, plants, and the 
like in Allegany County be encouraged the said County Commissioners 
may grant a yearly extension to such exemption from taxes thereto- 
fore granted to any such factory and industry, and the said County 
Commissioners may grant a yearly exemption to industries, factories, 
establishments or plants already located and situated in Allegany 
County at their discretion. No such exemptions or extension of exemp- 
tions of plants and industries already located in Allegany County 
shall be granted for a longer period than one year, but any such 
exemption or extension may at the discretion of said Commissioners 
be renewed from year to year. Before granting any extension beyond 
said ten year period including all exemptions and extensions from 
year to year thereafter, said Commissioners shall require from the 
factory, industry, establishment or plant making application therefor, 
such financial papers and statements as said Commissioners believe 
to be necessary to enable them to judge of the merits of said applica- 
tion, and any such papers or statements filed with the said Commis- 
sioners as part of an application for a renewal of an exemption from 
taxes shall be retained by said Commissioners and made open and 
available for public inspection at any reasonable time."* 

Anne Arundel County 

Ch. 434, H. B. 674 

The Anne Arundel County Board of Education is authorized to bor- 
row $2,500,000 until June 1, 1952 to facilitate the financing of its present 
school construction program. At no time shall the aggregate principal 
debt outstanding exceed $2,500,000. All promissory notes issued shall be 
made due and payable on fixed or determinable dates within 24 months 
of their respective dates of issue, so that the last of such notes shall be 
due and payable on or before June 1, 1954. All notes authorized may bear 
interest rates not in excess of 4%. 



* '^^is paragraph was declared unconstitutional in August 1947. 



22 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The County Commissioners may apply to the payment of principal and 
interest any funds paid by the State of Maryland, the United States of 
America, or any other agency, if such funds are granted for the purpose 
of assisting the County Com.missioners or the Board of Education in ob- 
taining a public school, and to the extent of any such funds receivable in 
any fiscal year the taxes hereby required to be levied may be reduced 
proportionately. 

Baltimore County 

Ch. 422, H. B. 638 

Baltimore County is granted authority to borrow not exceeding 
$12,000,000 to finance public schools. Before borrow^'ng any money or 
issuing any bonds the Board of County Commissioners shall adopt a reso- 
lution describing the public schools for which the borrowing is intended, 
the amount needed to finance them, and determining to borrow for all 
or a part of the amount so needed and to issue its bonds to evidence such 
borrowing. Each series or group of bonds shall be issued to mature in an- 
nual installments, the last installment to mature not later than 30 years 
from the date of issue. The bonds shall bear interest at rates not exceed- 
ing 57f. The County may apply to the payment of principal and interest 
of any bonds issued any funds received by it from the State of Maryland, 
the United States of America, or any other agency, if such funds are 
granted for the purpose of assisting the County in obtaining any such 
public facility, and to the extent of any such funds received or receivable 
in any fiscal year the taxes hereby required to be levied may be reduced 
proportionately. 

Ch. 814, H. B. 677 

Section 723 added to the Public Local Laws of Baltimore County reads 
as follows: 

"723. The County Commissioners of Baltimore County are authorized, 
empowered, and directed to pay to each former school teacher in Baltimore 
County schools, retired and pensioned prior to June 1, 1927, a sum not less 
than $50 per month, nor more than $90.00 per month." 

Ch. 272, H. B. 466 

126. The County Commissioners of Baltimore County are authorized 
"to acquire by purchase, gift, devise, or condemnation any real or lease- 
hold property needed for any public purpose" and also "to erect buildings 
thereon for any public use." 

Calvert County 

Ch. 509, S. B. 171 

Section 7A is added to Article 77 to provide for appointment by the 
Governor of a County Board of Education for Calvert County of five per- 
sons, two of whom shall be women. 

Ch. 565, S. B. 364 

The County Commissioners of Calvert County are authorized to issue 
serial bonds totalling $500,000, at a rate of interest not exceeding 3%, to 
be retired within 25 years of the date of issue and to be used for the fol- 
lowing purposes: 

(1) Land for and building of a new Calvert County High School at Prince Frederick 

(2) Improvements and additions to the Broome's Island School 

(3) Remodeling and reconditioning the present Calvert County High School as 
elementary school 

(4) Land and construction of new consolidated schools for colored children at Sun- 
derland, Island Creek, and the Appeal-Olivet- Lusby area 

(5) Addition to elementary school for colored children at Plum Point 

(6) Installation of an agricultural shop and home economics facilities at Brooks 
High School 

(7) Remodeling and improving elementary schools at Solomons, Huntingtown, 
Fairview and North Beach 



1947 Educational Legislation Affecting Anne Arundel thru 23 
Charles Counties 



Caroline County 

Ch. 372, H. B. 454 

Section 97A of Article 77, which provides county pensions for certain 
former teachers in Caroline, Frederick and Washington Counties who are 
not eligible to the benefits of the Maryland Teachers' Retirement System 
is amended in that the sixth qualification which such teachers must meet, 
viz., that they "shall be without other means of comfortable support" is 
eliminated, and the amount of pension provided by the counties for such 
teachers is increased from $300 to $480 annually. 

Carroll County 

Ch. 902, S. B. 422 

Section 339 is added to the Carroll County Public Local Laws to au- 
thorize and direct the County Commissioners to place in a special fund 
all funds received by Carroll County from the distribution of revenues 
derived from the conduct of racing, and to expend such funds, under the 
direction and supervision of the County Board of Education for the con- 
struction, maintenance and improvement of the public schools in Carroll 
Countv. 

Ch. 378, H. B. 495 

The County Commissioners of Carroll County are authorized to levy 
and pay $500 per year toward the cost of tuition, board, books and other 
expenses of one student of medicine from Carroll County to be selected and 
appointed by the County Commissioners in such manner as they may de- 
termine; provided that said appointment shall not be held by the same 
student for more than four years and that each student receiving such 
appointment shall give bond that he will reside in and practice medicine 
in Carroll County for not less than five years after leaving medical school. 

Ch. 580, S. B. 405 

Section 41 of the Carroll County Public Local Laws is amended to in- 
crease from $100,000 to $300,000 the amount the County Commissioners of 
Carroll County may borrow to pay extraordinary or emergency expenses 
or obligations not provided for in preceding tax levies. 

Cecil County 

Ch. 586, S. B, 441 

The County Commissiones of Cecil County are authorized to issue and 
sell 25 year serial coupon bonds at an amount not exceeding $2,250,000 
and at an interest rate not exceeding 2V4.7c to be used to pay for the pur- 
chase of land, the erection and equipment of new public school buildings 
or additions thereto in Cecil County. Section 7 provides that there shall 
be a referendum on the bond issue at the general election in November 
1948. 

Ch. 893, S. B. 214 

Section 431 is added to the Cecil County Public Local Laws, to provide 
for transportation to school of all children who attend schools in Cecil 
County which do not receive State aid, in public school buses provided by 
the Board of Education. 

Charles County 

Ch. 537, S. B. 292 

The County Commissioners of Charles County are authorized to issue 
bonds totalling $800,000, at a rate of interest not exceeding 4%, to be 
used to make alterations, additions and improvements to and for the pur- 
pose of equipping the following school buildings: 

Bel Alton and Pomonkey High Schools — $181,000 

La Plata, Hughesville, Glasva and Nanjemoy High Schools— $619,000 
Ch. 918, H. B. 755 

Sections 241 A and 241 B are added to the Charles County Public Local 
Laws to provide the following: 

241 A. "All children who attend parochial schools in Charles County, which schools 
do not receive State aid, and who reside on or along or near to the public highways of 
Charles County, on which there is now or hereafter operated a public school bus or con- 
veyance provided by the Board of Education of Charles County for transporting children to 
and from the public schools of Charles County shall be entitled to transportation on the 
said buses or conveyances, subject to the conditions hereinafter set forth, from a point on 



24 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education J 



the said public highways nearest or most accessible to their respective homes to a point on 
paid public highways nearest or most accessible to their respective schools, without chang- 
ing the routes of said buses or conveyances now or hereafter established by said Board of 
Education of Charles County for transporting children to and from the public schools 
Such transportation may be provided by the Board of Education, as aforesaid, for all the 
children attending schools described herein, upon the same terms and conditions as now or 
as may be hereafter established by the Board of Education of Charles County for children 
attending Public schools. 

241B. "The County Commissioners of Charles County are hereby authorized to ap- 
propriate annually to the Board of Education of Charles County, from any funds received by 
said Charles County for any general County purposes and not derived from any tax levied on 
real property, such sum as the said Board of Education may request to enable it to defray 
any costs incurred by it in carrying into effect the provisions of Section 241A and to es- 
tablish new bus routes, in the discretion of the Board of Education of Charles County, for 
the transportation to and from school of children attending schools not receiving State aid. 
The transportation of children to and from schools not receiving State aid shall be 
upon such reasonable terms and conditions as the Board of Education and County 
Commissioners may from time to time determine, but in no event shall the amount charged 
children attending such schools for using said buses or conveyances be greater or less than 
the amount charged children attending the public schools for the same kind of transpor- 
tation." 

Ch. 635, S. B. 282 

Section 240A is added to the Charles County Local Laws to authorize 
the Board of Road Commissioners of Charles County to repair, construct 
and maintain the approaches, entrances and roadways leading to any 
school in Charles County. 

Dorchester County 

Ch. 588, S. B. 451 

The County Commissioners are authorized to issue Dorchester County 
School Repair, Improvement and Equipment Bonds totalling $85,000, to 
mature in not exceeding fifteen years, at an interest rate not exceeding 
4%. An amount not to exceed $30,000 is specified to put the Peach Blos- 
som School, Cambridge, in a safe, sanitary, and suitable condition. 

Ch. 89. S. B. 148 

The Board of Education of Dorchester County is authorized to borrow 
from time to time an amount, not to exceed $75,000 to be outstanding at 
any one time for the purpose of providing for the payment of the current 
expenses of the public schools until funds are levied, appropriated and 
paid to the Board of Education by the County Commissioners or State of 
Maryland. The Board of Education shall issue notes to bear interest at 
a rate not exceeding 6%. 

Ch. 559, S. B. 357 

Section 152 of the Dorchester County Public Local Laws is amended 
to authorize the County Commissioners to transfer certain unexpended 
balances after the fixing of the levy from one estimate to another estimate, 
and to receive and expend any additional revenue from any source other 
than the annual levy for any estimate, or for any purpose not included in 
the estimates. 

Ch. 178. S. B. 231 

Section 153 of the Dorchester County Public Local Laws is amended 
to increase the amount the Board of County Commissioners may borrow 
from $80,000 to $100,000 in anticipation of the receipt of taxes (1) for the 
maintenance and support of the public schools. In case of any deficiency 
in revenue and taxation to meet amounts required in the estimates, all 
items, except State taxes and principal and interest of the County debt, 
shall be abated pro rata; any surplus shall pass to a fund which shall be 
a part of the revenue for the ensuing year. 

Frederick County 

Ch. 578. S. B. 393 

The County Commissioners of Frederick County are authorized in 
order to provide funds for the erection and equipment of new public 
school buildings, the purchase of land, and the erection of additions to 
existing public school buildings, to issue serial bonds totalling $500,000 
maturing in 15 years, at an interest rate not exceeding 5%. 

Ch. 372, H. B. 454 

See Caroline County, page 23. 



1947 Educational Legislation Affecting Charles thru Kent Counties 25 

Garrett County 

Ch. 575, S. B. 388 

The County Commissioners of Garrett County are authorized to issue 
bonds totalling $1,500,000, at a rate of interest not to exceed 37o, for the 
purpose of acquiring sites, erecting and equipping school buildings and 
additions in towns of Oakland, Accident, Friendsville, Kitzmiller and 
Grantsville, and in any other community or communities requiring such 
new buildings, additions or improvements. The proceeds derived from the 
sale of bonds shall be placed in a special fund by the County Treasurer 
and paid out only on warrants approved by the County Commissioners. 
All funds levied and collected under Chapter 790 of the Acts of 1945 shall 
be placed in this special fund. The County Commissioners shall appoint 
an advisory committee of seven citizens named in the bill, and also build- 
ing committees in the above named towns and any other community re- 
quiring new buildings. Chapter 790 of the Acts of 1945 is repealed. 

Ch. 743, H. B. 410 

See Allegany County, page 20. 

Ch. 877. H. B. 861 

The County Commissioners of Garrett County are authorized to levy 
and pay former teachers who retired prior to June 1, 1928, who are re- 
ceiving a pension from the Maryland Teachers Retirement System, such 
amounts that the aggregate of such pension and such sums shall be at 
least $50 per month. 

Harford County 

Ch. 255, H. B. 328 

The County Commissioners of Harford County are authorized to bor- 
row $4,000,000, at a rate of interest not exceeding 5% for the purpose 
of purchasing land, erecting new school buildings, altering existing build- 
ings, and purchasing equipment. 

Howard County 

Ch. 668, S. B. 425 

The County Commissioners of Howard County are authorized to issue 
serial bonds totalling $500,000 for the purpose of acquiring land, construct- 
ing and equipping an elementary school for white children at Elkridge, 
and an elementary and high school for colored children. The rate of in- 
terest shall not exceed 3%. The State Building Incentive Fund is to be 
used, together with the county levy, to pay the interest on and to redeem 
the bonds which are issued. 

Ch. 862, H. B. 823 

Sections 198E through 198H are added to the Howard County Public 
Local Laws, in order to prohibit anyone from smoking, carrying or having 
any lighted match, pipe, cigar, or cigarette in any theatre, school audi- 
torium or other building having an aggregate area of 3000 square feet 
while it is in use by the public as a public hall. At least two signs con- 
taining the words "No Smoking" regulations shall be erected. An owner 
or lessee violating the provisions of this Act shall upon conviction be 
deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and fined not less than $5 or more than 
$25; any person violating the "No Smoking" regulations shall be deemed 
guilty of a Misdemeanor and fined not less than $1 or more than $5. 

Kent County 

Ch. 292, S. B. 318 

The County Commissioners of Kent County are authorized to borrow 
not to exceed $1,000,000, at a rate of interest not to exceed 4%, for the 
purpose of purchasing land, erecting new school buildings, altering exist- 
ing school buildings and equipping them. The County Commissioners are 
authorized to acquire by purchase, lease or other transfer, any school 
property of no further use to the Kent County Board of Education because 
of the construction of any new school buildings. The Kent County Build- 
ing Committee shall be appointed by the County Commissioners to have 
full control and authority over the building and improvement program 
and to direct the County Commissioners to borrow the money deemed 
necessary. 



26 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Montgomery County 

Ch. 96, H. B. 181 

Section 142 (3), Article 77 is amended to eliminate the provisions 
regarding the supervisor and assistant supervisor of school property in 
Montgomery County. 

Ch. 835, H. B. 733 

The County Commissioners of Montgomery County are authorized 
to acquire sites for and to purchase, improve, alter, enlarge, construct and 
equip school buildings and other educational facilities; ... to issue bonds 
not exceeding $7,000,000, of which sum not more than $5,000,000 shall 
be used for schools. The bonds shall be serial maturities not exceeding 
30 years and shall bear interest at rates not exceeding 4%. 

Ch. 273, H. B. 471 

The Board of County Commissioners of Montgomery County are au- 
thorized to issue serial refunding bonds not exceeding $1,970,500, for the 
purpose of refunding outstanding bonds and certificates of indebtedness 
maturing between June 1, 1947, and June 30, 1949. School bonds totalling 
$255,000 are listed, but more school bonds are included in refunding bonds 
and general county bonds. The bonds shall mature in not exceeding 25 
years and bear a rate of interest not exceeding 4%. 

Ch. 743, H. B. 410 

See data under Allegany County on page 20. 

Ch. 724, H. B. 329 

Section 168A of the Montgomery County Public Local Laws is amended 
to change the date of finality for the levying of all taxes in the county, 
municipalities and special taxing aieas and incorporated towns from 
June 30 to May 1. This change takes effect January 1, 1948. 

Ch. 65, H. B. 127 

Section 1039 of Montgomery County Public Local Laws is amended to 
increase from two to four cents the tax the County Commissioners are 
authorized to levy (1) for the operation and maintenance of the Silver 
Spring Public Library, (2) for the establishment and operation and main- 
tenance of necessary branches, and (3) for the purchase, rental, remodeling 
or construction of new facilities. Precincts 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of the 13th 
Election District are added to Precincts 1, 2, 5, 7 and 8, which were those 
formerly subject to the library tax. 

Ch. 869, H. B. 844 

Section 41A of Article 16 of the Montgomery County Public Local 
Laws is amended to authorize the County Commissioners to levy a tax 
of not more than 9 cents, in the Seventh and a part of the Fourth Election 
District, for the construction, maintenance and operation of a library 
known as the Bethesda Public Library Association, Inc., or its legal 
successor. 

Prince George's County 

Ch. 910, H. B. 366 

Sections 1232 (a) and (b) are added to the Prince George's Public 
Local Laws which read as follows: 

1232. "(a) All children, who attend any non-profit schools in Prince George's 
County, which schools do not receive State aid, and who reside on or along or 
near to the public highways of Prince George's County, on which there is now 
or hereafter operated a public school bus or conveyance provided by the Board 
of Education of said county for transporting children to and from the public 
schools of Prince George's County, shall be entitled to transportation on such 
buses or conveyances as now are or as may be hereafter established, operated 
or provided by the Board of Education of said County for transporting children 
to and from the public schools of said County, and the same shall be provided 
for them by the said Board of Education of Prince George's County, subject to 
the conditions hereinafter set forth, from a point on the said public highways 
nearest or most accessible to their respective homes to a point on said public 
highways nearest or most accessible to their respective schools, without changing 
the routes of said buses or conveyances now or hereafter established by said 
Board of Education of Prince George's County for transporting children to and 
from the public schools and such transportation shall be provided by the Board 
of Education, as aforesaid, for all the children attending schools described herein, 
upon the same terms and conditions as now are or as may be hereafter estab- 
lished by the Board of Education of Prince George's County for children attend- 
ing public schools. 



1947 Educational Legislation Affecting Montgomery and Prince 27 
George's Counties 



1232. "(b) The County Commissioners of Prince George's County are hereby au- 
thorized to levy and appropriate annually sufficient funds to defray any costs 
incurred by it in carrying into effect the provisions of Section 1232 (a) and for 
the establishment of new bus routes for transporting children to and from the 
public schools of said County, if in their discretion the Board of Education of 
Prince George's County and the County Commissioners of said county deem it 
desirable to establish new routes, and to pui-chase additional buses, for such 
transportation. The transportation of children to and from schools not receiving 
State aid shall be upon such reasonable terms and conditions as the Board of 
Education may from time to time determine, but in no event shall the amount 
charged children attending such schools for using said buses or conveyances be 
greater or less than the amount charged children attending the public schools 
for the same kind of transportation." 

Ch. 406, H, B. 593 

Whenever the Board of Education of Prince George's County shall 
think it advisable to build and equip new schoolhouses, or construct an 
addition (s) to existing schoolhouse(s) at a location (s) to be determined, 
including the purchase of land, or to match Federal funds for the afore- 
said purposes, it may request the Board of County Commissioners to issue 
bonds, and, if they concur, they may issue up to a total not exceeding 
$4,000,000 on the serial annuity plan. No series shall mature more than 
25 years from date of issue and the rate of interest shall not exceed 5%. 

Ch. 918, H. B. 589 

Sections 828 to 850 are added to the Prince George's County Public 
Local Laws under the subtitle "Juvenile Court", to provide for the estab- 
lishment of a Juvenile Court. A Juvenile Court Advisory Committee is 
established and composed of 16 members, including the County Superin- 
tendent of Schools and the County Supervisor of Colored Schools. 

Ch. 832, H. B. 726 

Sections 953 through 960 are added to the Prince George's County 
Local Laws under the subtitle "Recreation Board". The Board of County 
Commissioners is authorized -to establish a Prince George's County Recrea- 
tion Board of five members, one of whom shall be a member of the County 
Board of Education selected by the members thereof. The Recreation 
Board shall appoint a trained and experienced Superintendent of Recrea- 
tion who shall be charged with the general organization, administration, 
and supervision of the program of public recreation contemplated and 
provided for. The Board, upon the recommendation of the Superintendent, 
is empowered to employ additional personnel. 

The Board shall have the power to adopt, conduct, direct, or cause to 
be conducted or directed under its supervision a comprehensive program 
of public recreation which shall include the operation and direction of 
games, sports, arts and crafts, hobby shops, music, drama, dancing, nursery 
play, and such other physical, social, mental and creative opportunities for 
leisure-time participation as the Board shall deem advisable to offer in 
major recreation centers, play-fields, athletic fields, playgrounds, tennis 
courts, baseball diamonds, swimming pools, golf courses, community cen- 
ters, and social centers in publicly owned lands and buildings or other 
facilities made available to the Board for such purposes by the County 
Commissioners, the Board of Education, the Maryland-National Capital 
Park and Planning Commission, or any other agency having jurisdiction 
over such facilities or any municipality or other political subdivision with- 
in the Recreation District. 

The Board of County Commissioners of Prince George's County is 
hereby authorized to issue general obligation bonds in amounts not ex- 
ceeding $60,000.00 annually for three successive fiscal years, beginning 
with the year in which the Recreation Board is established, to be used for 
capital improvements in the development of playgrounds, playfields, and 
other recreational facilities, including buildings and permanent equipment 
relative thereto, within the Prince George's Recreation District. Said 
bonds shall bear interest, at a rate not exceeding three percent (37c) and 
shall mature serially over a period of twenty-five years from the date of 
issue. 



28 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



For the purposes of paying the principal and interest on said bonds 
so long as any of them shall be outstanding, for carrying out the recrea- 
tion program, and for operating and maintaining the recreational facilities 
under the jurisdiction of the Board, the County Commissioners are further 
authorized to levy annually, a tax of not more than Five Cents for each 
One Hundred Dollars of assessed valuation on all of the property as- 
sessed for County tax purposes in that portion of Prince George's County 
lying within the Recreation District. 

Queen Anne's County 

Ch. 591, S. B. 458 

The County Commissioners of Queen Anne's County are authorized to 
borrow not to exceed $50,000 and to issue twenty year serial coupon bonds 
and to pay interest thereon of not more than 3%. The County Commis- 
sioners shall expend these funds either alone or in connection with any 
State or Federal funds to provide for the acquisition of a site(s) and the 
erection and equipment of a public school building (s) and for additions 
to or modifications of existing public schools. 

St. Mary's County 

Ch. 674, S. B. 440 

The County Commissioners of St. Mary's County are authorized to 
borrow $200,000 at a rate of interest not to exceed 3% for the purpose of 
erecting and equipping school buildings and building additions to existing 
school buildings and equipping them. 

Somerset County 

Ch. 416, H. B. 624 

The County Commissioners of Somerset County are authorized to issue 
twenty year serial bonds not exceeding $200,000 at an interest rate not 
exceeding 37c. The Somerset County Board of Education is authorized to 
expend these funds either alone or in connection with any State or Federal 
funds as may be made available, to provide for the acquisition of a site(s), 
the erection of and equipment for a public school building (s) or for addi- 
tions to or modifications of existing public schools. 

Ch. 601, S. B. 10 

The Comptroller shall pay the net proceeds of the admissions tax to 
the County Treasurer for the use of the County Board of Education, with 
the approval of the County Commissioners, in constructing, altering, 
modifying, maintaining, and operating school buildings in Somerset 
County. For more complete description of Chapter 601, see page 15. 

Talbot County 

Ch. 467, H. B. 802 

The County Commissioners of Talbot County are authorized to borrow 
$500,000 in notes or bonds to bear interest at a rate not exceeding 4% in 
order to make additions to existing school buildings, to purchase land and 
erect thereon new school buildings, to purchase new equipment for existing 
and newly constructed schools. 

The County Commissioners may appoint a "School Advisory Commit- 
tee" of five representative citizens, who shall have power and authority 
to investigate and report on the condition of the existing educational sys- 
tem and facilities and make recommendations of suggested changes, in- 
cluding the purchase of building sites, the new construction of buildings 
and plans for financing expenditures suggested. 

Ch. 613, S. B. 147 

Section 181 of Article 77 is amended to add Talbot County to Balti- 
more City and Washington County, which shall be exempt from the super- 
vision of the State Superintendent of Schools and the Division of Library 
Extension. 



1947 Educational Legislation Affecting Prince George's County 29 
THRU Baltimore City 



Washington County 

Ch. 632, S. B. 265 

Whenever the Board of Education cf Washington County considers 
it advisable to pay the balance owing on contracts for the completion and 
equipment of additions now being made to Washington Street Junior High 
School and to repay the County Commissioners for sums heretofore ad- 
vanced for this purpose and to construct the North Street High and Ele- 
mentary School, and/or to purchase land, construct, alter, recondition and 
enlarge, furnish and equip other school buildings in Hagerstown and 
Washington County, it may request the County Commissioners to issue 
bonds or certificates of indebtedness, the total amount not to exceed 
$1,500,000. The maturity of such issues shall not exceed 25 years and the 
interest rate shall not exceed 3%. The County Commissioners and/or 
Board of Education are authorized to accept from any Federal or State 
Agency grants for or in aid of the above purposes. 

Ch. 372, H. B. 454 

See Caroline County, page 23. 

Wicomico County 

Ch. 289, S. B. 288 

The County Commissioners of Wicomico County are authorized to 
issue coupon bonds in an amount not exceeding $750,000 for the purpose 
of constructing and equipping two schools in Salisbury on sites now owned 
by the Board of Education, one on the Prince Street Site in the Southern 
section and the other on the Anderson Road Site near the Western limits 
of Salisbury. The bonds shall mature in not over 20 years and shall bear 
interest at not over 47f. Chapter 289 of the Acts of 1945 authorizing an 
issue of $390,000 in bonds is repealed. 

Ch. 473, H. B. 833 

The County Commissioners of Wicomico County are authorized to ap- 
ply for and purchase on behalf of and for the benefit of the various county 
employees group life insurance, accident and sickness insurance, hospitali- 
zation insurance, including medical and surgical benefits and/or annuity 
and retirement insurance in such amounts, types and plans and from such 
companies and agents as the County Commissioners shall select. 

The County Commissioners are authorized to pay all, any portion of or 
no portion of the cost of such insurance; the employees, if they elect to 
participate in such plan, shall pay all or any amount of the cost of such 
insurance that is not paid by the County Commissioners. If the latter elect 
to pay any of the cost of said insurance, such cost shall be included in the 
annual budget and levy of said county. 

Baltimore City 

Ch. 40. 45, 98, 44; S. B. 134. 141, 235, 140 

The Mayor and City Council are authorized to issue certificates of in- 
debtedness provided the voters approve the ordinances when submitted in 
May 1947 or later for the following amounts and purposes: 

Ch, 40, S. B. 134, $20,000,000 for the acquisition of land and the construction of new- 
school buildings, athletic and other auxiliarj' facilities, additions and improvements to or 
reconstruction of existing school buildings and equipment. Not exceeding $1,000,000 may 
be used for deferred maintenance, modernization and improvement of existing school build- 
ings and facilities. The Board of School Commissioners shall have authority to select sites, 
approve plans and specifications of all expenditures. 

Ch. 45, S. B. 141, $3,000,000 for the purchase, acquisition, installation and erection 
of classroom, educational or auxiliary equipment for the Baltimore City Schools or for al- 
terations to or replacement of existing equipment. 

Ch. 98, S. B. 235, $3,000,000 for land and buildings for new Enoch Pratt Free Library 
Branch Buildings and other auxiliary facilities and for additions and improvements to exist- 
ing buildings, and for furniture and equipment or alterations and replacements, provided 
that not exceeding $250,000 may be used for deferred maintenance, modernization and im- 
provement of the Main or Central Library System and its facilities. 

Ch. 44, S. B. 140, $3,000,000 for land, new playgrounds, playfields, recreational centers 
or buildings, and for the redesign, development and improvement of park, school and other 
properties for recreational purposes and for fixed equipment. No part of the proceeds shall 
be used for any new stadium or for the existing stadium in Venable Park. 



30 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Ch. 841, H. B. 752 

Sections 508-514 of Article 4 of the Baltimore City Local Laws, regarding the Deaf 
and Dumb are repealed since the Frederick State School for the Deaf makes ample pro- 
vision for their care as provided in Article 30 of the Maryland Code. 

1947 Authorizations for School Bond Issues 



Chapter Bill 

Number Number County Amount 

419 H. 629 Allegany $ 2,000,000 

434 H. 674 Anne Arundel 2,500,000 

422 H. 638 Baltimore 12,000,000 

565 S. 364 Calvert 500,000 

586 S. 441 Cecil - 2,250,000 

537 S. 292 Charles 800,000 

588 S. 451 Dorchester 85,000 

578 S. 393 Frederick 500,000 

575. S. 388 Garrett 1,500,000 

255 H. 328 Harford 4,000,000 

668 S. 425 Howard 500,000 

292 S. 318 Kent 1,000,000 

835 H. 733 Montgomery 5,000,000 

406 H. 593 Prince George's 4,000,000 

591 S. 458 Queen Anne's 50,000 

674 S. 440 St. Mary's 200,000 

416 H. 624 Somerset 200,000 

467 H. 802 Talbot 500,000 

632 S. 265 Washington 1,500,000 

289 S. 288 Wicomico 750,000 

40 S. 134 Baltimore City t*20,000,000 

45 S. 141 Baltimore City t* 3,000,000 



Total of School Bond Issues $62,835,000 

375 H. 472 Cumberland Playground - 150,000 

832 H. 726 Prince George's Recreation 

(for 3 years) 60,000 

98 S. 235 Baltimore City Library Loan__t- 3,000,000 

44 S. 140 Baltimore City Playgrounds___t- 3,000,000 



Referendum required t Favorable referendum. May 1947 



PURPOSE OF ADDITIONAL APPROPRIATIONS IN THE 
1948 PUBLIC SCHOOL BUDGET 

More than $11,725,000, over 90 per cent of the approximate- 
ly $13,000,000 increase appropriated by the General Assembly 
in the 1948 State Public School Budget over that of 1947 will be 
distributed directly to the counties and Baltimore City to im.- 
prove their local school systems. State aid to the extent of 
nearly $10,200,000 will be used to pay higher salaries to teachers 
and school officials, to provide the additional staff necessary to 
care for the expected increase in elementary and secondary 
school enrollment, to help pay for high school supervision, and 
to make possible an adequate and understanding attendance 
service in the counties and the City, in order that solutions for 
irregular attendance and pupil maladjustment may be worked 



1947 School Bond Issues; 1948-1949 State Public School Budgets 31 



out and juvenile delinquency reduced. More than $1,460,000 
will be contributed toward school construction costs, for which 
State aid has never before been made available. Increased State 
aid w^ill be available to the counties and Baltimore City for jun- 
ior colleges in the amount of $35,000 ; for public libraries 
$30,000; and for home instruction of children too handicapped 
to attend school over $5,000. 

The approximately $192,000 increase in aid to the State De- 
partment of Education and special functions, exclusive of voca- 
tional rehabilitation, will be used to employ an adequate pro- 
fessional and clerical staff to take care of the additional services 
and functions for which legislation or public demand had made 
the Department responsible. These include administration and 
supervision of the $3,000,000 federally aided school lunch pro- 
gram; help in planning the curriculum for the twelve-year pro- 
gram which is gradually replacing the eleven-year system in 
the twenty counties which formerly had the shorter course ; ap- 
proval of trade and other nonpublic schools; guidance of veter- 
ans and pupils in planning for further education and vocations ; 
administration of high school equivalence examinations' to ap- 
proximately 200 applicants a month; leadership in the child 
study program which is helping teachers to understand children 
better; medical examination of teachers and bus drivers; ex- 
tension of services to libraries; and expansion of the physical 
education and recreation program. 

The increase of $52,500 for vocational rehabilitation will 
match Federal expenditures for case services, such as tuition 
for training at school and/or on the job, medical and hospital 
services, prosthetic appliances, and maintenance during training 
when needed by persons of age sixteen years and over who will 
benefit from such service. Hundreds more of the handicapped 
will thus receive training for useful work for which they are 
fitted and will be able to serve the community instead of becom- 
ing burdens upon the public. 

The increase of $904,022 in the funds made available to the 
Maryland Teachers' Retirement System and to Baltimore City 
for the teachers in its retirement system will take care of the 
additional staff and increased salaries resulting from the 1947 
legislation. 

With $157,000 additional for the four State Teachers Col- 
leges, it will be possible to provide for increases in size and sal- 
aries of the staff which will be needed to train larger enroll- 
m.ents of high school graduates preparing to teach in the ele- 
mentary schools of the State. 



32 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 1— State Public School Appropriations for 1947, 1948, and 1949 
Chapter 514, Laws of 1947 



Object of Expendittoe 


Appropriation 


Increase 


°1947 


1948 


1949 


1948 Over 
1947 


1949 Over 
1948 


Retirement System: 
1 County Teachers 


$910,574 
765,899 
17,358 


$1,485,040 
1,087,861 
24,952 


$1,673,678 
1,226,535 
25,182 


$574,466 
321,962 
7,594 


$188,638 
138,674 
230 


2. Ealtimore City Teachers 


3. Administration 


Total Retirement System (1-3) 
*High School Aid 


$1,693,831 


$2,597,853 


$2,925,395 


$904,022 


$327,542 


919,099 
1,371,097 






-919,099 
2,625,283 
5,875,900 
5,419,548 
-250,000 
4P3,490 
-1,800,000 
-1,250,000 
1,463,005 
5,400 
-3,250 
35,000 
30,000 




Aid per Classroom Unit 


3,996,380 
5,875,900 
9,409,868 


4,165,584 
6,040,540 
11,345,958 


169,204 
164,640 
1,936,090 


Basic Aid per Pupil 


Equalization Fund 


3,990,320 
250,000 
241,340 
1,800,000 
1,250,000 


*Books and Materials 


Part Payment of Salaries 


734,830 


751,363 


16,533 


*CensiJS and Attendance 


*Reduction of County Taxation 
Incentive Fund for Buildings 








1,463,005 
35,000 
50,000 
60,000 
50,000 


1,519,395 
35,000 
50,000 
60,000 
76,000 


56,390 


t Aid to Handicapped Children 


29,600 
J53,250 
25,000 
20,000 


Adult Education 




Junior Colleges 




Public Libraries 


26,000 


Total State Aid 


$9,949,706 


$21,674,983 


$24,043,840 


$11,725,277 


$2,368,857 


Approval of Trade Schools 




3,000 
9,000 


3,000 
6,000 

'5^000 


3,000 
9,900 

r 




Child Study Program 




-3,000 


tVocational Education 




Equivalence Examinations 


3,610 


5,000 


1,390 




tEducational Measurements 




Library Service 




15,000 
9,000 
15,000 

14,250 
8,000 


15,000 
9,000 
15,000 

10,600 
8,000 


15,000 
5,650 
8,643 

14,250 
5,500 




Medical Examinations 


3,350 
6,357 




tPhysical Education & Recreation 
Professional Services and 

Workshops 


-3,650 


Publications and Printing... 


2,500 


tConsultant Architect.. 




State Board of Education 


1,250 


1,250 
5,000 
100,000 


1,250 
5,000 
100,000 






Veterans' Education. 


5,000 
52,500 




Vocational Rehabilitation 


47,500 




Total Special Functions 




$64,567 


$184,500 


$177,850 


$119,933 


-$6,650 


State Department of Education 

Bowie State Teachers Colleg*^ 
Frostburg State Teachers College 
Salisbury State Teachers College.. 
Towson State Teachers College 

Total State Teachers Colleges .. 
Fees State Teachers Colleges-.. 

State Aid to State Teachers 
Colleges 


$201,600 


$326,453 


$337,647 


$124,853 


$11,194 


117,623 
148,530 
1251878 
294,941 


168,065 
185,468 
177,156 
362,621 


172,745 
192,379 
181,017 
372,611 


50,442 
36,938 
51,278 
67,680 


4,680 
6,911 
3,861 
9,990 


$686,972 
96,460 


$893,310 
146,030 


$918,752 
149,080 


$206,338 
49,570 


$25,442 
3,050 


$590,512 
$12,596,676 


$747,280 

$25,677,099 
146,030 


$769,672 

$28,403,484 
149,080 


$156,768 

$13,080,423 
49,570 


$22,392 

$2,726,385 
3,050 


Grand Total 


Fees 


96,460 


Total State Aid 


$12,500,216 


$25,531,069 


$28,254,404 


$13,030,853 


$2,723,335 





° As amended. 

* Eliminated as a result of 1947 legsliation simplifying State Aid. 
t Staff included with State Department of Education, 
t Includes $33,250 provided for on-the-job training. 



1947 State School Budget; 1946 Maryland School Census 33 



TABLE 2 — Census of Boys and Girls Under 21 Years of Age in 23 Maryland 
Counties By Age, Color, and Sex, November, 1946 





White 


Colored 


Age 
















Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total Counties: 














1 Q\ 1 Q -in 
(o-io) iy-%u 


OAr OOQ 




1 nn 79R 


A^ n$?fi 




^u,o^y 


1 c\ 1 019 
l.O-io; lyi^ 




1 u ( ,uuy 




40 295 


9n 9c;q 


20 042 


fKtSl\ 1 QAA 


216 670 






40 390 


20 180 


20 210 


VO-io; iy40 


01 Q A'in 




lUD, / oO 


A(\ $21 1 


9n QQA 


on /lie; 


1 oiai Ages <iU Or 
















OOOjODD 


171 689 


162 176 


59 949 


30 163 


29 786 


20 


10 316 


^ R79 


4 644 


1 795 


967 


828 


19 


12 321 


6 519 


5 802 


2 239 


1 145 


1 094 


18 


13 472 


6 967 


6 505 


2 470 


1 266 


1 204 


1 7 


13 885 


7 175 


6 710 


2 628 


1382 


1 246 


16 


14 840 


7 642 


7 198 


2 851 


1 411 


1 440 


15 


14 897 


7 601 


7 9QR 


2 672 


1 339 


1 333 


14 


15 152 


7 785 


7 367 


2*999 


1 500 


1499 


13 


15 130 


7 729 


7 401 


2 819 


1 394 


1 425 


12 


15 051 


7675 


7 376 


3013 


1468 


1 545 


J J 


15^644 


8!096 


7', 548 


2^837 


1^408 


1^429 


10 


15,973 


8,105 


7,868 


3,000 


1,490 


1,510 


g 


16 138 


8 376 


7 762 


2 886 


1 435 


1 451 


8 


16!670 


8,621 


8,049 


3!077 


1,507 


1,570 


7 


16,902 


8,594 


8,308 


3,138 


1,565 


1,573 


6 




o,yoo 


8,542 


o,oUo 


1,000 


1 fi9fl 


5 


18,181 


9,326 


8,855 


3,113 


1,543 


1,570 


4 


18,350 


9,412 


8,938 


3,244 


1,629 


1,615 




19,746 


10,008 


9,738 


3,049 


1,567 


1,482 


2 


18,490 


9,299 


9,191 


3,097 


1,580 


1,517 


1 


16,712 


8,626 


8,086 


2,626 


1,321 


1,305 


Under 1. 


18,500 


9,508 


8,992 


3,088 


1,558 


1,530 


Balto. City (5-18) 














1946 


109,941 






37,042 






Entire State (5-18) 










1946 


329,371 






77,853 

















TABLE 3— Brief Summary of 1946 School Census of Maryland Children 

















Ages 7 


-15 Years in 


No 


School 




Census 




Change 
















Ages 7-1 


5 Years 


1944 to 1946 














County 












Number 




Percent 






White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


Total Counties 


141,557 


26,441 


-1-1,834 


+ 


29 


3,851 


1,447 


2 


7 


5 


5 


Allegany 


13,568 


170 




455 




1 


251 


2 


1 


8 


1 


2 


Anne Arundel 


9,257 


3,313 


+ 


218 


+ 


42 


235 


223 


2 


5 


6 


7 


Baltimore 


26,156 


2,591 


+ 


450 


+ 


330 


634 


88 


2 


4 


3 


4 


Calvert _ 


939 


1,144 


+ 


11 


+ 


3 


23 


72 


2 


4 


6 


3 


Caroline 


2,014 


638 


+ 


69 


+ 


53 


81 


36 


4 





5 


6 


Carroll 


5,216 


285 




85 




6 


213 


12 


4 


1 


4 


2 


Cecil 


3,861 


349 




512 






74 


7 


1 


9 
6 


2 





Charles 


2,212 


1,704 


+ 


40 




77 


58 


168 


2 


9 


9 


Dorchester 


2,518 


1,183 




34 


+ 


9 


88 


45 


3 


5 


3 


8 


Frederick 


7,547 


723 




187 




67 


464 


67 


6 


1 


9 


3 


Garrett 


4,127 




+ 


201 






135 




3 


3 






Harford 


5,277 


814 




50 




4 


134 


19 


2 


5 


2 


3 


Howard 


2,691 


701 




153 




41 


79 


42 


2 


9 


6 





Kent 


1,204 


618 




2 




84 


33 


44 


2 


7 


7 


1 


Montgomery 


14,529 


1,731 


+ 


594 




122 


135 


82 





9 


4 


7 


Prince George's 


16,649 


4,028 


+ 


829 


+ 


280 


197 


167 


1 


2 


4 


1 


Queen Anne's 


1,622 


578 


+ 


128 




46 


61 


25 


3 


8 


4 


3 


St. Mary's 


2,728 


1,177 


+ 


283 


+ 


42 


115 


80 


4 


2 


6 


8 


Somerset 


1,791 


1,186 


+ 


16 


+ 


90 


122 


54 


6 


8 


4 


6 


Talbot 


1,696 


871 


+ 


58 


+ 


7 


32 


49 


1 


9 


5 


6 


Washington 


10,584 


213 


+ 


108 




17 


432 


2 


4 


1 





9 


Wicomico 


3,415 


1,214 


+ 


32 




76 


192 


71 


5 


6 


5 


8 


Worcester 


1,956 


1,210 


+ 


101 




106 


63 


92 


3 


2 


7 


6 


Baltimore City 


76.994 


27,459 


-R.137 


+2 


,106 














Entire State 


218,551 


53,900 


— 


5,303 


+2 


,135 





























34 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 4 

Number and Percent of Maryland County Children Enumerated of Ages 7-15 
Years Inclusive, in Public, Private and Parochial Schools, and 
No School, November, 1946 





Number 


Percent 






In Pri- 








In Pri- 




County 


In 


vate and 


In 




In 


vate and 


In 




Public 


Parochial 


No 


Total 


Public 


Parochial 


No 




School 


School 


School 




School 


School 


School 



White Children 



Total and Average: 




















1938 


116,434 


12,128 


5,414 


133,976 


86 


9 


9 


1 


4.0 


1942... 


119,499 


12,400 


4,700 


136,599 


87 


5 


9 


1 


3.4 


1944 


120,771 


14,505 


4,447 


139,723 


86 


4 


10 


4 


3.2 


1946 


121,031 


16,675 


3,851 


141,557 


85 


5 


11 


8 


2.7 


Montgomery 


11,214 


3,180 


135 


14,529 


77 


2 


21 


9 


0.9 


Prince George's 


14,695 


1,757 


197 


16,649 


88 


3 


10 


5 


1.2 


Ailegany 


11,405 


1,912 


251 


13,568 


84 




14 


1 


1.8 


Cecil 


3,441 


346 


74 


3,861 


89 


1 


9 





1.9 


Talbot 


1,616 


48 


32 


1,696 


95 


3 


2 


8 


1.9 


Baltimore 


20,686 


4,836 


634 


26,156 


79 


1 


18 


5 


2.4 


Anne Arundel 


8,217 


805 


235 


9,257 


88 


8 


8 


7 


2.5 


Calvert 


867 


49 


23 


939 


92 


3 


5 


2 


2.5 


Harford 


4,864 


279 


134 


5,277 


92 


2 


5 


3 


2.5 


Charles 


1,793 


361 


58 


2,212 


81 


1 


16 


3 


2.6 


Kent. .. 


1,140 


31 


33 


1,204 


94 


7 


2 


6 


2. "7 


Howard 


2,268 


344 


79 


2,691 


84 


3 


12 


3 


2.9 


Worcester 


1,882 


11 


63 


1,956 


96 


2 





6 


3.2 


Garrett 


3,906 


86 


135 


4,127 


94 


6 


2 


1 


3.3 


Dorchester 


2,374 


56 


88 


2,518 


94 


3 


2 


2 


3.5 


Queen Anne's 


1,546 


15 


61 


1,622 


95 


3 





9 


3.8 


Caroline 


1,922 


11 


81 


2,014 


95 


4 





6 


4.0 


Carroll 


4,786 


217 


213 


5,216 


91 


7 


4 


2 


4.1 


Washington 


9,756 


396 


432 


10,584 


92 


2 


3 


7 


4.1 


St. Mary's 


1,232 


1,381 


115 


2,728 


45 


2 


50 


6 


4.2 


Wicomico 


3,213 


10 


192 


3,415 


94 


1 





3 


5.6 


Frederick 


6,552 


531 


464 


7,547 


86 


8 


7 





6.2 


Somerset 


1,656 


13 


122 


1,791 


92 


5 





7 


6.8 



Colored Children 



Total and Average: 






















1938 


*24,505 


658 


*2,537 


**27,700 


*88 


5 


2 


4 


*9 


1 


1942 


23,821 


653 


2,081 


26,555 


89 


7 


2 


5 


7 


8 


1944.. 


23,934 


687 


1,791 


26,412 


90 


6 


2 


6 


6 


8 


1946 


24,287 


707 


1,447 


26,441 


91 


8 


2 


7 


5 


5 


Washington 


211 




2 


213 


99 


1 









9 


Allegany 


168 




2 


170 


98 


8 




1 


2 


Cecil 


342 




7 


349 


98 







2 





Harford 


795 






814 


97 


7 




2 


3 


Baltimore 


2,486 


17 


t 88 


2,591 


95 


9 





7 


3 


4 


Dorchester 


1,136 


2 


45 


1,183 


96 








2 


3 


8 


Prince George's 


3,772 


89 


167 


4,028 


93 


7 


2 


2 


4 




Carroll 


273 




12 


285 


95 


8 






4 


2 


Queen Anne's 


552 




25 


578 


95 


5 





2 


4 


3 


Somerset 


1,131 


1 


54 


1,186 


95 


4 







4 


5 


Montgomery 


1,645 


4 


82 


1,731 


95 


1 





2 


4 


7 


Talbot 


817 


5 


49 


871 


93 


8 





6 


5 


6 


Caroline 


598 


4 


36 


638 


93 


7 





6 


5 


7 


Wicomico 


1,143 




71 


1,214 


94 


2 






5 


8 


Howard 


596 


63 


42 


701 


85 





9 





6 







1,072 




72 


1,144 


93 


7 






6 


3 


Anne Arundel 


3,043 


47 


223 


3,313 


91 


9 


1 


4 


6 


7 


St. Marv's 


752 


345 


80 


1,177 


63 


9 


29 


3 


6 


8 


Kent 


574 




44 


618 


92 


9 






7 


1 


Worcester 


1,117 


1 


92 


1,210 


92 


3 





1 


7 


6 


Frederick 


644 


12 


67 


723 


89 


1 


1 


6 


9 


3 


Charles 


1,420 


116 


168 


1,704 


83 


3 


6 


8 


9 


9 



* Represents one child in Garrett County. 



1946 School Census Ages 7 thru 15 Years 



35 



TABLE 5 

Non-School Attendants of Ages 7-15 Years Enumerated in 23 Maryland Counties 
Distributed According to Handicap, Employment, and Age Group, 
November, 1946 



Children of Ages 7-15 Years Not In School 





Not Handicapped 


Handicapped 


County 


Employed 


Not Employed 


Employed 


Not Employed 




7-13 
Years 


14-15 
Years 


7-13 14-15 
Years Years 


7-13 
Years 


14-15 
Years 


7-13 
Years 


14-15 
Years 



White Children 



Total 1936 


180 


3,451 


291 


1,893 


* 


* 


*571 


*289 


1938 


102 


2,433 


236 


1,869 


* 


* 


*501 


*273 


1940 


82 


2 095 


i-OO 








*462 


*276 


1942 


124 


2^941 


164 


831 


* 


* 


*405 


*235 


1944 


117 


2,870 


159 


682 




* 


*434 


*185 


1946 


99 


2,459 


91 


612 


2 


15 


405 


168 


Allegany 


4 


76 


16 


114 






25 


16 


Anne Arundel 


2 


91 


31 


65 






39 


7 


Baltimore 


7 


390 


14 


122 




1 


69 


31 


Calvert 




17 


4 






2 




Caroline 




59 




15 






5 


2 


Carroll 


6 


178 




9 




1 


14 


5 


Cecil 


1 


40 


2 


22 




3 


2 


4 


Charles 


2 


30 


5 


10 


1 




9 


1 


Dorchester 


2 


71 




3 


1 


1 


7 


3 


Frederick 


37 


326 


5 


48 
39 




37 


11 


Garrett 


76 






2 


11 


7 


Harford 


7 


78 


6 


22 
3 






18 


3 


Howard 


1 


61 








13 


1 


Kent 




31 












2 


Montgomery... 


6 


94 




6 






26 


3 


Prince George's 




108 




18 






45 


26 


Queen Anne's 




52 




3 






4 


2 


St. Mary's 


19 


73 


3 


5 




2 


11 
9 


2 


Somerset 


4 


78 


4 


23 




1 


3 


Talbot 




24 




1 




5 


2 


Washington. 


1 


300 


5 


63 
3 




1 


37 


25 


Wicomico 


168 






3 


9 


9 


Worcester 




38 




14 






8 


3 

















Colored Children 



Total 1936 


127 


1,524 


505 


739 


* 


* 


*167 


*66 


1938 


90 


1,153 


295 


781 






*157 


*61 


1940 


64 


1,026 


202 


569 




* 


*126 


*63 


1942 


88 


1,301 


190 


280 






*146 


*76 


1944 


81 


1,201 


81 


204 




* 


*156 


*68 


1946 


46 


980 


64 


179 


4 


4 


136 


34 


Allegany 








1 








1 


Anne Arundel 


13 
3 


119 
47 
57 
27 
11 
2 
89 
25 
48 


26 
5 


43 
15 
8 
1 




1 


15 
14 
7 
4 


6 
3 


Baltimore 




Calveit 




Caroline 


1 
1 


1 






2 


Carroll 






Cecil 


1 

23 
1 


3 
30 
11 

7 






10 
4 
7 




Charles... 


11 




1 


4 
1 
1 


Dorchester 


3 


Frederick 


4 




Garrett 








Harford 




14 
36 
38 
48 
121 
25 
52 
40 
40 
2 
58 
81 




1 






1 

5 


3 


Howard 


1 
1 

5 








Kent 




4 
12 
14 






1 
1 

5 


Montgomery 


3 






13 

27 


Prince George's 






Queen Anne's 










St. Mary's 


2 
1 
3 


3 
1 


13 
8 
2 






9 
3 
2 


1 
1 

2 


Somerset 






Talbot 






Washington 








Wicomico 








1 


1 


10 
4 


1 
1 


Worcester 






6 













Status of employment of handicapped not reported before 1946. 



36 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 6— Handicapped School Attendants of Ages 7-15 Years 
Enumerated in 23 Maryland Counties 







Handicapped County School Attendants 






OF Ages 7 


-15 Years 




County 










White 


Colored 


Total 1942 




896 


198 


1944 




787 


199 


1946 




1,135 


153 


Allegany 




179 


2 


Anne Arundel 




100 


20 


Baltimore 




188 


18 


Calvert 




3 


5 






9 


2 


Carroll 




79 


6 


Cecil 




31 


1 


Charles 




16 


7 


Dorchester 




20 


7 


Frederick 




151 


8 


Garrett 




43 
69 




Harford 




15 






14 


3 


Kent 




4 


5 


Montgomery 




34 


4 


Prince George's 




2 


3 


Queen Anne's 




11 


5 


St. Mary's 




23 


27 






7 


3 


Talbot 




4 


5 


Washington 




106 




Wicomico 




12 


3 


Worcester 




30 


4 



TABLE 7— Status of Youth of Ages 14-20 Years, Inclusive, Enumerated in 23 
Maryland Counties, November, 1946 









Percent of Total Number of Ages 14-20 Years Inclusive 




Total 

Number 


Not Employed 


Employed 






Ages 


Ages 14-20 
Years 


Not 
Handicapped 


Handicapped 


Not 
Handicapped 


Handicapped 


In School 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 



White 



Total and 












































Average 


49,361 


45,522 


3 


8 


7.5 





5 





5 


46 


5 


38 


3 





2 





1 


49 





53 


6 


14 


7,785 


7,367 


1 





1.3 





4 





6 


5 


6 


3 


7 







*o 





92 


9 


94 


4 


15 


7,601 


7,296 


2 


6 


3.4 





5 





6 


14 


3 


9 


1 







*o 





82 


5 


86 


9 


16 


7,642 


7,198 


4 


5 


6.1 





6 





3 


30 


8 


23 








2 





1 


63 


9 


70 


5 


17 


7,175 


6,710 


4 


4 


10.0 





6 





6 


55 


7 


44 


5 





2 





1 


39 


1 


44 


8 


18 


6,967 


6,505 


4 


1 


10.6 





5 





4 


77 





64 


4 





3 





1 


18 


1 


24 


5 


19 


6,519 


5,802 


6 


1 


11.8 





3 





5 


79 


9 


71 


7 





4 





2 


13 


3 


15 


8 


20 


5,672 


4,644 


4 


9 


12.3 





5 





5 


78 


6 


75 


5 





5 





1 


15 


5 


11 


6 



Colored 



Total and 
Average 


9,010 


8,644 


3 


6 


11 


7 





6 





7 


59 


8 


42 


7 





2 


0.1 


35 


8 


44 


8 


14 


1,500 
1,339 
1,411 
1,382 
1,266 
1,145 
967 


1,499 
1,333 
1,440 


1 


5 


2 


8 
8 





7 





5 


13 


7 


7 


1 








84 


1 


89 


6 


15 


2 


6 


5 





6 





7 


30 


6 


19 


4 





2 


0.1 


66 





74 





16 


4 


5 


12 


9 





6 


1 


1 


52 





32 


8 





5 


0.1 


42 


4 


53 


1 


17 


1,246 
1,204 
1,094 
828 


4 


4 


15 


5 





6 





8 


71 


5 


51 


4 





1 


0.1 


23 


4 


32 


2 


18 


4 


1 


17 


1 





6 





7 


86 


8 


65 


3 





2 


0.2 


8 


3 


16 


7 


19 


3 


7 


16 


2 





5 





9 


93 


6 


70 


9 





2 


0.2 


2 





11 


8 


20 


4 


6 


15 


1 





7 





4 


91 


2 


79 








1 


0.1 


3 


4 


5 


4 









































* Less than . 1 percent. 



Handicapped School Attendants; Census of County Youth 37 

TABLE 8 

Distribution of Youth of Ages 16-20 Years Inclusive, Enumerated in 23 Maryland 
Counties, November, 1946 



Percent of Total Number of Ages 16-20 Years Inclusive 



County 



Total 
Number 
Ages 16-20 
Years 



Boys Girls 



Not Employed 



Not 
Handicapped 



Boys Girls 



Handicapped 



Boys Girls 



Employed 



Not 
Handicapped 



Boys Girls 



Handicapped 



Boys Girls 



In School 



Boys Girls 



White Youth 



Total and 








































Average 


33,976 


30,859 


4 


8 


9 


9 


0.5 





4 


62 


9 


53 


5 





3 


0.1 


31.5 


36.1 


Allegany 


3,487 


3,293 


10 





17 


8 


0.7 





6 


54 





43 


5 





2 


*0.0 


35 


1 


38.1 


A. Arundel.. 


1,975 


1,647 


6 





13 


9 


0.4 





4 


63 


3 


52 


8 





2 


0.1 


30 


1 


32.8 


Baltimore.... 


6,002 


5,477 


4 


4 


7 


5 


0.6 





4 


64 


7 


58 


7 





3 


0.1 


30 





33.3 


Calvert 


142 


162 


3 


5 


12 


4 








72 


6 


48 


1 





7 


0.6 


23 


2 


38.9 


Caroline 


601 


523 


2 


2 


7 


5 


0.5 





4 


73 


7 


62 


7 





8 




22 


8 


29.4 


Carroll 


1,479 


1,368 


2 


2 


6 


5 


0.6 





2 


76 


9 


64 


9 





9 


0.5 


19 


4 


27.9 


Cecil 


980 


935 


7 


9 


18 





0.6 





3 


65 





48 


8 





7 


0.3 


25 


8 


32.6 


Charles 


550 


470 


6 


2 


16 


4 


0.9 





2 


64 


3 


43 


8 





2 




28 


4 


39.6 


Dorchester.. 


770 


749 


2 


1 


7 


9 


0.6 





1 


73 


5 


68 


3 





4 


0.3 


23 


4 


23.4 


Frederick.... 


2,035 


1,886 


3 


7 


5 


3 


0.3 





3 


74 





67 


3 





6 


0.1 


21 


4 


27.0 


Garrett 


1,070 


890 


7 


7 


16 


6 


0.8 





6 


71 


1 


54 


9 





2 


0.2 


20 


2 


27.7 


Harford 


1,174 


1,081 


5 


5 


10 


7 


0.7 





6 


67 


1 


53 


2 





4 


0.2 


26 


3 


35.3 


Howard 


623 


614 


5 


3 


15 


3 


0.8 





5 


69 


5 


56 


2 






0.3 


24 


4 


27.7 


Kent 


324 


306 





3 


2 


3 


0.3 


1 



3 


74 


7 


58 


8 
5 





6 




24 


1 


37.9 


Montgomery 


3,212 


2,740 


2 


4 


6 


1 


0.2 





33 


2 


22 





2 


*0.0 


64 





71.1 


Pr. George's 


3,234 


2,965 


3 


7 


5 


4 


0.4 





5 


60 


3 


56 


6 


*o 







35 


6 


37.5 


Qu. Anne's.. 


398 


342 





5 


6 


4 


0.5 





3 


72 


4 


52 


3 





2 




26 


4 


41.0 


St. Mary's 


668 


532 


2 


1 


10 


8 


0.9 





8 


72 


3 


59 


4 


1 


3 


0.2 


23 


4 


28.8 


Somerset .... 


461 


386 


5 


6 


19 


4 







8 


69 


2 


52 


8 





7 


0.3 


24 


5 


26.7 


Talbot 


451 


468 


2 





6 


8 


0.2 





2 


69 





65 


2 





2 




28 


6 


27.8 


Washington 


2,730 


2,564 


6 


5 


12 


5 


0-3 





7 


65 


8 


55 


3 





2 


0.2 


27 


2 


31.3 


Wicomico.... 


1,067 


956 





7 


4 





0.9 





4 


72 


7 


65 


1 





1 


0.1 


25 


6 


30.4 


Worcester .. 


542 


505 


3 


7 


8 


5 


0.5 





8 


75 


3 


61 


6 





9 


0.2 


19 


6 


28.9 



Colored Youth 



Total and 
























Average 


6,171 


5,812 


4.3 


15.3 


0.6 


0.8 


77 


4 


57 


3 


Allegany 


36 


56 


8 


3 


17.8 






58 


3 


42 


9 


A. Arundel.. 


768 


696 


3 


5 


18.1 




0.4 


78 





58 


8 


Baltimore.... 


504 


429 


6 





14.0 


0.2 




72 





49 


2 


Calver* 


232 


205 





4 


15.1 


0.4 


0.5 


84 


1 


57 


1 


Caroline 


191 


154 


1 


1 


5.2 


0.5 


3.9 


75 


4 


68 


8 


Carroll 


87 


94 


4 


6 


14.9 


1.1 


2.1 


77 





58 


5 


Cecil 


90 


75 


14 

8 


4 


38.7 






64 


5 


28 





Charles 


365 


352 


5 


29.5 




0.9 


81 


9 


56 
66 


8 
8 


Dorchester.. 


366 


344 


3 


8 


16.9 


1.3 


1.2 


79 





Frederick ... 


210 


191 


4 


8 


6.3 


1.9 


0.5 


85 


2 


70 


2 


Harford 


177 


177 


7 


3 


19.8 


0.6 


2.3 


68 


4 


44 


6 


Howard 


196 


139 


3 





13.7 


0.5 


0.7 


83 


2 


59 


7 


Kent 


141 


124 


7 


8 


20.2 


2.8 


0.8 


63 


8 


48 


4 


Montgomery 


437 


422 


6 


4 


17.8 


0.7 


0.2 


66 


4 


43 


8 


Pr. George's 


818 


755 


5 


4 


17.1 


0.7 


0.3 


75 


1 


54 


3 


Qu. Anne's.. 


118 


132 






3.0 


0.8 




92 


4 


67 


4 


St. Mary's 


321 


290 


1 


9 


16.9 


0.3 


2.8 


89 


4 


61 





Somerset .... 


222 


249 


3 


.2 


13.7 


1.3 


1.2 


71 


2 


49 


4 


Talbot 


175 


175 


1 


.1 


12.0 




1.2 


74 


9 
6 


59 


4 


Washington 


63 


76 








1.3 


74 


65 


8 


Wicomico.... 


348 


358 


2 


.0 


6.7 


1.1 


0.6 


79 


3 


59 


2 


Worcester.... 


306 


319 


1 


.0 


6.6 


0.3 


0.9 


90 


2 


78 


4 



0.2 



0.4 
0.4 



0.5 
0.3 



1.2 



0.1 



0.3 

"o7"7 



0.8 
1.0 



0.3 



17 


5 


26.5 


33 


4 


39.3 


18 


1 


22.7 


21 


4 


36.8 


15 


1 


27.3 


23 





22.1 


17 


3 


24.5 


21 


1 


33.3 


9 


1 


12.8 


15 


6 


14.8 


8 


1 


23.0 


23 


7 


33.3 


13 


3 


25.2 


25 


6 


30.6 


26 


5 


38.2 


18 


8 


28.3 


6 


8 


28.8 


7 


2 


18.3 


24 


3 


35.7 


24 





27.4 


25 


4 


32.9 


17 


3 


33.2 


8 


5 


14.1 



Less than . 1 percent. 



38 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 
TABLE 9— Opening and Closing Dates Year Ending June 30, 1947 



County 



Date of Opening 

Schools in 
September, 1946 



Allegany. 

Anne Arundel... 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City. 



* Date of opening of Colored Schools, September 3. 
t May. 



TABLE 10 — Number of County Schools in Session Fewer than 180 Days 
Year Ending June 30, 1947 





For All Counties By Year — 
Schools 




For 1947 By County- 
Schools 




Year 


Total 
No. 


Having 

One 
Teacher 


Having 
More 
Than One 
Teacher 


County 


Total 
No. 


Having 

One 
Teacher 


Larger 

Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 


High 
Schools 



Schools for White Pupils 



1930 


28 


1935 


33 


1942 


12 


1943 


12 


1944 


8 


1945 


24 


1946 


19 


1947 


22 



Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Dorchester 

Garrett . 

Howard 

Prince George 

St. Mary's 

Washington ... 



bbcddgh7 
cl 
el 
cl 
bl 



abd3 



bl 



aa2 
bl 



aa2 



Schools for Colored Pupils 



1942 


6 


5 


1 


1943 


4 




4 


1944 


5 


5 




1945 


13 


9 


4 


1946. 


9 


4 


5 


1947.. 


3 


1 


2 



Anne Arundel 
Montgomery . 
Talbot 



a_i79 days. b— 178 days. c— 177 days. d— 176 days. e— 173 days. f— 172 days, 
g — 163 days because of illness of teacher and roads blocked with snow, 
h — 109 days because unable to employ teacher part of year. 



Length of School Session; White Resident Births 



1 



pi.siSsiiiiiiSsiiiisqSs I 



I iiiiiii I 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



I 



il 



i 



J 



i 



i 



I 



Estimated Per- 
cent in 
Public School* 






1 




1 






1 






1 






1 






1 






i 


CO 




1 






1 






1 






i 






i 






i 








s Ii 


lii 


Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 


Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City 

Entire State 



il 

I 

! 



Colored Resident Births; Public School Enrollment 1923-1947 



41 



CHART 1 

Total White and Colored Enrollment in Public Schools of the Counties of Maryland 
and Baltimore City: 1923—1947 



Counties - Colored 



- - - --'Coioref 



City 



1923 '25 -g? '29 'Zl '33 '35 

Year 



I I I I I I I I I 
•39 'Al '43 '45 '47 



42 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 12— Enrollment by Color in Public and Non-Public Schools of the Counties 
and Baltimore City: 1930-1947; and Public School Enrollment by County and 

Color: 1923, 1946, 1947 





Total 


Public Schools 


Catholic Schools 


Non-Catholic Non- 
Public Schools 


Year 


Counties 
*t 


Baltimore 
City 


Counties 
*t 


Baltimore 
Cty 


Counties 


Baltimore 
City 


Counties 


Baltimore 
City 



White Enrollment 



1930 


146,610 


127,326 


133,497 


92,272 


10,202 


32,152 


2,911 


2,902 


1932 


153,698 


130,280 


139,917 


94,122 


10,895 


33,507 


2,886 


2,651 


1935 


157,382 


131,871 


143,482 


94,715 


11,214 


34,758 


2,686 


2,398 


1937 


159,560 


130,538 


144,914 


93,464 


11,492 


34,252 


3,154 


2,822 


1938 . 


159,429 


128,205 


144,051 


91,104 


11,720 


33,946 


3,658 


3,165 


1939 


161,633 


126,660 


146,216 


89,860 


11,845 


33,700 


3,572 


3,100 


1940 


162,992 


124,040 


147,646 


88,317 


11,911 


32,788 


3,435 


2,935 


1941 


166,058 


122,185 


149,969 


87,291 


12,578 


31,753 


3,511 


3,141 


1942 


169,579 


119,651 


152,449 


85,039 


13,319 


31,122 


3,811 


3,490 


1943 


172,317 


118,800 


154,701 


84,389 


13,770 


30,809 


3,846 


3,602 


1944 


171,917 


117,414 


153,158 


82,709 


14,721 


31,097 


4,038 


3,608 


1945 


174,113 


115,289 


154,502 


79,552 


15,192 


31,783 


4,419 


3,954 


1946 


177,016 


113,021 


155,873 


77,036 


16,221 


31,571 


4,922 


4,364 


1947 


181,278 


112,648 


157,992 


76,471 


17,069 


31,608 


6,217 


4.569 



Colored Enrollment 



29,466 


24,419 


28,712 


22,978 


633 


1,362 


121 


79 


29,758 


26,372 


29,047 


25,083 


658 


1,229 


53 


60 


29,504 


29,901 


28,927 


28,353 


543 


1,403 


34 


145 


29,251 


31,841 


28,728 


30,284 


523 


1,440 




117 


29,031 


31,611 


28,467 


30,064 


541 


1,444 


23 


103 


29,171 


33,668 


28,619 


32,088 


529 


1,473 


23 


107 


29,146 


34,026 


28,627 


32,441 


519 


1,490 




95 


29,282 


34,703 


28,720 


33,169 


562 


1,447 




87 


28,965 


34,487 


28,356 


33,047 


609 


1,377 




63 


28,769 


34,318 


28,137 


32,840 


632 


1,407 




71 


28,555 


34,804 


27,928 


33,189 


627 


1,539 




76 


29,061 


35,747 


28,431 


34,269 


630 


1,403 




75 


29,824 


37,034 


29,166 


35,465 


658 


1,476 




93 


30,882 


38,295 


30,032 


36,678 


750 


1,518 


lod* 


99 



Public School Enrollment^: by County and Color: 1923, 1946, 1947 



County 


White 


Colored 


1923 


1946 


1947 


1923 


1946 


1947 


Allegany 


*12,772 


*15,103 


*15,230 


303 


240 


253 


Anne Arundel 


5,401 


10,835 


10,925 


2,911 


*3,704 


*3,802 


Baltimore 


*14,845 


*27,821 


*28,088 


1,942 


3,143 


3,302 


Calvert 


1,203 


1,120 


1,217 


1,343 


1,289 


1,296 


Caroline 


3,622 


2,400 


2,451 


1,207 


768 


797 


Carroll 


6,677 


6,231 


6,348 


440 


369 


375 


Cecil 


3,919 


4,582 


4,629 


548 


454 


455 


Charles 


1,902 


2,486 


2,414 


1,821 


1,833 


1,852 


Dorchester 


3,990 


3,038 


3,043 


2,025 


1,408 


1,420 


Frederick... 


9,926 


8,475 


8,515 


1,204 


855 


891 


Garrett 


5,822 


4,459 


4,631 








Harford 


4,941 


6,485 


6,558 


916 


950 


1,064 


Howard 


2,525 


3,058 


3,051 


848 


738 


767 


Kent 


2,030 


1,519 


1,576 


1,218 


707 


734 


Montgomery 


5,133 


15,940 


16,396 


1,898 


2,017 


2,049 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


7,245 


18,564 


18,502 


2,781 


*3,859 


*4,125 


2,504 


1,792 


1,847 


1,093 


695 


681 


St. Mary's 


2,140 


1,739 


1,697 


1,404 


939 


935 


Somerset 


3,521 


1,987 


2,053 


2,255 


1,372 


1,381 


Talbot 


2,542 


1,992 


2,103 


1,413 


983 


1,033 


Washington 


12,140 


12,793 


12,824 


377 


273 


297 


Wicomico 


4,887 


*4,122 


*4,172 


1,792 


1,530 


1,455 


Worcester 


2,947 


2,422 


2,448 


2,088 


1,394 


1,400 



* Includes enrollment in elementary school (s) of State teachers college (s). 
t Excludes duplicates between counties in public schools. 
t Includes duplicates between counties in public schools. 



Enrollment in Public and Non Public Schools by Year 



43 



TABLE 13 — Comparison of Enrollment in Counties and Baltimore City in Public 
and Non-Public Schools, 1930 to 1947 



Total 



{Counties 



Baltimore 
City 



Public Schools 



{Counties 



Baltimore 
City 



Catholic Schools 



Counties 



Baltimore 
City 



Non-Catholic 
Non-Public Schools 



Counties 



{White Elementary School Enrollment 



1930 


118,717 


109,159 


108,737 


78,133 


8,722 


29,002 


1,258 


2,024 


1932 


121,923 


108,720 


111,370 


76,949 


9,321 


29,954 


1,232 


1,817 


1935 


122,559 


107,192 


111,696 


74,818 


9,622 


30,735 


1,241 


1,639 


1937 


122,247 


105,173 


110,955 


73,452 


9,785 


29,817 


1,507 


1,904 


1938 


121,422 


103,094 


109,636 


71,392 


9,933 


29,384 


1,853 


2,318 


1939 


121,137 


100,250 


109,579 


68,863 


9,823 


29,090 


1,735 


2,297 


1940 


120,719 


96,947 


109,154 


66,896 


9,828 


27,947 


1,737 


2,104 


1941 


121,933 


95,401 


110,021 


65,732 


10,082 


27,371 


1,830 


2,298 


1942 


124,973 


94,438 


112,294 


65,123 


10,643 


26,703 


2,036 


2,612 


1943 


128,436 


94,780 


115,253 


65,904 


11,059 


26,104 


2,124 


2,772 


1944 


129,828 


94,497 


115,586 


65,708 


11,797 


26,010 


2,445 


2,779 


1945 


131,549 


92 309 


116,611 


62,969 


12,162 


26,322 


2,776 


3,018 


1946 


118,579 


79.779 


102,148 


50,482 


13,187 


25,883 


3,244 


3,414 


1947 


119,936 


79,355 


*101,784 


=i^49,707 


tl3,888 


t26,214 


t4,099 


t3,537 



White High and Vocational School Enrollment 



1930 


27,893 


18,167 


24,760 


14,139 


1,480 


3,150 


1,653 


878 


1932 


31,775 


21,560 


28,547 


17,173 


1,574 


3,553 


1,654 


834 


1935 . 


34,823 


24,679 


31,786 


19,897 


1,592 


4,023 


1,445 


759 


1937 


37,313 


25,365 


33,959 


20,012 


1,707 


4,435 


1,647 


918 


1938 . 


38,007 


25,111 


34,115 


19,712 


1,787 


4,562 


1,805 


837 


1939 


40,496 


26,410 


86,637 


20,997 


2.022 


4,610 


1,837 


803 


1940 


42,273 


27,093 


38,492 


21,421 


2,083 


4,841 


1,698 


831 


1941 


44,125 


26,784 


39,948 


21,559 


2,496 


4,382 


1,681 


843 


1942 . 


44,606 


25,213 


40,155 


19,916 


2,676 


4,419 


1,775 


878 


1943 . 


43,881 


24,020 


39,448 


18,485 


2,711 


4,705 


1,722 


830 


1944 


42,089 


22,917 


37,572 


17,001 


2,924 


5,087 


1,593 


829 


1945 


42,564 


22,980 


37,891 


16,583 


3,030 


5,461 


1,613 


936 


1946 


58,437 


33,242 


53,725 


26,604 


3,034 


5.688 


1,678 


950 


1947 


61,507 


33,190 


*56,208 


*26,764 


13,181 


t5,394 


t2,118 


1 1.032 



{Colored Elementary School Enrollment 



27,367 


22,068 


26,759 


20,643 


582 


1,347 


26 


78 


27,169 


23,560 


26,558 


22,289 


583 


1,211 


28 


60 


26,451 


26,702 


25,908 


25,189 


543 


1,392 




121 


25,221 


28,519 


24,698 


27,038 


523 


1,382 




99 


24,693 


28,131 


24.133 


26,686 


537 


1,360 


23 


85 


24,604 


29,830 


24,052 


28,374 


529 


1,367 


23 


89 


24,328 


29,877 


23,809 


28,408 


519 


1,393 




76 


24,114 


30,515 


23,552 


29,112 


562 


1,335 




68 


23,853 


30,546 


23,244 


29,247 


609 


1,249 




50 


23,505 


30,553 


22,873 


29,245 


632 


1,253 




55 


23,337 


31,254 


22,736 


29,857 


601 


1,334 




63 


23,825 


31,753 


23,195 


30,503 


630 


1,179 




71 


22,824 


29,044 


22,166 


27,686 


658 


1,270 




88 


23,082 


29,448 


*22,297 


*28,018 


t750 


tl,334 


tioo 


t96 



Colored High and Vocational School Enrollment 



2,099 
2,808 
3,053 
4,030 
4,338 
4,567 
4.818 
5,168 
5,112 
5,264 
5,218 
5,236 
7,000 
7,738 



2,351 
2,812 
3,199 
3.322 
3,480 
3,838 
4,149 
4,188 
3,941 
3,765 
3,550 
3,994 
7,990 
8,847 



1,953 
2,489 
3,019 
4,030 
4,334 
4,567 
4,818 
5,168 
5,112 
5,264 
5,192 
5,236 
7,000 
*7,738 



2,335 
2,794 
3,181 
3,246 
3,378 
3,714 
4,033 
4,057 
3,800 
3,595 
3,332 
3,766 
7,779 
t3,660 



26 



15 
18 
11 
58 
84 
106 
97 
112 
128 
154 
205 
224 
206 
tl84 



{ Includes for county public schools enrollment in elementary schools of State normal school (s) 
or teachers college(s), and until 1946 in grade 7 or grades 7-8 in junior high schools of counties and 
City. 

* For public school enrollment in detail by counties and Baltimore City see Table II, pages 264-5. 
t For non-public school enrollment in detail by school, county and Baltimorp City, see Tables 
III-V, pages 266 to 272. 



44 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 14 — Total White and Colored Enrollment in Maryland Elementary and 
High Schools for Years Ending in June 1923, 1946, and 1947 





White Enrollment 




Colored Enrollment 


County 


1923 


1946 


1947 


County 


1923 


1946 


1947 



Elementary Schools 



Total Counties.... 


*°105,772 


*°101,637 


*°101,268 


Baltimore 


°13,154 


°19,063 


°18,553 


Prince George's .. 


6,421 


12,499 


12,256 


Montgomery 


4,524 


10,593 


10,765 




°10,985 


°9,074 


°8,840 


Washington 


10,859 


7,762 


7,711 


Anne Arundel 


4,947 


7,315 


7,317 


Frederick 


8,505 


5,361 


5,353 


Harford 


4,290 


4,293 


4,341 


Carroll 


5,902 


3,940 


4,004 


Garrett 


5,373 


3,317 


3,428 


Cecil 


3,405 


2,904 


2,912 


Wicomico 


3,986 


°2,817 


°2,878 


Howard 


2,241 


2,046 


2,037 


Dorchester 


3,432 


1,930 


1,873 


Charles 


1,803 


1,677 


1,583 


Worcester 


2,298 


1,512 


1,529 


Caroline 


3,025 


1,428 


1,474 


Somerset 


3,059 


1,254 


1,279 


Talbot 


2,105 


1,215 


1,257 


Queen Anne's 


2,101 


1,182 


1,215 


St. Mary's 


2,117 


1,159 


1,113 


Kent..... 


1,748 


1,036 


1,027 


Calvert 


1,060 


841 


784 


Baltimore City.... 


70,917 


61,529 


49.707 


Entire State 


*°175,256 


*°152,119 


*°150,975 



Total Counties 

Prince George's 
Anne Arundel .. 

Baltimore 

Montgomery .... 

Charles 

Wicomico 

Dorchester 

Calvert 

Somerset 

Worcester 

St. Mary's 

Talbot 

Harford 

Frederick 

Caroline 

Howard 

Kent 

Queen Anne's.... 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Washington 

Allegany 



Baltimore City 
Entire State 



*3 1,070 


*°22,067 


2,781 


°3,074 


2,853 


°2,888 


1,942 


2,568 


1,898 


1,519 


1,803 


1,456 


1,675 


1,115 


1,947 


1,066 


1,343 


1,087 


2 255 


947 


2^088 


937 


1,404 


755 


1,373 


681 


916 


678 


1,150 


591 


1,188 


553 


848 


554 


1,188 


538 


1,093 


541 


548 


285 


440 


254 


377 


158 


267 


144 


15,946 


27,854 


*46,745 


*°49,753 



Junior. Junior-Senior, Senior and Regui^r High Schools 



Total Counties. 

Baltimore 

Prince George's 

Allegany 

Montgomery 

Washington 

Anne Arundel.... 

Frederick 

Carroll 

Harford 

Cecil 

Garrett 

Wicomico 

Dorchester 

Howard 

Caroline 

Worcester 

Talbot 

Charles 

Somerset 

Queen Anne's.... 

St. Mary's 

Kent 

Calvert 

Baltimore City.. 

Entire State 



*14,888 


*53,725 


*56,208 


1,512 


8,513 


9,297 


824 


6,065 


6,246 


1,665 


5,861 


6,207 


609 


5,347 


5,631 


1,281 


5,031 


5,113 


454 


3,520 


3,608 


1,421 


3,114 


3,162 


775 


2,291 


2,344 


651 


2,192 


2,217 


514 


1,678 


1,717 


449 


1,142 


1,203 


901 


1,207 


1,199 


558 


1,108 


1,170 


284 


1,012 


1,014 


597 


972 


977 


649 


910 


919 


437 


777 


846 


99 


809 


831 


462 


733 


774 


403 


610 


632 


23 


580 


584 


282 


483 


549 


143 


279 


433 


17,660 


26,930 


26,764 


*32,391 


*80,329 


*82,972 



Total Counties.... 


*447 


*7,000 


*7,738 


Prince George's 




702 


924 


Anne Arundel .... 


58 


800 


910 


Baltimore 




575 


653 


Montgomery 




498 


557 


Worcester 




457 


465 


Somerset 




425 


444 


Charles 


18 


377 


378 


Wicomico 


117 


415 


378 


Harford.- 




272 


366 


Dorchester 


78 


342 


361 


Talbot 


40 


302 


334 


Frederick 


54 


264 


268 


Calvert 




202 


243 


Caroline 


19 


215 


213 


St. Mary's 




184 


212 


Howard 




184 


201 


Kent 


30 


169 


182 


Cecil 




169 


178 


Queen Anne's 




154 


150 


Carroll 




115 


126 


Washington 




115 
96 


117 


Allegany 


36 


102 


Baltimore City .. 


1,355 


7,757 


8,660 


Entire State 


*1,778 


*14,655 


*16,398 



* Totals exclude duplicates. 

° Excludes enrollment in elementary schools of State Teachers Colleges: 
College 1923 1946 1947 College 1946 1947 

Towson 179 245 238 Bowie 99 106 

Frostburg 122 168 183 Anne Arundel .. 16 33 

Salisbury 98 95 Prince George's 83 73 

Data for Grades 7 and 8 in Junior High Schools formerly included with the Elementary Grades 

are included in the High School figures for 1946 and 1947. 
For enrollment by counties arranged alphabetically, see Table II, pages 264 and 265. 



Enrollment in Public Schools; % of Attendance by Types 45 
OF White Elementary Schools 



c<iooeooa3(NOioo5t>ecot-05ooicooc^>-ioiOTi<x 



to N 

V fJ 

wo 
JO t- 

II 

6 



05 



(M 




T-J «J H 0) 



53S 



0) 



Wo 
in fc. 



o t- in CO N 



00 as OC CO «D 03 CO O ' 



t-«oocoooi-ieoC5t~coait>eO'-Hinc<itoeoc5eoc<ieoo 



lllll 



46 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 16 

Percent of Attendance in White and Colored Elementary Schools for School 
Year Ending June 1923, 1946, and 1947 



County 



County Average 

Kent 

Talbot. 

Dorchester 

Caroline 

Prince George's 

Allegany. 

Somerset 

Wicomico... 

Washington 

Queen Anne's 

Carroll.- 

Baltimore 

Worcester 

Frederick 

Calvert 

Charles 

Anne Arundel ... 

St. Mary's 

Montgomery 

Harford 

Howard.. 

Cecil.. 

Garrett 

Baltimore City.. 

Total State 



White Schools 



1923 1946 1947 



*84.2 



85. 

83. 

86. 

84. 
*88. 

83. 

86. 

84. 

85. 

79. 
*84. 

83. 

83. 

79. 

79. 

84. 

74. 

81. 

84. 

84. 

84. 

83. 



89.6 
86.4 



*90.4 

93.1 
91.2 
92.8 
92.2 
90.9 

*92.2 
92.1 

*90.7 
90.8 
91.8 
91.2 

*90.0 
89.8 
90.9 
89.8 
90.8 
89.9 
89.5 
88.1 
89.6 
89.5 
89.1 
90.3 



*91.8 

93.9 
93.6 
93.5 
93.3 
93.0 

*92.9 
92.9 

*92.7 
92.5 
92.4 
92.1 

*92.0 
91.8 
91.7 
91.6 
91.3 
90.7 
90.6 
90.5 
90.3 
89.9 
89.8 
89.8 



91.1 



County 



County Average 

Queen Anne's ... 

Talbot 

Allegany 

Caroline 

Kent 

Wicomico 

Dorchester 

Prince George's.. 

Washington 

Anne Arundel ... 

Somerset 

Montgomery 

Harford 

Baltimore. 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Frederick 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 

Howard 

Charles 

Worcester 

Baltimore City . 
Total State 



Colored Schools 



1923 


1946 


1947 


76.2 


*87 


5 


*89.1 


73.1 


94 





95.8 


84.3 


90 


3 


93.7 


87.4 


94 





92.8 


76.4 


90 


3 


92.0 


73.4 


89 


4 


91.7 


84.8 


90 


1 


91.7 


74.2 


89 


7 


91.6 


76.4 


*89 


1 


*90.9 


81.7 


88 


5 


89.7 


71.2 


*88 


9 


*89.5 


80.5 


87 


4 


89.5 


80.8 


86 


3 


89.3 


79.9 


87 


9 


88.8 


75.4 


87 


5 


88.7 


72.0 


85 


5 


87.4 


74.4 


86 


8 


86.8 


84.6 


87 


6 


86.7 


62.9 


86 


6 


85.7 


65.3 


83 


5 


85.3 


71.0 


85 





84.9 


66.8 


81 


3 


84.5 


80.1 


81 


1 


84.4 


87.0 


86 


6 


88.5 


79.9 


87 





88.8 



For attendance in 1947 arranged alphabetically an 
* Excludes percent of attendance in elementary 
State Teachers 

College 1923 1946 1947 

Frostburg 92.2 94.4 94.6 

Towson 87.4 90.0 92.7 

Salisbury 90.9 93.2 



d by type of organization, see Table IX, page 276. 
schools of State Teachers Colleges: 
State Teachers 

College 1923 1946 1947 

Bowie 90.2 91.2 

Anne Arundel 81.9 87.6 

Prince George's 91.9 92 . 6 



Percent and Index of Attendance in Elementary Schools 



47 



TABLE 17 

An Index of School Attendance in County Elementary Schools,* White and 
Colored, for School Year Ending June 30, 1947 





Percent of 


Rank 


IN Percent of 


County 
















Attend- 


Late 


With- 


Attend- 


Late 


With- 




ancef 


Entrants! 


drawals" 


ance! 


Entrants! 


drawals° 



White Schools 



County Average 


91.8 


.3 




8 








Prince George's 


QQ n 
yo . u 


1 

. X 




D 








Frederick 


91.7 






5 


14 
6 


2 


3 


Allegany 


92.9 


.2 




6 


9 


7 


Caroline 


93.3 




1 





4 


1 


18 


Queen Anne's 


92.4 


.3 




1 


10 


13 


1 


Talbot... 


93.6 


.2 


1 





2 


7 


17 


Dorchester 


93.5 


.2 




9 


3 


8 


16 


Washington 


92.5 


.3 




7 


9 


12 


8 


Baltimore 


92.0 


.2 




6 


12 


11 


6 


Wicomico 


92.7 


.1 


1 


5 


8 


4 


22 


Garrett 


89.8 






7 


22 


3 


9 


Kent 


93.9 


.4 


1 





1 


17 


19 


Somerset 


92.9 


.6 




7 


7 


21 


10 


Carroll 


92.1 


.3 




8 


11 


15 


13 


Calvert 


91.6 


.6 




4 


15 


22 


2 


Howard. 


89.9 


.3 




5 


21 


14 


4 


Worcester... 


91.8 


.1 


1 


5 


13 


6 


23 


Anne Arundel 


90.7 


.5 




7 


17 


19 


11 


Montgomery. 


90.5 


.2 


1 


1 


19 


10 


21 


Charles 


91.3 


.4 


1 





16 


16 


20 


Harford... 


90.3 


.6 




7 


20 


20 


12 


St. Mary's....- 


90.6 


1.1 




8 


18 


23 


14 


Cecil 


89.8 


.5 




8 


23 


18 


15 



Colored Schools 



County Average 


89.1 


1.8 


1 


1 








Queen Anne's 


95.8 


.2 






1 


2 


1 


Allegany 


92.8 


.7 




7 


3 


8 


4 


Washington.. 


89.7 


.6 






9 


5 


2 


Kent 


91.7 


.7 




7 


5 


9 


6 


Frederick 


86.7 






3 


17 


1 


3 


Caroline 


92.0 


2.1 




7 


4 


17 


5 


Prince George's 


91.0 


.8 


1 





8 


10 


10 


Somerset 


89.5 


.2 


1 


4 


11 


3 


16 


Harford 


88.9 


.9 




9 


13 


11 


7 


Dorchester... 


91.6 


.9 


1 





7 


13 


12 


Wicomico 


91.6 


.7 


1 


9 


6 


7 


21 


Talbot 


93.7 


2.0 


1 


7 


2 


16 


19 


Carroll 


87.4 


.4 


1 


6 


15 


4 


18 


Anne Arundel 


89.5 


2.9 




9 


10 


20 


8 


Baltimore 


88.7 


1.2 




9 


14 


15 


9 


Montgomery 


89.3 


2.4 


1 





12 


18 


11 


Cecil 


86.8 


1.1 


1 




16 


14 


13 


Worcester 


84.4 


.6 


1 


4 


22 


6 


15 


Howard 


84.9 


.9 


1 


4 


20 


12 


17 


St. Mary's 


85.7 


2.5 


1 


1 


18 


19 


14 


Charles 


84.5 


5.2 




8 


21 


21 


20 


Calvert 


85.3 


5.6 


1 


9 


19 


22 


22 



* Excludes elementary schools of State Teachers Colleges. 

t For percent of attendance by counties arranged alphabetically see Table IX, page 276. 

t Late entrance for employment, indifference, or neglect. The county having the smallest per- 
centage of late entrants is ranked first. 

° Withdrawals for causes other than removal, transfer, commitment to institutions, or death. 
The county having the smallest percentage of withdrawals is ranked first. 



48 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 18 

Percent of Attendance in Maryland High Schools for Year Ending June 1923 

1946, and 1947 



County 



White High Schools 



1923 


1946 


1947 


91.9 


91 


4 


92 


5 


92.3 


93 


3 


94 


6 


91.4 


93 


7 


94 


3 


94.8 


92 


5 


93 


5 


91.2 


92 





93 


4 


88.7 


92 




93 


3 


92.4 


92 


6 


93 


2 


91.5 


92 


3 


93 


2 


91.7 


91 





93 





91.3 


91 


8 


92 


8 


89.9 


91 


5 


92 


8 


91.8 


90 


7 


92 


7 


91.2 


90 


6 


92 


4 


88.9 


90 


9 


92 


4 


93.5 


90 





92 


3 


90.2 


91 


5 


92 


2 


93.2 


90 


7 


92 


2 


88,7 


91 


9 


92 


1 


91.9 


92 


3 


92 





92.1 


90 


2 


91 


4 


93.1 


90 


8 


91 


1 


86.8 


89 





90 


9 


92.0 


89 


5 


90 


6 


90.2 


90 


8 


90 


1 


91.5 


91 


6 


92 


5 


91.6 


91 


4 


92 


5 



County 



Colored High Schools 



1923 



1946 



County Average 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Allegany 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Worcester 

Baltimore 

Howard 

Prince George's 

Harford 

Montgomery 

Calvert 

Kent 

Talbot 

Charles 

Queen Anne's 

Anne Arundel.... 

Washington 

St. Mary's 

Cecil 

Garrett 

Baltimore City*. 

Total State 



County Average 



Allegany 

Kent 

Talbot 

Dorchester 

Somerset 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Frederick- 

Baltimore 

Harford 

Calvert 

Queen Anne's 

Prince George's. 

Carroll 

Charles. 

Howard 

Anne Arundel ... 

Cecil 

Worcester 

Montgomery 

Caroline 

St. Mary's 



Baltimore City* 
Total State 



89.3 

93.5 
86.3 
87.3 
87.4 



90.5 
90.5 



88.4 
88.9 



85.6 



90 


2 


90 


8 


93 


9 


95 


3 


94 





94 


6 


89 


2 


93 


1 


93 


2 


93 





89 


3 


92 


6 


90 


3 


92 


3 


92 


1 


92 


1 


92 


1 


92 





91 


5 


91 


9 


91 


8 


91 


8 


89 


1 


91 


3 


89 


9 


91 


3 


92 





91 


1 


91 


7 


90 





88 


3 


90 





86 


9 


89 


5 


88 


9 


89 


3 


88 


7 


89 


3 


89 


2 


89 


2 


87 


7 


88 


3 


86 





88 


2 


89 


4 


87 


5 



90.2 
90.2 



For attendance in 1947, for counties arranged alphabetically, see Table IX, page 276. 
* Includes pupils in vocational schools. 



Percent of High School Attendance; County Boys and Girls by Grade 49 



CHART 2 

Number of Boys and Girls Enrolled by Grades in Maryland County Public Schools, 
Year Ending June 30, 1947 



Total 
19U6 

COLORED 191i7 



lass 

I 2.oo"ol U351 

3689 




JMBBl 



303k 
I lA&Sl 30U0 

2716 
\ASZ\ 2807 

2521 
2505 

818 

1,0 ool 1823 

1590 
I <.5i| 1186 

"Tto^ 1178 



hoi 



1198 
1178 

803 
1021 

36 
20 



Total 
19U6 

Grade 19U7 



19u7 mH Boys I I Gi rl 3 

WHITE 




\'^.S5^ 28U63 ^ , 1U8352 Tnss 
Grand 

K.S'^T 29500 Total 152613 1^.218 



Enrollment excluding withdrawals for removal, transfer and death, and including enrollment in 
elementary schools of State Teachers Colleges. 
* Includes enrollment in junior first grade, 
t Includes enrollment in elementary and junior high schools. 

" Reduction in 1947 under 1946 is explained by organization of junior high schools augmenting 
grade 8. 

t Includes 13 white boys and 12 white girls who were post-graduates in 1946; also 43 white boys and 
20 white girls who were post-graduates in 1947. 



50 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Grand 
Total 
White 


147,846 
*152,114 


meocooxi-ii.ocorjeoeoooai00x«oo;'>£>'^i-Ht- 

t-co^uOTi<xO'^«D-^-<*coeo-Hoca>-rt'Ti<.-irHc-^Tj< 

CO CO so eo__ o CO CO ^ CO o_ x__ ic eo CO t> 

■»f o CD r-Tco'cD -<^coco x'-'fco CO r-Tic c-^i-3"^co coco so'co 

* -St 


69,086 
43.157 
1,221 
13,151 
9,694 
1,863 


o 
o 

CO 

CO 
CO 

* 


< 
a 


Total 
High 


51,922 
54,886 


050iC05'-i^'rj<X'-i-«*sO-*Oi.OCOC5XCOO^CDO'^.-H 

oxai-H-^XLOcii-o^t-^xsot-co—ii^icD — -Hoo 
^ ■>* Oi CO CO t> '-'^'H^^ incooicomt-xoi-Hcs 
coeo^x co^" ^'co'^'cj in lO iCt-T 


X : ■ 
o 

CO 

42 


613,151 
9,694 
1,863 


OS 

in 
oT 
t- 


ILS IN Y 


-I-AI 


CO CO 
C5«D 


t~CDCOt-r)<ift3i^^^t>XOino>XXXO-HO'-lT»< 

oocoiOiouosocoocoos-^-^OrHCDOt-'-isoiccom 

XlOCO rHSOC-Ji-HCOlOTHCOr-li-HCDC-i-l "f— —1 -H UO CO <-( 

(— H— i — 1— -)— 1— -1^ H — 1— i— t— )— 


2,798 


2,798 


10,490 


lOOL PUF 


III 


8,393 
8,846 


i0i-it-O-^S0i-0T}<-<i<-«J'mOCDi.0S0'^XOC^3iCDO'-H 
t>C0Ot>Xt>O'HC0XC0C5C0O^^. -HCTiX'^Ca'-^CCC- 

xco-^ <-! CO eo ^ CO lO CO C0 1-1 rH CD o th .-i cd co <-h 


3,112 


3,112 


11.958 


High Sci 


l-H 


10,117 
8,043 


coooiocD-^i-HTfos :cot>i.oOTjHcvqi.ot-coeot^t-m 
xcomt-ocomt^-^ ixt-^m-^cDcoo-^oeoi-ox 
os'-ico^^ co-^eo^co ;m'*coi-hx.-hi-h,-hth,-hx >h 


3,577 




3,577 


11,620 


1 
S 

O 
» 

m 
o 


Jr. 9 
or I 


9,303 
6,613 


eoeomeo :x ;coeot> :x ; ooco :t- 
O'hxo ;i-h icocoso ;eo ;xxo> ;-<jt ; ic-oi 
i-K_t>eOi-H CD : : : ; : as CO 


4,449 


4,242 
207 




11,062 


Jr. 8 


6,372 
11,667 


C0050 :xt>coxt-'^ocDomxo5-^^cDococoso 
co^eo lOoscD'^oxL.ot-eo'^cDCDcO'-icDasi-i-^a; 
^xa> ;ca->!'cO'-HCOcoeo-^co o so^^i-h i-h rn c__eo i-h 


4,083 


4,083 


15,750 


Z 


Jr. 7 


10,745 
12,025 


co-Hcoc50i-*t-a>t^xi-oicaiOXsoeooi.oeox x 
THoxrHxc-oi^'^x-H^coiocDcoiocooai'-H :a5 

CO t> SO^rH i-H m so CO CO CO ^ CO i-^rfrn co i-l o .-^ 

rH co" rH,-H 


4,770 


4,770 


16,795 




Total 
Ele- 
mpiitaryj 


COC^l 

Ol co_^ 
* 


cDeo t- --1 1~ o l-H -n* oi o CD o X ^ o eo o o t> CO xt-^ 
;DTi<^eooouo-*'-HCOt>oi.oxocoeoCM."OCDCO-^ t-ioc<i 
in t> co^t- -^oc cD_-<i^x__'-H CO o^x^^o; c eo^^'-'^as '^.'^..^ 
x'tDt-" r-Tco'co'^-^'r-ric eo'eo^" o'tht-T .-^^'t-Tco'iH -rPco^ 

* * 


i ; 
: ; 


CD 

o 

CD 

* 






2,427 
1.507 


ox ; ; ; ; : :t>-^xo ; cd : co :mco :t>rH 
corf ; ; ; ; : ;co^t-'-H ; x : ic : th ; o eo 
co;;:;;:'-*co^: : :coeo 






1,507 


Grade 


so 


13,715 
13,672 


cDt-xoT^oeococoo^xcomcocoaimasOiccoeo 
o: ^ai050t>coot>^^coi>'-H<j;cot'--^xxiot-,-H 
i-Hcs-^ couOTf cocoxrf incoi-HrHco_'-i,-i,-HrHO_eoco 

rH CO tHtH 


5,113 
5,113 




18,785 


^JTABY School Pupils in 




13,817 
14,530 


xco-^t-^osoit-coeoi-Hincot-'-ieoc-cO'-Hint-oa 
eoooi-Hi-Hxoeoxcoicoioeocs05XTj<ooxo>co 
so^o cD_^rH comTi<cocox->*ioeo»H 50 1> th co co os co co 

rHi-Tco" ^y-^ 


5,253 
5,253 




19,783 




,~i CO 

,-1 
50 O 


os-Hutxcsc-. i.ocoococoa50t>oxxo'*'>i<'^-^co coco 

eorj<t>0'*oO'*oiCDOiC:xeoxoxincT5'-Hir-t>o 

CO o^i> 1-H CO CD CQ CO X T)< in CO rH eo_^x .-H T--I .-H CO o eo CO 

rHr-TcO i-Ti-H rH inio 




20,659 


CO 


15,071 
15,940 


i-Hi>eosoxLox-<#t>eoc5'-Hineocot-xt-rHCO'*'-it- rHrH 
X eo i> CO rH -5i< Ti< o CO 05 eo rH t> CO CO X in rH a> CD o in coco 

e0rHOrHC0C0'<tC<ie0XrJ<C0C0rHin05r^rHC0i-lOrJ<C0 'I'-l 
l-TrHSO" rH^rH rH CD-CO" 




22,101 


)P White Elemei 


CO 


16,296 
15,935 


eot>oxinco(7:coeor}<ccC5-<s<coco'^xa;aicDt>05CD oioi 
osomeort<eorHint-coocct--<3<inoxuoxcoa;05co coco 

rH O rH CO CO CO CO X in CO CO rH m OrH rH rH rH r-J^ so CO WSO 
rHrHCO rHrH rH COCO* 




22,264 




16,400 
17,200 


ouoajxcocorHincoxt--^r)<xocooc5t-05COCO(M coco 
corj<coinTj<-^incoeocDxcDoit~t>rtxxcoco60inso coco 
eocoeorHCOco-<i<coeoX'*t-corHt~rHT-irHCOCOrH-:i'co coco 

rHi-Teo" rHCo' rH t-"c- 




24,422 


a 


Junior 
1 


eo 


: : : :t>-^ : oi ; CD : OS : : : m tx : : rn c£ 
o ;t>cD ;o ; 'rn :co : lecrj 
CO ; : ; : :rH irH ; ; : : ; ; 


: : 




cs 

CO 

; t> 


iz; 


Kin- 
der- 
garten 


1,245 
1,387 


; :x :eo ; :CD ::: : 
: ; ;co^ ; ; ; ; ; ; 


4,464 
4,464 


5.851 




Special 
Classes 


1,327 
1,106 


rfrH 'XCDCO ; ; ; ;cD ;os : ; i-^-'i't-r- 
Cico ; leocoeo :rH : :rH ;rH ; :,-iCDrH-q 

CO ; ; ; ; : ; ; : ; ; ; in 


■1 COCOrH ; 

n 05t>M : 

rHOS(^J ; 
rf COrH 


5;299 



















li 
















5 ^ 

5 t 

5 1 

— 


i 


"c 




I 


%\ 


a 


t5 

O 


t- 




1 


T. 


9 I 










C 


O&hOw 



OJ o c 

%s il % 



S § u c c «J 



^- « § g - 



oi so in 



Eh 



o 



>i<MeoS 



0) bil 



5 



c « 2 ^ 

TO - t- 
CSCO O 

CO C 01 

=^ ._ 

c 

■■^^ c 2 3 S 
g rt cx gir; 

xx^^-O o_ 

§73 O 
ctf O 



r> -tJ m -k;^ -iJ CJ 



White and Colored Public School Enrollment by Year 



51 



c J a 

z < S 

<< E- O 

ttt o J 



^3 



05 Tj< 

as eg 
oc 1^ 
CO t> 



OO'MTjiO(Nt--t-in«5iX>O00i0OCCOC0C<l^b- 



:oct>e«5 
: t- cx; -"t 



X O i-H '-'5 



.-H : 05 



^xx ;iMeo^ :t>oic :xio :500>X(N'-im 

XX (N^ ^ ■ ..-((M '-I'-i 



O O-J rH rH ; ; 



CO 

CO t> 



xooa!ica5cc'<*CT;X'^t--^'-i«oxoec-^<Ma5C<i 
-^.-H-^(r'«or:t^^'Na5i';^Ti<Tj<c<ixa>.-ixc^'i<x 
^ X o c^a (M Tj<^o_ic«o lo in o_Tj< co o> ^ ox 



CO t> 

O «D 



«DO Xt>^-^Tj<cgx-Hai!0^'HOiOi--5!r:^r-iO'-iiOX -^-^ 

oioj — ^r-it~ojT)'im<jc-c!05Xt>oi--2o-*t>ec'*co m^j 



0505 ^^01t>^0>r-C-0«Oint~05T)<T}<^XXcCX05X ■rJ<T)< 
"-I'M iM 05 T-H CO tr- CO CO O CO 05 O 0> -t ^ 0> CC "-H eg ^ KI OO 



inc- »-H'Mec^05-^int-c<iXLO-<to50>c«OLOT}<,-(cgect- xx 

»HX (M!NiCTj<XCC00'-l'*;DOC-XO505«5t-e0^(NT}<u-5 t-t> 



oio «oo5t>xoooii-oioino5cat-ot>x< 
t>-ri< cgt-iot-oiiceoiomooixt-oi.ox' 

CO«r> TfTl<»H C^y-i^ (MLC. 



I tH eg CC «C rH rH 

-O CO 

1-1 rH rH eg OJ 



05X t-igrHCO«OC<Ii-OXC005(N'^'^'^T)<uOiOOOOCCM 

-Hco (M'^t>C50nooo;t~rHuooo5C5XX'^c>'^Trt>(N — ii-i 

OCg tnOl-H cgrHrHrHrH (NO —(-I— I — IrH t>t- 



«o X o 



OSS 



T3 



(U O C OS 



5 s|l i s 



2.-^ o 



•-be "Si's:—' 

is 3.2.2 « 
S £ « c c « — 



52 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 3 

Non-Promotions by Grades in County Elementary Schools^ for Year 
Ending June 30, 1947* 



Percent Boys 



COLORH) 




Grade 
tl 

2 

3 

U 

5 

6 

7 



Special 
Classes 



{ I Percent Girls 



WHITE 



Boys 
Girls 
6h9 

hOl 

187 [HI 



210 

lOU 



179 
95 

1$U 
90 

U2 
10 

7 
h 

69 
23 



* Excludes kindergarten classes and pupils in elementary schools at the State Teachers Colleges. 
Withdrawals for reasons other than removal, transfer and death are included, 
t Includes junior first grade. 

TABLE 21 — Number and Percent of Non- Promotions in First Grade* 
in Maryland County White and Colored Schools, 1947 



County 



White Schools 
First Grade Non-Promotions 



Number 



Boys 



Girls 



Percent 



Boys 



Girls 



County 



Colored Schools 
First Grade Non-Promotions 



Number 



Boys 



Girls 



Percent 



Boys 



Girls 



Total Counties: 

1945 

1946 

1947 

Queen Anne's.... 

Frederick 

Worcester 

Carroll 

Allegany 

Washington 

Cecil 

Baltimore 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Prince George's 

Howard 

Dorchester 

Montgomery 

Kent 

Charles 

Garrett 

Caroline 

St, Mary's 

Calvert 

Harford 

Anne Arundel... 
Talbot 



1,230 
979 
649 



711 
584 
401 



18 



12.8 
10.7 
6.9 



5.1 
6.6 
6.8 
7.0 
8.7 
7.8 
9.0 
10.1 
10.1 
10.4 
9.9 
12.8 
6.0 
13.2 
14.7 
14.4 



8.5 
7.2 
4.7 



1.2 
1.5 
0.6 
0.8 
3.0 
1.6 
3.1 
3.3 
3.4 
4.9 
4.0 
5.9 
6.3 
5.1 
7.9 
8.5 
9.9 
7.4 
17.1 
10.1 
11.1 
11.5 



Total Counties: 

1945 

1946 

1947 



.Queen Anne's 

Worcester 

Allegany 

Frederick 

Cecil 

Howard 

Kent 

Carroll 

Somerset 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Caroline 

Dorchester 

Harford 

Anne Arundel ... 
Prince George's. 

St. Mary's 

Montgomery 

Talbot 

Baltimore 

Charles 

Calvert 



561 
452 
425 



372 
301 
244 



25.4 
20.9 
18.2 



1.1 



5.8 
5.6 
6.1 
8.5 
9.5 
9.3 
19.0 
15.2 
10.4 
16.3 
13.6 
20.0 
22.4 
14.7 
22.3 
18.9 
25.0 
27.9 
32.1 



18.7 
15.3 
12.3 



2.9 
6.3 



3.2 
4.0 
2.1 
3.2 
3.5 



3.8 
10.4 

7.1 
14.1 
14.9 
13.6 
23.1 
15.8 
21.2 
14.6 
16.7 
28.7 



* Excludes pupils in first grade of elementary schools of State teachers colleges, but includes pupils 
in junior first grade. 



NoN Promotions by Grade and County 



53 



CHART 4 

Number and Percent of County White Elementary School Pupils through Grade 8 

Not Promoted :t 1947 





Nunber 
Boys 


191*7 
Girls 


Total 
Percent 
191*6 
191*7 


Total &nd 
Co. Average 


200U 


1025 


3.2 


Fred. 


8 


10 


0.1; 
O.li 


Wore. 


7 


1* 


1.9 
0.8 


Baltc* 


166 


99 


7.7 
1.5 


Wash. 


78 


1*2 


U 


Carr. 


52 


31 


3.U 
2.2 


Q. A. 


16 


9 


6.2 
2.2 


Pr. G. 


173 


87 


1*.2 
2.3 


Cecil 


U9 


13 


3.0 
2.3 


All.* 


11*7 


68 




Kent 


18 


9 


3.8 
2.7 


Sen. 


30 


16 


2.9 
3.7 


Mont. 


211i 


123 


1*.8 
3.9 


Carr. 


100 


51 


li 


Dor. 


60 


29 


u 


Charles 


53 


19 




St. II. 


31 


17 


n 


Caro. 


1*8 


21* 


n 


Harf. 


137 


71* 


8.8 
5.1* 


Wic* 


120 


1*6 




A.A. 


295 


169 


7.2 
6.9 


Tal. 


59 


25 


5.6 
7.0 


Calv. 


28 


21* 


5.6 
7.1 


How. 


115 


36 


7.7 
8.2 



191*7 K Percent Boj's 191* 7| jPercent Girls 




m 
m 



t Excludes pupils in kindergarten, but includes those in junior first grade and special classes. In- 
cludes withdrawals for reasons other than removal, transfer and death. 

* Excludes pupils in elementary school classes at the State Teachers Colleges. 



54 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 5 

Number and Percent of County Colored Elementary School Pupils through Grade 8 

Not Promoted :t 1947 



Total oTW 
Co. Avera 



Q. A. 

Wore. 

Fred. 

Wash. 

All. 

Cecil 

Kent 

Kow. 

Carr . 

Harf . 

Dor. 

mc. 

SOQ. . 

Caro. 
Mont. 
Talb. 
P. G."' 
Balto. 
A. A.' 
St. U. 
Chas. 
Calv. 



Total 

Number, 1914? Percent 

iyl6 

Boy3 Girls 



1297 



Percent Boys 



19[i7 I I Percent Girls 



154? 




t Includes pupils in junior first grade and special classes who are considered not ready for advance- 
ment. Also includes withdrawals for reasons other than removal, transfer and death. 
* Excludes pupils in elementary school at Bowie State Teachers College. 



NoN Promotions by County and Cause 55 
TABLE 22 



Causes for Non-Promotion of County White Elementary Pupils Not Promoted 
by Year, 1932 to 1947, and by County for Year Ending June 30, 1947 









Percent of 


Pupils 


Not Promoted by Cause 




Year 
County 


Total 
Not 
Promoted 


All Causes 


Unfortunate Homo 
Conditions and 
Lack of Interest 


Personal Illness 


Mental Incapacity 


to 

^ ^ 
rJ C O 

lis 


Transfer from 
Another School 


14 Years or Over, 
Employed 


1| 


93 
& 

• m 
3 
S3 

o 



By Year 



1932 


15,251 


14.3 


5.4 


1 


8 


2.7 


1 


2 


.8 


.7 


.3 


1 


4 


1933 


16,727 


15.5 


5.8 


1 


5 


3.1 


1 


3 


.8 


.7 


2 


2 


1 


1934 


17,818 


16.6 


5.8 


2 


4 


3.3 


1 


5 


.9 


.6 


.2 


1 


9 


1935 


14,709 


13.7 


4.7 


1 


9 


2.5 


1 


3 


.7 


.8 


.1 


1 


7 


1936... 


14,751 


13.8 


4.9 


1 


7 


2.3 


1 


4 


.7 


.8 


.1 


1 


9 


1937 


14,575 


13.7 


5.0 




8 


2.1 


1 


3 


.8 


.9 


.1 


1 


7 


1938... 


12,520 


11.9 


4.5 


1 


4 


1.8 


1 





.7 


.7 


.3 


1 


5 


1939 


11,759 


11.1 


4.6 




2 


1.6 




9 


.7 


. 5 


.2 


1 


4 


1940 


11,057 


10.5 


4.2 






1.6 




9 


.7 


. 5 


.2 


1 


3 


1941* 


10,685 


10.1 


3.8 


i 




1.3 


1 





.6 


.6 


.2 


1 


5 


1942* 


10,287 


9.6 


3.7 


1 




1.1 


1 





.6 


.6 


.2 


1 


3 


1943* 


11,255 


10.3 


3.9 


1 




1.1 


1 


3 


.6 


.6 


.2 


1 


5 


1944* 


10,585 


9.8 


4.0 


1 




1.0 







.5 


. 5 


.2 


1 


5 


1945*.... 


8,083 


7.3 


2.8 




9 


.7 




9 


.3 


.4 


'l 


1 


2 


1946*t 


4,852 


5.0 


1.9 




6 


.5 




4 


.3 


.2 


.1 


1 





1947*t 


3,040 


3.1 


1.2 




5 


.3 




2 


.2 


.1 


.1 




5 



By County, 1947t 



Frederick 


18 


.3 


.1 


.2 






t 








Worcester.. 


11 


.7 


.1 


.4 










.1 




1 


Baltimore 


265 


1.5 


.4 


.3 


X 


t 


.1 


.1 


.1 




5 


Washington 


120 


1.6 


. 5 


.3 


.1 


.2 


.1 




.1 




2 


Carroll 


83 


2.2 


.8 


.3 


. 5 


.3 


.1 


^1 






1 


Queen Anne's 


25 


2.2 


1.6 


.2 


.1 




.2 








1 


Cecil 


62 


2.3 


.7 


.4 


.3 


.3 


.2 




.1 




3 


Prince George's 


260 


2.3 


.9 


.4 


.2 


.1 


.1 


t 


.1 




5 


Allegany 


215 


2.5 


.5 


2 


. 5 


.2 


t 


.1 


X 


1 





Kent 


27 


2.7 


2.0 


A 




.2 




.1 








Montgomery 


344 


3.4 


1.2 


.4 


2 


.3 


.2 




.2 




9 


Somerset 


46 


3.7 


1.9 


6 


^6 


.2 


.2 






2 


Garrett 


151 


4.6 


2.1 


1.7 


.3 


t 


t 


.1 






4 


Dorchester 


89 


4.9 


2.6 


.2 


.9 




.1 


.1 


.1 




9 


Charles 


72 


5.0 


1.2 


.9 


.6 


.4 




.5 


.2 


1 


2 


Caroline 


72 


5.1 


1.2 


.6 


1.1 


.1 


.4 






1 


7 


St. Mary's 


52 


5.2 


1.6 


.8 


.9 


.4 




.4 


1 


1 


Harford 


211 


5.4 


2.7 


.5 


.1 


. 5 


.2 


2 


.1 


1 


1 


Wicomico.. 


166 


6.0 


2.7 


.9 


1.2 




.3 


. 5 


.1 




3 


Anne Arundel 


464 


6.9 


3.3 


.9 


. 7 


.9 


.4 


.1 


.3 




3 


Talbot 


84 


7.0 


2.7 


1.1 


.4 


.3 


.4 


.3 


.1 


1 




Calvert 


52 


7.1 


3.3 


.3 


.1 


. 5 
.9 


1.1 




.1 






Howard 


151 


8.1 


5.0 


.4 


.7 




.1 


2 




4 



* Excludes pupils attending the elementary schools of State teachers colleges. 

t Prior to 1946 grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools were included with elementary school figures. 
Due to 1945 legislation (Chapters 558 and 597), junior high school pupils are included with the high 
school data. 

X Less than . 1 percent. 



56 J 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 23 

Causes for Non-Promotions of County Colored Elementary Pupils* by Year, 1932 
to 1947, and by County for Year Ending June 30, 1947 



Year 
County 



By Year 



1932 


4,952 


18.7 


6.6 


2.4 


1.7 


4.3 


.3 


1 


2 


.8 


1 


4 


1933 


5,266 


19.8 


7.8 


1.8 


1.8 


4.4 


.4 




.1 


.8 


1 


7 


1934 


5,310 


20.8 


7.3 


2.2 


1.7 


6.2 


.5 


1 


2 


.5 


1 


2 


1935 


4,797 


19.2 


6.4 


2.1 


1.9 


5.0 


.5 


1 


3 


.5 




5 


1936 


4,660 


19.1 


6.7 


2.0 


1.4 


5.3 


.6 


1 


3 


.5 




3 


1937 


4,350 


18.3 


6.6 


2.4 


1.4 


4.4 


.5 


1 


3 


.4 


1 


3 


1938 


4,484 


19.2 


7.9 


1.7 


1.3 


4.0 


.7 


1 


2 


.7 


1 


7 


1939 


4,303 


18.5 


8.5 


1.6 


1.4 


3.7 


.5 




9 


.6 


1 


3 


1940 


4,832 


16.6 


7.7 


1.5 


.9 


3.2 


.8 


1 





.6 




9 


1941 


3,663 


16.1 


7.0 


1.8 


.9 


3.0 


.7 


1 





.5 


1 


2 


1942 


3,645 


16.2 


7.5 


1.4 


.9 


3.1 


.6 




9 


.4 




4 


1943 


3,891 


17.6 


7.5 


1.5 


.9 


4.4 


. 5 


1 





.3 


1 


5 


1944 


3,788 


17.2 


7.3 


1.7 


.9 


4.2 


.7 




8 


.5 


1 


1 


1945 


3,464 


15.2 


6.8 


1.2 


.8 


3.8 


.6 




7 


.4 




9 


1946t 


2,491 


11.6 


4.5 


1.2 


.5 


3.1 






4 


.3 


1 





1947t 


2,043 


9.4 


4.1 


1.0 


.5 


2.3 


.3 




3 


.3 




6 



By County 1947t 



Queen Anne's 


1 


.2 








.2 










Worcester 


13 


1.4 


.8 


.2 








.2 


.2 




Frederick 


11 


1.9 


1.5 


.2 












.2 


Washington 


5 


2.9 


1.2 




1.7 








Allegany 


5 


3.4 


1.3 


.7 




.7 


.7 








Cecil 


10 


3.7 


1.5 






1.1 




.4 


.7 


Kent 


20 


3.7 


2.6 


.7 






.4 






Howard 


21 


3.8 


1.6 


.4 




.5 


.2 


.4 


.5 


.2 


Carroll 


11 


4.6 


1.7 


1.3 




.4 
.3 


.4 


.8 








42 


6.4 


2.7 


2.4 


.5 






.5 




Dorchester 


70 


6.9 


4.5 


.2 


.4 


.4 


.3 


.2 


.2 


.7 


Wicomico 


75 


7.1 


3.6 


1.1 


1.1 




.4 


.9 






Somerset 


71 


7.8 


3.0 


.7 


1.2 


2.1 


.1 


.5 




.2 


Caroline 


47 


8.3 
8.6 


5.5 


.7 


1.4 




.2 




.5 


Montgomery 


124 


3.3 


1.1 




3.1 


.3 


.3 


t 
.9 


.4 


Talbot 


66 


9.7 


5.6 


.7 




1.2 


.3 




1.0 


Prince George's 


312 


10.3 


5.0 


1.5 


.7 


1.7 


.7 


.1 


.2 


.4 


Baltimore 


278 


11.0 


3.7 


.9 




2.2 


.6 


.3 


.5 


2.8 


Anne Arundel 


320 


11.3 


5.1 


.9 


.7 


3.7 


.2 


.2 


.3 


.2 


St. Mary's 


98 


14.2 


6.0 


1.4 




4.9 


.3 


.3 


.4 


.9 


Charles 


226 


15.6 


5.7 


1.3 


1.2 


5.5 


.2 


.6 


.5 


.6 


Calvert 


217 


21.0 


8.7 


1.1 


.6 


8.4 


.3 


1.0 


.5 


.4 















* Excludes pupils at elementary school, Bowie State Teachers College. 

t Prior to 1946 grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools were included with elementary school figures. 
Due to 1945 legislation, junior high school pupils are included with the high school data. 
t Less than . 1 percent. 



Total 
Not 
Promoted 



Percent of Pupils Not Promoted by Cause 





late Home 
ons and 
Interest 
















s 


Illness 


ncapacil 


At- 

:e Not 
Sickness 


from 
r School 


or Over 
ed 


Late Entrance ar 
Early Withdraw 


luses 


All Caus 


Unfortui 
Conditi 
Lack of 


Personal 


Mental ] 


Irregular 
tendan( 
Due to 


Transfer 
Anothei 


14 Years 
Employ 


Other Ci 



Colored Non-Promotions; State Program for Physically Handicapped 57 



TABLE 24 — Program for Education of Physically Handicapped Children in 
Maryland Financed with State Funds in 1946-47 





Home Teaching 


Transportation to 
Regular Classes 


Instruction in 
Special Schools 
Inside or Outside 
County 


Total 


r^rHTKTY 


Pupils 


Teach- 
ers 


State 
Aid 


Puoil 


State 
Aid 


Pupils 


State 
Aid 


Pupils 


State 
Aid 


Total Counties.. 


145 


101 


$10,932.28 


29 


$2,459.64 


bcdm 
tl26 


abdm 
$3,462.63 


300 


ih 

$17,453.49 


Allegany 


9 


6 


754.60 


14 


1,498.80 
71.70 
275!oi 


ctl6 
+21 




39 


2,253.40 


Anne Arundel.... 
Baltimore 


10 

32 


10 
12 


472.80 
2,372.41 


2 
4 


a850.00 
62,465.13 


33 
71 


1,394.50 
t4,997.35 


Calvert 






Caroline 




1 


71.06 






+4 




5 


71.06 




10 

3 


7 


895.32 








14 


895.32 


Cecil 


3 


isoieo 






t3 
tl 
t2 
t2 
t7 
t4 
t5 
tl 
ct6 
dt9 




6 


180.60 


Charles 


2 


2 


C48.00 








3 


e48.00 


Dorchester 


2 


2 


180.00 








4 


180.00 


Frederick 


2 


2 


324.12 


"i 


21.60 




5 


345.72 


Garrett 


3 


3 


64.02 


3 


/486.50 




13 


/■55O.52 


Harford 








4 




Howard 


"6 


"8 


315.03 








11 


g315.03 


Kent 


3 


1 


88.08 








4 


88.08 


Montgomery 


19 


8 


1,677.60 


2 


12.03 




27 


1,689.63 


Prince George's 

QuGGn. AniiG s 

St. Mary's 


21 
1 


14 
1 


1,587.03 
102.00 


3 


94.00 


dl42.50 


33 
1 


/i2,537.67 
ikl02.00 








"tl 




1 


Somerset 


"4 


4 


400.20 








4 


1400.20 

270.72 


Talbot 


2 


2 


270.72 










2 


Washington 


4 


4 


354.30 






t2 
mt3 




6 


354.30 


Wicomico 


5 


5 


411.99 






tmS.OO 


8 


416.99 


Worcester 


6 


6 


A:362.40 






6 


fc362.40 


Baltimore City.. 


74 




3,234.49 


4 


1,014.55 


ct91 


t5,860.00 


169 


10,109.04 


Entire State 


219 




$14,166.77 


33 


$3,474.19 


bcdn 
217 


$9,322.63 


469 


ihn 
$27,562.53 



t The salaries of two Baltimore City teachers who instructed 109 county and 90 City children 
while they received treatment at Baltimore City hospital schools were paid by the State. The dagger 
indicates children taught in individual counties and Baltimore City. 

a Payment toward travel and salary of teacher of speech defects who worked with children at 
two centers. 

b Includes payment of $1,000 to Children's Rehabilitation Institute at Cockeysville for one child 
each from Allegany, Montgomery and Baltimore City taught during 1945-46 and 1946-47. Also in- 
cludes tuition payments to Baltimore City for seven Baltimore County children taught at the William 
S. Baer School for Handicapped Children, as well as payments to a teacher at Mt. Wilson Sanatorium 
who taught five Baltimore County children. 

c Includes one child taught at Rehabilitation Institute in 1945-46 and 1946-47. 

d Includes tuition payments for two children taught at the Washington, D. C. School for Handi- 
capped children. 

e Excludes $45.50 not requisitioned paid from county funds. 

/ Excludes $24.54 for insurance on vehicles paid from county funds. 

g Excludes $6.60 paid from county funds and $7.60 due for 1945-46, but expended in 1946-47. 

h Includes $699.46 aid due in 1945-46 not paid until 1946-47 and $14.68 for books purchased in 
1946-47 which are not showTi in preceding columns. 

i A deduction of $115.20 has been made for an extra payment made in 1945-46 in error. This is not 
reflected in the preceding columns. 

k Excludes $146.70 paid from county funds for one child for whom State aid was not allowed. 

m Includes $5.00 for taking one child to a hospital clinic. 

n Excludes $5,592 for salary of D. W. Zimmerman, Supervisor; $1,559.40 for Dr. Breitstein's 
service and expenses at clinics; $80 for printing cards for reporting on handicapped children; $206.07 
for staff travel to clinics which with the amounts above account for the total appropriation of $35,000. 



58 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department op Education 



TABLE 25 

Special Classes for Retarded Children in Counties, 1946-1947 



County 


White 


Colored 


Number 

of 
Classes 


Enroll- 
ment 


Average 
Enroll- 
ment Per 
Class 


Number 

of 
Classes 


Enroll- 
ment 


Average 
Enroll- 
ment Per 
Class 


1940-1941 . 


61 
63 
60 
64 
77 
73 
a53 

2 
2 
t2 
2 

a°23 
1 
3 


1,275 
1,345 
1,358 
1,457 
1,787 
1,492 
1,122 

294 
+21 
38 
36 
32 
14 
16 
19 
16 
14 
564 
17 
41 


20.9 
21.3 
22.6 
22.7 
23.2 
20.4 
21.2 

22.6 
121.0 
19.0 
18.0 
16.0 
14.0 
16.0 
19.0 
16.0 
14.0 
24.5 
17.0 
13.7 


3 
3 
2 
3 
2 
2 
1 


75 
71 
51 
51 
44 
36 
20 


25.0 
23.7 
25.5 
17.0 
22.0 
18.0 
20.0 


1941-1942 


1942-1943 


1943-1944 


1944-1945 


1945-1946 _ 


1946-1947 _ 


Allegany 


Anne Arundel 








Caroline 








Carroll ... 








Cecil 








Dorchester... 








Kent ... 








Prince George's 








Somerset 








Talbot 








Washington 








Wicomico 




20 


20.0 


Worcester 











a Junior high school classes considered as special classes in several years preceding were absorbed 
in the regular junior high school organization. 
* Seven of these were in one school, 
t One school had two classes. 
t Enrollment of speech correction class excluded. 

° Six schools each had one class, five each had two classes, one had three classes, and one had 
four classes. 

Opportunity Classes for Retarded Children 

Upon request for advice regarding age arrangements desirable for 
opportunity groups, Mr. Zimmerman, Supervisor of Special Education, 
suggested the following: 

Ages for 
Schools Having 
One Two 
Opportunity Classes for Group Groups 



Primary Groups 8-11 incl. 8-10 incl. 

Intermediate Groups 10-13 incl. 11-13 incl. 



County Classes for Retarded; Baltimore City Classes for Handicapped 59 







TABLE 


26 








Baltimore City Special 


Classes 


and Highwood School for 


Semester Ending 






June 30, 1947 


















Promoted or 












Making Satisfactory 




Number 




Average 


Percent 


Improvement* 


Kind of Class 


of 


Net Roll 


Net Roll 


of Attend- 








Classes 






ance 
















Number 


Percentt 




Physically 


Handicapped White 


Pupils 






Total and Average 


20 


336 


342 


98 


294 


87.5 


Orthopedic 


8 


170 


170 


90 


139 


81.8 


Sight Conservation 


3 


44 


46 


83 


43 


97.7 


Hearing Conservation 


3 


46 


47 


91 


40 


87.0 


Deaf 


3 


22 


23 


87 


19 


86.4 


MixedJ 


3 


54 


56 


89 


53 


98.1 



Physically Handicapped Colored Pupils 



Total and Average 


7 


114 




113 


89 


99 


86 


8 


Orthopedic 


4 


61 




61 


90 


51 


83 


6 


Sight Conservation 


2 


36 




35 


89 


33 


91 


7 


Deaf 


1 


17 




17 


82 


15 


88 


2 




Socially Handicapped 


White 


Pupils 








Highwood School 


1 


61 


60 


76 
















Mentau.,y 


Handicapped 


White 


Pupils 








Total and Average 


107 


2,449 




2,395 


83 


2,093 


85 


5 


Opportunity.... 


70 


1,636 




1,616 


86 


1,410 


86 


2 


Special Center 


1 


22 




21 


87 


22 


100 





Shop Center. 


36 


791 




758 


77 


661 


83 


6 




Mentally 


Handicapped 


Colored 


Pupils 








Total and Average 


96 


2,199 




2,068 


76 


1,696 


77 


1 


Opportunity 


53 


1,278 




1,263 


77 


1,018 


79 


7 


Special Center 


2 


38 




39 


74 


27 


71 


1 


Shop Center.... 


41 


883 




766 


74 


651 


73 





* Making satisfactory improvement applies to the opportunity group, 
t Percent of net roll of classes involved. 

t Junior high school class consisting of pupils with the following deficiencies: orthopedic, 28; 
sight, 7; hearing, 3; cardiac, 20. 

NOTE: Training in lip reading was supplied during the year to 303 pupils in the regular grades 
in addition to those who were members of the classes for the deaf and hard of hearing. 
There were 672 pupils in the regular grades who received training in speech correction and 
163 pupils in the regular grades who were members of nutrition classes. 



60 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 26A— Graduates of Maryland County High Schools by Color-Sex- Year, 
1928-1947, and by Color-Sex-County and Baltimore City for Year Ending 

June 30, 1947 





White 


Colored 


Year 
















Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


By Year 


1928 


2,993 


1,142 


1,851 


117 


42 


75 


1929 


3,395 


1,339 


2,056 


121 


50 


71 


1930 


3,785 


1,534 


2,251 


169 


63 


106 


1931 


4,204 


1,713 


2,491 


192 


77 


115 


1932 


4,397 


1,772 


2,625 


288 


124 


164 


1933 


4,921 


2,114 


2,807 


297 


117 


180 


1934 


5,122 


2,220 


2,902 


318 


128 


190 


1935 


4,839 


2,052 


2,787 


322 


142 


180 


1936 


5,322 


2,283 


3,039 


t374 


tl64 


t210 


1937 


5,472 


2,361 


3,111 


t392 


tl61 


t231 


1938 


5,930 


2,566 


3,364 


t510 


t202 


t308 


1939 


6,306 


2,750 


3,556 


t576 


t234 


1342 


1940 


6,813 


3,017 


3,796 


t673 


t245 


t428 


1941 


7,038 


3,168 


3,870 


t708 


t249 


t459 


1942 


7,176 


3,165 


4,011 


t659 


t256 


t403 


1943 


6,741 


2,886 


3,855 


t689 


t269 


t420 


1944 


6,550 


2,493 


4,057 


718 


271 


447 


1945 


6,531 


2,545 


3,986 


755 


279 


476 


1946 


6,809 


2,641 


4,168 


740 


268 


472 


1947 


7,443 


3,244 


4,199 


937 


357 


580 



By County, 1947 



Total Counties 


7,443 


3,244 


4,199 


937 


357 


580 


Allegany 


758 


352 


406 


17 


3 


14 


Anne Arundel .. 


487 


208 


279 


125 


55 


70 


Baltimore 


1,228 


*t523 


J705 


66 


20 


46 


Calvert 


53 


20 


33 


23 


11 


12 


Caroline 


144 


66 


78 


38 


t20 


18 


Carroll 


342 


126 


216 


21 


10 


11 


Cecil 


222 


97 


125 


18 


6 


12 


Charles 


115 


44 


71 


45 


14 


31 


Dorchester 


187 


80 


107 


76 


35 


41 


Frederick 


504 


235 


269 


33 


7 


26 


Garrett 


189 


76 


113 








Harford 


310 


129 


181 


33 


14 


19 


Howard 


136 


57 


79 


18 


7 


11 


Kent. 


101 


38 


63 


34 


15 


19 


Montgomery .... 


613 


a269 


a344 


58 


24 


34 


Prince George's 


750 


337 


413 


82 


31 


51 


Queen Anne's.... 


100 


40 


60 


16 


7 


9 


St. Mary's 


77 


30 


47 


27 


11 


16 


Somerset 


109 


$46 


63 


54 


21 


33 


Talbot 


126 


61 


65 


30 


11 


19 


Washington 


528 


249 


279 


9 


1 


8 


Wicomico 


216 


97 


119 


68 


19 


49 


Worcester 


148 


64 


84 


46 


15 


31 


Baltimore City 


1,853 


861 


992 


277 


94 


183 


Total State 


9,296 


4,105 


5,191 


1,214 


451 


763 



t Includes Baltimore County graduates who attended Baltimore City high schools at the expense of 
Baltimore County. 

* Includes 3 veterans who received diplomas. 

t Includes the following third year boys and girls who were graduated: Baltimore County, 3B- 
2G; Caroline, IB; and Somerset, IB. 

a Includes 28 boys and 12 girls who were graduates of 1946 Summer School in Montgomery County. 



High School Graduates; Percent of White Surviving 



61 



CHART 6 



Number Surviving to High School Graduation in 1947 per 100 White County 
Pupils Enrolled in 1939-40 in the Fourth Grade in 11-Year Systems and in the 
Fifth Gradejin 12-Year Systems — Compared with the Previous Year 



Percent Boys 



County 
Tot. and 
Co. Av. 

St. M. 

Kent 

Tal. 

TTor. 

Q. A. 

Chas. 

A. A. 

Mont. 

Caro. 

Cecil 

Carr. 

Har. 

Fred. 

P. G. 

AU. 

Balto. 

Dor. 

■low. 

ffic. 

Cal. 

Wash. 

Scm. 

Garr. 



Miite 
H. S. Grads. 
B G 

}2hh 

U199 
U7 
63 
65 
6h 
60 
71 
279 

78 
125 
216 

181 
269 

hos 

70S 
107 
79 
119 
33 
279 
63 
113 



30 
38 
61 
6h 
hO 
hh 
206 
269 
66 
97 
126 
129 
235 
337 
352 
523 
80 
57 
97 
20 

2U9 
1^6 
76 



Percent 

i9he 



U6.0 
50.9 
16.6 
hS.3 
Sh.U 
53.2 
52.2 
50.7 
50.8 
hQ.h 
51.6 
U6.8 
51.3 
U2.8 
18.9 
hS.h 
Uh.6 

51.5 
38.0 

32.9 
U.l 
39.1 



62.7 
62.1 
60.7 
59.3 
56.9 
56. 
56.5 
56.0 
55.9 
55.1 
53.5 
53 .14 
53.1 
52.0 
51.2 
50.3 
50.0 
U6.1 
142.7 
39.1 
37.3 
35.5 



r-m 
am 



TT77A Increase 19147 over 19^6 
tii3 Decrease 19^7 under 19U6 



Percent Girls 






V//A 












1 54 9 




















The ranking by county is not dependable because of violent fluctuations in populations, especially 
during the War years. 

For number of graduates for individual high schools in 1947, see Table XXII, pages 290-295. 



62 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 7 

Number Surviving to High School Graduation in 1947 per 100 Colored County 
Pupils Enrolled in 1939-40 in the Fourth Grade in 11 -Year Systems and in the 
Fifth Grade in 12-Year Systems — Compared with the Previous Year 



County 

Tot. and 
o. At. 



All. 
C3.ro. 

or. 
ITic. 
Csrr. 

ecil 
lA. A. 

red. 
Kent 
Tal. 
Har. 
Wash. 
SCO. 
Sor. 
How. 
ilont. 
Balto. 
;has. 
P. G. 
>t. M. 

al. 
R- A. 



Colored 
H. S. Grads. 
3 G 

357 



Percent Total 
19U6 19L7 



22.2 
30.8 
32.2 
3h.9 
h2.l 
32.5 
33.3 
21.9 
19.2 
23.1 
21.7 
26.1 
28.6 
26.8 
2U.8 
21.7 
lU.l 
17.2 
25.6 

9.5 
20.6 

9.5 
32.1 



26.9 
77.3 
52.1 
U2.5 
39.1 
33.2 
37.5 
31.3 
29.7 
23.3 
28.3 
27.7 
27.3 
26.1 
26.0 
23.7 
23. li 
22.0 
21.1 
19.9 
13.5 
15.2 
IU.2 



Percent Bo/s } ■ Percent Girls 

Increase 19li7 over 19146 
l>23 Decrease 191*7 under 191j6 



mm 



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The ranking by county is not dependable because of violent fluctuations in populations, especially 
during the "War years. 

For number of graduates for individual high schools in 1947, see Table XXII, pages 290-295. 



Survival to High School Graduation; Entrants to State Teachers 63 

Colleges 



CHART 8 

White Girl Graduates of County Public High Schools Entering Maryland Teachers 
Colleges the Fall Following Graduation: 1939 and 1947 



County- 
County Average 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

Queen Anne' s 

Somerset 

Calvert 

Harford 

Caroline 

Allegany 

Baltimore 

Cecil 

HcTiard 

Dorchester 

Garrett 

Talbot 

Frederick^ 

Prince George' s 

Washington 

St. Mary's 

Uontgonery 

Anne Arundel 

Charles 

Carroll 

Kent 



Number 
1939 1917 



Percent 
19h7 



II48 

8 
11 
h 
h 
2 
10 
h 
20 
3U 
5 
3 
li 
U 
2 
6 
9 
6 
1 
5 
h 
1 
1 




For graduates and entrants to teachers colleges for individual high schools, see Table XXII, pages 
290-295. A 



High School Oradi ati s Entering Teachers Colleges; Occuptions 64 

OF Graduates 



CHART 9 

Colored Girl Graduates of County Public High Schools Entering Maryland 
Teachers College the Fall Following Graduation: 1946 and 1947 



Coxinty 

County Average 

Kent 
Cecil 

Queen Anne's 

Allegany 

Prince George's 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Talbot 

Howard 

St. Mary's 

Caroline 

Harford 

Anne Arundel 

Worcester 

Montgomery 

Dorchester 

Baltimore 

Somerset 

Charles 

Carroll 



Number Percent 
19ij6 191^7 19li7 




For graduates and entrants to Bowie from individual high schools, see Table XXII, pages 290-295. 



High School Graduates Entering Teachers Colleges; Occupations 

OF Graduates 



65 



TABLE 27— Number and Percent of County High School Graduates Who Entered 
State Teachers Colleges September after Graduation 



White 
High 
School 
Graduates 



Boys 



1,713 
1,772 
2,114 
2,220 
2,052 
2,283 
2,361 
2,566 
2,750 
3,017 
3,168 
3,165 
2,887 
2,493 
2,545 
2,641 
3,244 



Girls 



2,491 
2,625 
2,807 
2,902 
2,787 
3,039 
3,111 
3,364 
3,556 
3,796 
3,870 
4,011 
3,854 
4,057 
3,986 
4,168 
4.199 



White Entrants to 
State Teachers Colleges 
Fall Following Graduation 



Number 



Boys 



13 

23 
11 

34 
58 
48 
52 
82 
79 
61 
36 
37 
23 
15 
23 
53 
121 



Girls 



214 
174 
74 



131 
118 
151 
179 
141 
126 
74 
88 
72 
118 
151 
148 



Percent 



Boys 



1.3 
.5 
1.5 
2.8 
2.1 
2.2 
3.2 
2.9 
2.0 
1.1 
1.2 
.8 
1.7 
.9 
2.0 
3.7 



Girls 



8.6 
6.6 
2.6 
3.0 
3.3 
4.3 
3.8 
4.5 
4.9 
3.7 
3.3 
1.8 



Year 



1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 
1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 
1940 
1941 
1942 
1943 
1944 
1945 
1946 
1947 



Colored 
High 
School 
Graduates 



Boys 



77 
124 
117 

128 
142 
tl64 
tl61 
t202 
■\2M 
t245 
t249 
t256 
t270 
271 
279 
268 
357 



Girls 



115 
164 

180 
190 
180 
t210 
t231 
t308 
t342 
t428 
t459 
t403 
t418 
447 
476 
472 
580 



Colored Entrants to 
State Teachers CtUegos 
Fall Following Graduation 



Number 



Boys 



Girls 



20 
28 
17 
26 
15 
16 
30 
38 
21 

t40 
22 

t25 
20 
32 
37 
28 
39 



Percent 



Boys 



18.2 
12.9 
2.6 
4.7 
1.4 
4.9 
3.7 
8.9 
3.0 
3.3 
2.1 



3.0 
4.5 
1.8 
3.0 
3.1 



Girls 



17.4 
17.1 
9.4 
13.7 
8.3 
7.6 
13.0 
12.3 
6.1 
9.3 
5.0 
6.2 
4.8 
7.2 
7.8 
5.9 
6.7 



t Includes residents of Baltimore Coimty who graduated from Baltimore City high schools after five years work 
above grade 7. 

For 1947 graduates and teachers college entrants for individual high schools see Table XXII, pages 290 to 295. 



TABLE 28— Comparison of Number and Percent of County White High School 
Graduates Continuing Education or Staying or Working at Home 
Year Following Graduation, 1926 to 1946 



Graduates 

OF 


Total Number 
of Graduates 


Number 


Percent 


Continuing 
Education 


Staying or 
Working at 
Home, Married 


Continuing 
Education 


Staying or 
Working at 
Home, Married 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


1926 


1,045 


1,574 


507 


856 


88 


323 


48.8 


54.3 


8.5 


20.5 


1927 


1,071 


1,816 


472 


913 


99 


417 


44.1 


50.3 


9.3 


22.9 


1928 


1,142 


1,851 


480 


947 


118 


432 


41.8 


51.2 


10.3 


23.3 


1929 


1,339 


2,056 


527 


1,051 


125 


455 


39.3 


51.3 


9.3 


22.1 


1930 


1,534 


2,251 


542 


1,031 


223 


694 


35.3 


45.8 


21.5 


28.7 


1931 


1,713 


2,491 


574 


953 


361 


994 


33.5 


38.2 


21.2 


39.8 


1932 


1,772 


2,625 


471 


820 


495 


1,321 


26.6 


31.2 


27.9 


50.4 


1933 


2.114 


2,807 


469 


701 


447 


1,453 


22.2 


25.0 


21.1 


51.8 


1934 


2,223 


2,904 


522 


803 


473 


1,348 


23.5 


27.7 


21.2 


46.4 


1935 


2,052 


2,787 


498 


800 


367 


1,172 


24.3 


28.7 


17.9 


42.0 


1936 


2,283 


3,039 


613 


980 


244 


1,036 


26.9 


32.3 


10.7 


34.0 


1937 


2,361 


3.111 


652 


1,078 


354 


1,081 


27.6 


34.7 


15.0 


34.7 


1938 


2,566 


3,364 


745 


1,114 


347 


1,249 


29.0 


33.1 


13.5 


37.1 


1939 


2,750 


3,556 


761 


1,118 


254 


1,133 


27.7 


31.4 


9.2 


31.9 


1940 


3,017 


3,796 


*699 


*1,107 


147 


916 


23.1 


29.1 


4.9 


24.1 


1941 


t3,170 


t3,871 


621 


1,006 


115 


773 


19.6 


26.0 


3 6 


20.0 


1942 


3,144 


3,964 


539 


t832 


24 


540 


17,1 


21.0 


.8 


13.6 


1943 


2,885 


3,846 


313 


953 


8 


434 


10.8 


24.8 


.3 


11 3 


1944 


2,468 


4,043 


338 


1,177 


12 


448 


13 7 


29.1 


.5 


11.1 


1945 


2,547 


3,986 


434 


1,232 


19 


587 


17.0 


30.9 


.7 


14.7 


1946 


2,642 


4,167 


°601 


°1,218 


36 


704 


22.7 


29.3 


1.4 


16.9 



r 



* Includes 10 boys and 2 girls, duplicates who are simultaneously working and continuing thei 
education. 

X Includes 2 boys and 1 girl who received certificates, but did not graduate, 
t Includes two who are simultaneously working and continuing their education. 
° Includes 3 boys and 3 girls, duplicates, who are Bimultanfcusly working and continuing their 
education. 



66 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Occupations of 1946 White High School Graduates 



67 



TABLE 30 — Distribution of White 1946 County Boy and Girl Graduates According to Specific 
Occupations Reported Under Each General Classification in Table 29 



Classification of Workers 



Boys 



Girls 



Total 



Classification op Workers 



Joys 


Girls 


Total 


7 




7 


3 




3 


51 


63 


114 




431 


431 




11 


11 




420 


420 


680 




680 


1 




1 


677 




677 


1 




1 


1 




1 


26 


67 


93 


1 


8 


9 




1 


1 




2 


2 




4 


5 


3 


22 


25 


21 


30 


CI 


41 


2 


43 


10 




10 


31 


2 


do 


124 


126 


250 


14 


8 


22 


4 




4 


8 


30 


38 


5 


2 


7 


3 


2 


5 


3 




3 


15 


2 


17 


7 




7 


3 
62 


82 


3 

144 


33 


14 


4 i 


4 




4 


4 




4 


3 


2 


5 


22 


12 


34 


86 


317 


403 


43 


11 


54 


36 


284 


320 


1 


4 


5 


6 


18 


24 


100 


134 


234 



I Professional and Semi-Pro- 

FESSIONAL 

b Artists (paint?rs, sculptors) 
c Dancers, showman, athletes 

d Draftsmen 

e Laboratory technicians, 

dental, medical 

g Musicians 

h Photographers 

i Proofreaders 

k Recreation workers 

Unclassified 



II Agriculture — Farming. 
a Managers or owners... 

b Foremen 

c Laborers (paid) 

d Laborers (unpaid). 



Ill Proprietors, Managers 

except Farm 

c (6) Retail trade 

Unclassified 



IV Clerical, Sales and 

Kindred Workers , 

b Bookkeepers and payroll 

clerks 

c Cashiers 

d File clerks 

f Messengers and errand boys 

and girls except express 

h Office and calculating 

machine operators 

i Shipping, receiving and 

stock clerks 

j Stenographers, typists, 

secretaries 

1 Telephone operators 

m Tellers (bank) 

p Other clerical and kindred 

workers 

r Hucksters and peddlers 

w Other salesmen and 

saleswomen. 



V Craftsmen, Foremen and 

Kindred Skilled Workers 

a Bakers 

c Butchers 

d Carpenters 

f Electricians 

g Machinists, millwrights, tool 

makers 

h Mechanics, repairmen 

i Painters, paperhangers, 

glaziers 

m Printing craftsmen, except 

compositors and typesetters 
Other craftsmen and kindred 

workers 



V I Operatives and Kindred 

Workers 

a Apprentices, helpers, learners 

b Assembly small parts 

c Attendants: filling stations 
parking lots, airports 

d Chauffeurs, bus, taxi and 

truck drivers, delivery boys 

f Dressmakers and seam- 
stresses (not in factory) 

g Laundry operatives and 
laundresses (except 
private families) 

j Painters, except construction 
and maintenance 



6 

305 
7 
3 

152 
143 



352 

9 
1 

5 

8 
3 
17 
19 
"4 

142 
3 



98 
4 
3 

14 
2 

15 
19 

6 

2 

33 

170 
22 
21 

29 

33 



11 



1,756 



12 

17 

548 
146 
7 

685 
206 



24 

2 
3 

4 
2 
1 

1 

9 

321 
7 
3 

157 
154 



2,108 

40 
8 

101 



15 

34 

567 
146 
11 

827 
3 

347 



104 
4 
3 
14 

2 

15 
19 

6 

3 

38 



239 
22 
21 

29 

33 

4 



n Sailors and deck hands, 
except U. S. Navy 

p Woodworkers 

q Other specified operatives 
and kindred workers 



VII 



Domestic Service Workers 

IN Private Families 

Cooks, laundresses, nurses, 

servants, etc 

Girls married running their 
own homes, not otherwise 
occupied 



VIII Protective Service 

Workers 

a Guards and watchmen 

c Soldiers, sailors, marines, 

coast guard 

d Ushers and doormen 

Unclassified 



IX Service Workers Except 

Domestic and Protective 
a Barbers, beauticians, mani- 
curists, hairdressers 

b Charwomen, janitors, porters 
e Housekeepers, stewards, 
hostesses, except private 

family 

g Practical nurses 

i Waiters, bartenders, wait- 
resses, barmaids 

Other service workers, except 
domestic and protective 



X Laborers, Except Farm and 

Mine 

a Fishermen and oystermen.... 
d Other specified laborers 



VI and X Operatives and Kin- 
dred Workers and Labor- 
ers Not Otherwise Speci- 
fied BY Industry 

6r-10e Manufacturing 

1 Food, drugs and kindred 

products 

3 Rayon manufacturers 

5 Apparel and other fabricated 
textile products 

6 Woodworking, lumber, furni- 
ture and lumber products . 

8 Electrical including radio 

9 Chemicals, petroleum and 
coal products 

11 Rubber products, except foot- 
wear 

14 Iron, steel and not specified 

metal industries 

17 Aircraft and aircraft equip- 
ment 

Unclassified 



6s-10f Non-manufacturing 

1 Roads 

2 Railroads including railroad 

repair shops 

6 Wholesale and retail trade ... 
Unclassified 



Unclassified 

Odd jobs 

Staying home.. 

Death 

Other 



2 I XII Unknown. 



68 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Out of State Colleges Attended by White Graduates 71 



TABLE 34— Names of 0*ut-of-State Colleges Attended During 1946-47 By 1946 
White Graduates of Maryland County Public High Schoolsf 



State and College 



Virginia 

Mary Washington College 

Madison College . .. 

Bridgewater College 

Averett College 

University of Richmond 

Hampden Sydney College 

William and Mary College 

Mary Baldwin College 

Roanoke College... 

University of Virginia 

Virginia Military Institute 

Virginia Polytechnic Institute .... 

Washington and Lee University. 

Lynchburg College 

Marion College 

Others* 

Pennsylvania 

Juniata College 

Temple University 

Pennsylvania State College 

Lebanon Valley College 

Drexel Institute of Technology 

Wilson College 

Franklin and Marshall College 

Gettysburg College .. 

Swarthmore College.. 

University of Pennsylvania 

Carnegie Institute of Tech. 

Linden Hall Junior College 

Penn Hall 

Shippensburg State Teachers Col. 

University of Pittsburgh 

Others*... 

District of Columbia 

American University 

George Washington University .. 

Marjorie Webster Jr. College 

Georgetown Visitation Jun. Col. 

Mount Vernon Junior College ... 

Trinity College 

Wilson Teachers College 

Others* 

West Virginia 

Potomac State College 

Shepherd State Teachers College 

West Virginia Wesley an College 

Greenbrier Junior College 

University of West Virginia 

Others* 

New York 

Cornell University 

Houghton College 

Barnard College 

Syracuse University 

Others* 

Massachusetts 

Eastern Nazarene College 

Mass. Institute of Tech 

Bradford Junior College 

Smith College 

Others* 

North Carolina 

Duke University 

University of North Carolina 

Catawba College 

Others* 



Number of 
White 1946 
Graduates 

from 
Maryland 
Counties 



State and College 



Tennessee 

Bob Jones College 

Maryville College ..... 

King College 

Others* 

Ohio 

Antioch College 

Oberlin College 

Western College 

Others* 

Delaware 

Wesley Junior College 

University of Delaware 

Kings College.. 

Florida 

Rollins College 

Others* 

Indiana 

Purdue University 

Valparaiso College... 

Others* 

Kentucky 

Asbury College 

Others* 

Illinois 

University of Illinois 

Others* 

Kansas 

Maine 

Bates College 

University of Maine 

Missouri 

Stephens College 

Washington University 

New Jersey 

Rutgers University 

Princeton University 

Texas 

California 

Connecticut 

Georgia 

Louisiana 

Louisiana State College 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

New Hampshire 

Colby Junior College 

South Carolina 

Utah 

Brigham Young University 
Vermont 



t For breakdown by county of graduation, see Table 33, page 70. The states listed on that table 
and not included here, are the ones to which only one student went to college. They are the following: 
Alabama, Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Michigan, Rhode Island, Washington, and Wyoming. 

Three students attended foreign colleges. 

* Includes the colleges or universities each of which is attended by one graduate from a Maryland 
County. 



'2 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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White High School Enrollment by Subjects 



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2,961 
1,282 
3,871 
232 
515 
1,207 
871 
321 
568 
1,425 
656 
1,167 
519 
338 

1,756 
2,643 
356 
306 
400 
435 
1,674 
645 
504 


Number of Jr.-Sr. and Sr. 
H.S. Offering Subject 

Percent of Total Enroll- 
ment Enrolled in 
Schools Offering 
Subjects 


1 


22,361 

2,729 
1,118 
3,416 
201 
469 
1,073 
805 
277 
461 
1,279 
'552 
1,075 
509 
286 

1,625 
2,591 
277 
279 
365 
417 
1,567 
567 
423 


i 


Total 
Number 

County 
Average 

Allegany... 
A. Arundel 
Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 
Carroll . 

Cecil 

Charles . . 
Dorchester 
Frederick . 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 
Kent 
Montgo- 
mery 

P. George's 
Q. Anne's .. 
St. Mary's 
Somerset . . 
Talbot . ^ 
Washingt'n 
Wicomico 
Worcester 



4 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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76 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 39— Enrollment* in Each Year of Maryland County High Schools for 
White Pupils by Year, 1927-1947 



Year 


+7 


1 o 


1-9 


II 


III 


IV 


Post- 
Graduates 


Total 


1927 






7,871 
8,487 
8,587 
9,038 
9,777 
9,662 
10,548 
10,629 
11,072 
11,267 


5,363 
5,636 
6,100 
6,292 
6,969 
7,636 
7,658 
8,016 
8,162 
8,749 
8,907 
8,883 
9,332 
10,073 
10,342 
10,440 
10,087 
9,764 
9,842 
10,090 
8,043 


3,856 
4,257 
4,694 
5,080 
5,490 
6,070 
6,720 
6,381 
6,731 
6,927 
7,456 
7,586 
8,062 
8,352 
8,848 
8,804 
8,579 
8,065 
8,201 
8,393 
8,846 


3,067 
3,178 
3,612 
3,981 
4,338 
4,646 
5,207 
5,404 
5,110 
5,526 
5,675 
6,080 
6,478 
7,041 
7,323 
7,515 
7,161 
6,814 
6,783 
6,967 
7,629 




20,157 
21,558 
22,993 
24,417 
26,595 
28,167 
30,302 
30,521 
31,228 
32,596 
33,398 
33,918 
36,134 
37,858 
39,225 
39,316 
38,394 
36,778 
37,154 
51,922 
54,886 


1928 








1929 








1930 






26 
21 
153 
169 
91 
153 
127 
93 
113 
198 
186 
158 
61 
24 
11 
14 
25 
63 


1931 






1932 






1933 






1934 






1935 






1936 






1937 






11,267 
11,256 
12,064 
12,206 
12,554 
12,496 
12,543 
12,124 
12,314 
9,305 
6,613 


1938 






1939 






1940 






1941 






1942 






1943 






1944 






1945 






1946 


10,745 
12,025 


6,397 
11,667 


1947 





For enrollment of individual high schools, see Table XXII, pages 290 to 295. 
* Excludes withdrawals for removal, transfer and death. 

t Enrollment in grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools in three counties not reported prior to 1946, 
the first year junior high schools were established in all counties. 



TABLE 40 — White Pupils Enrolled* in Various English Courses in Maryland 
County High Schools for the Year 1946-47 









English 








Jour- 


Public 


Dra- 




Basic 


















nal- 


Speak- 


ma- 


Radio 


Lan- 


County 
















ism 


ing 


tics 




guage 




7t 


8t 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 










Total 1945-46 


10,745 


6,389 


9,528 


10,241 


8,658 


7,107 


66 


385 


208 


115 


30 


480 


1946-47. 


12,719 


11,796 


5,917 


8,189 


9,116 


7,703 


104 


422 


183 


231 


49 


617 


Allegany 


1,211 


1,126 


1,131 


1,019 


939 


786 




86 


33 








Anne Arundel 


701 


819 


724 


140 


641 


512 


14 












Baltimore 


2,382 


1,929 


338 


1,674 


1,449 


1,284 




157 


31 








Calvert 


119 




104 


69 


70 


57 














Caroline 


189 


214 




220 


189 


153 


h 












Carroll 


574 


500 


37 


451 


385 


355 


31 


40 




53 






Cecil 


398 


360 


9 


363 


312 


234 




31 




17 






Charles 


219 


148 


22 


166 


122 


121 














Dorchester 


246 


206 


23 


258 


231 


196 


28 












Frederick 


688 


684 


639 




588 


518 














Garrett. 


115 


350 




288 


227 


197 














Harford 


416 


477 


43 


475 


414 


318 














Howard 


229 


228 




224 


169 


141 














Kent 


119 


125 




154 


105 


104 




18 


20 








Montgomery 


1,168 


1,069 


985 


859 


692 


603 




65 


46 


143 




617 


Prince George's 


2.044 


1,408 


543 


191 


1,043 


766 






53 


18 






Queen Anne's 


153 


134 




124 


96 


106 














St. Mary's 


130 


111 


45 


107 


81 


78 














Somerset 


230 


186 




148 


142 


110 














Talbot 


193 


190 




180 


127 


133 










49 




Washington 


997 


995 


977 


834 


655 


553 




25 








Wicomico 




343 


297 


53 


264 


222 


20 












Worcester 


198 


194 




192 


175 


156 















* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, or comnitmant to an institution, 
t Includes pupils taking Core as shown by school in Table XXIII, pages 296 to 302. 



/ 



White High School Enrollment by Year and by 
Various English and Social Studies Courses 



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White High School Pupils Taking Various Branches 
OF Science and Mathematics 



79 



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< < PQ U U U O U Q a E K S O* c« c/: E- ^ 1^ ^ 



80 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 44 — White Pupils Enrolled* in the Foreign Languages in the Maryland 
County High Schools for Years Ending June 30, 1928 to 1947 





Latin 


French 


Spanish 


German 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


rJoys 


Girls 


1928 


2,494 
2,271 
2,338 
2,534 
2,559 
2,421 
2,460 
2,272 
2,106 
2,141 
2,115 
2,249 
2,115 
1,965 
1,856 
1,755 
1,767 
1,825 
1,721 
1,412 


3,510 
3,475 
3,446 
3,684 
3,683 
3,713 
3,746 
3,409 
3,208 
3,218 
3,155 
3,276 
3,328 
3,325 
3,032 
2,845 
2,927 
2,986 
2,629 
2,227 


1,420 
1,656 
1,567 
1,598 
1,762 
1,989 
1,850 
1,601 
1,604 
1,589 
1,545 
1,547 
1,468 
1,409 
1,168 
875 
719 
877 
915 
903 


2,690 
2,751 
2,713 
2,786 
2,967 
3,237 
3,149 
2,966 
2,872 
2,617 
2,664 
2,663 
2,594 
2,457 
2,197 
1,852 
1,652 
1,645 
1,738 
1,652 


19 
34 
46 
22 
53 
46 
30 
36 
36 
36 
34 
25 
33 
58 
163 
296 
384 
452 
446 
526 


10 
26 
57 
13 
26 
26 
28 
52 
48 
29 
20 
29 
48 
59 
194 
460 
736 
762 
743 
712 






1929 






1930 






1 QQ1 






1932 






1933 






1934 






1935 






1936 






1937 


10 
27 
17 

5 


3 
10 

5 
5 


1938 


1939 


1940 


1941 


1942 






1943 






1944 






1945 






1946t 






1947t 













TABLE 45 — White Pupils Enrolled* in Industrial Work, Agriculture, and Home 
Economics in Maryland County High Schools for Years 1928 to 1947 



Year Ending 
June 30 


Industrial 


Agriculture 


Home Economics 


Arts 


Education 


Boys 


General 


Vocational 


1928 


5,341 


39 


948 


7,797 


587 


1929 


5,528 


69 


929 


8,079 


516 


1930 


5,549 


201 


931 


7,690 


543 


1931 


6,107 


368 


1,100 


7,753 


566 


1932 


6,041 


418 


1 264 


7,461 


770 


1933 


6,380 


520 


1,260 


7,823 


720 


1934 


6,536 


410 


1,278 


7,908 


780 


1935 


6,873 


403 


1,389 


8,065 


l.MO 


1936 


6,928 


772 


1,482 


7,259 


1, 30 


1937 


7,489 


521 


1,644 


8,184 


1,''24 


1938 


7,844 


578 


1,833 


8,105 


1,793 


1939 


8,318 


842 


2,049 


8,333 


2,613 


1940 


9,415 


892 


2,344 


8,903 


2,920 


1941 


10,196 


992 


2,355 


9,389 


3,287 


1942 


10,522 


1,100 


2,291 


9,850 


3,603 


1943 


10,731 


1,244 


2,192 


9,674 


3,518 


1944 


8,904 


1,083 


2,014 


9,776 


2,888 


1945 


8,813 


1,072 


1,511 


9,689 


2,841 


1946t 


12,964 


1,134 


1,779 


14,093 


2,664 


1947t 


14,090 


1,227 


t2,110 


14,833 


2,261 



TABLE 4&— White Pupils Enrolled* in Music, Art, and Physical Education in 
Maryland County High Schools for Years Ending June 30, 1933 to 1947 





Music 


Art 


Physical 


Education 


Year Ending 














June 30 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


rirls 


1933 


7,714 


9,128 


741 


737 


4,722 


4,387 


1934 


7,465 


8,865 


529 


541 


4,601 


4,572 


1935 


7,461 


8,840 


537 


538 


4,813 


4,699 


1936 


7,526 


9,134 


418 


571 


5,413 


5,182 


1937 


7,579 


9,422 


535 


594 


5,483 


5,276 


1938 


7,333 


9,519 


910 


1,159 


5,793 


5,917 


1939 


7,840 


9,967 


1,534 


1,984 


6,935 


6,934 


1940 


7,978 


10,585 


1,836 


2,254 


8,216 


8,168 


1941 


8,635 


11,524 


2,105 


2,472 


9,226 


9,322 


1942 


8,652 


12,064 


2,536 


3,072 


10,534 


11,016 


1943 


8,011 


11,335 


1,919 


2,407 


12,063 


13,277 


1944 


7,743 


11,362 


1,888 


2,298 


12,501 


14,695 


1945 


7,654 


11,217 


1,782 


2,199 


12,507 


14,457 


1946t 


15,304 


18,981 


7,104 


7,564 


20,211 


21,212 


1947t 


16,777 


20.114 


8,745 


8,623 


22,517 


22,585 



* Excluding duplicates and withdrawals for removal, transfer, death, or commitment, 
t Includes duplicates, if any, and enrollment from junior high school classes (7, 8, 7-8) in addition 
to last four years as previously reported. J Includes 25 girls. 

For 1947 enrollment in individual high schools see Table XXIII, pages 296 to 302. 



White High School Pupils Taking Languages, Practical Arts, 
Vocational Subjects, Music, Art and Physical Education 



81 



**** * * * * * 



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82 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Enrollment in Business Subjects; Boys Failing 1 to 4 Subjects 



83 



X 
>» 
c 

9 
O 



Twelfth Grade Boys 


Failing Following 
Number of 
Subjects 


"1 


CO eo w 
o o 


CO 


CO ec c- oi 
o o 


M 


«D w in in 
■ • -<j<eo 




CO c» CO 

• • CO 05 

ocm cor-i 


Total 
IN um- 
ber 
Failing 


10.6 
7.5 

291 
248 


Eleventh Grade Boys 


Failing Following 
Number of 
Subjects 




CO O CO 00 

• • -teo 


CO 


00 1> in 00 

(CUD 


CO 


O CO O «D 

Tf Tj< WW 




12.4 
12.7 

438 
510 


Total 
Num- 
ber 
Failing 


19.4 
19.6 

685 
782 


Tenth Grade Boys 


Failing Following 
Number of 
Subjects 


Tt 


in w o w 

• • t- Tf 


CO 


Tj. 00 CO 00 

• • w«D 

cow w 


CO 


<0<Ji ■<* Oi 

• • eo 
ineo cow 




12.9 
11.3 

601 
427 


Total 
Num- 
ber 
Failing 


21.8 
18.1 

1,017 

685 


Ninth Grade Boys 


Failing Following 
Number of 
Subjects 


Tf 


00 in eo w 
• • CO in 
CO w w 


ec 


00 -<3' in t- 

• • CO 
cow W 


CO 


in in w 00 
• ■ o w 
•<i<eo cow 




10.2 
9.3 

458 
309 


Total 
Num- 
ber 
Failing 


20.3 
15.7 

907 
525 


Eighth Grade Boys* 


Failing Following 
Number of 
Subjects 




t- 00 o CO 
OS o 

cow W 


eo 


OS CO ^ OS 

OS CO 
coco W 


CO 


t-eo X w 
• • 00 OS 
coco w 




OS CO OS 
CO OS 

«D in CO CO 


Total 
Num- 
ber 
Failing 


15.2 
12.6 

496 
721 


Seventh Grade Boys* 


Failing Following 
Number of 
Subjects 


Tl< 


wos <ooo 
eo' w WW 


eo 


CO in in w 
• ■ CO OS 

CO w w 


CO 


in CO in 
■ • coeo 

CO CO WW 




w Tf mm 

• • CO w 
T}< CO CO CO 


Total 
Num- 
ber 
Failing 


12.0 
9.0 

650 
559 


County 


County Average 1946 
1947 

Total Number....l946 
1947 



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1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



211 

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County 


Total Number 
1947 


County Aver- 
age 1947 .... 


Allegany 

Anne Arundel .. 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 


Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick .. 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 
Kent 

Montgomery 
Pr. George's 
Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wiromico 

Worcester 



86 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 52 

Number of County White Teachers Distributed by Subjects Taught in Jr., Jr.-Sr. 
and Sr. High Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1947 



Subjects 



English 


314 




Mathematics 


241 


3 


Core* 


113 


2 


Social Studies.- 


268 


2 


Science 


222 


3 


Latin 


33 


1 


French 


27 


8 


Spanish 


10 


8 


Physical Education 


152 


2 


Home Economics 


140 


9 


Business and Distrib- 






utive Education .... 


131 


9 


Industrial Work 


116 


9 


Music -. 


89 


5 


Art 


49 


4 


Agriculture 


22 


7 


Driving Training 






Administration and 






Supervision 


103 


7 


Library 


60 


6 


Guidance. 


42 


2 



Total. 



Number of Teachers 
on Full-time Basis 
Distributed by Time 
Devoted to Different 
Subjects 



1946 



2,140.8 



1947 



272.2 
261.1 
243.7 
236.2 
230.2 
29.3 
25.8 
11.2 
180.6 
143.9 

137.1 
123.7 
98.3 
60.2 
26.2 
2.2 

119.2 
72.0 
57.1 



2,330.2 



Number of 
High 
Schools 
Offering 
Each 
Subject or 
Service 
1947t 



146 
180 
112 
142 
175 
72 
75 
20 
157 
128 

84 
103 
158 
108 
48 
13 

166 
142 
103 



180 



Number of Cases Where 
Teachers Instruct in 

More Than One School 
Each Week or Term 



Teachers 



Schools 



Number of 

Different 
Individuals 
Teaching 

Each 
Subject 
1947 



* Core includes English and Social Studies; and, in some schools. Science and Art or Music, See 
Table XXIII, pages 296 to 302 for this detail. 

t Includes 27 Elementary Schools in Baltimore County offering Junior High School Curriculum 
in 7th Grade. 



TABLE 53 

Number of County Colored Teachers in Junior, Junior-Senior, and Regular High 
Schools Distributed by Subjects Taught, Year Ending June 30, 1947 



Academic Subjects 


Number of 
Teachers on FuU- 
Time Basis Dis- 
tributed by Time 

Devoted to 
Different Subjects 


Number 
of High 
Schools 
OflFering 
Each 
Subject 
1947 


Special Subjects 


Number of 
Teachers on FuU- 
Time Basis Dis- 
tributed by Time 

Devoted to 
DiflFerent Subjects 


Number 
of High 
Schools 
OflFering 

Each 
Subject 

1947 


1946 


1947 


1946 


1947 


Mathematics 


30.1 


34.4 


36 


Home Economics .. 


32.4 


33.5 


34 


Science 


32.5 


32.5 


34 


Physical Education 


20.3 


27.8 


34 


English 


36.0 


30.9 


32 


Industrial Work .... 


14.4 


16.8 


27 


Core* 


12.1 


28.1 


22 


Music 


11.8 


16.1 


33 


Social Studies 


31.1 


27.5 


33 


Agriculture 


12.9 


12.8 


17 


Latin 


1.3 


1.2 


5 


Art.. 


1.2 


.5 


3 


French 


.2 


.2 


1 


Business Education 


1.0 


1 


Administration and 












Supervision 


11.8 


17.2 


33 










Guidance 


7.9 


11.8 


26 


Total Academic 








Library 


5.1 


6.5 


21 


& Special Subjects 


261.1 


298.8 


36 



* Core includes English and Social Studies; and, in some schools. Science and Art or Music. See 
Table XXIII, pages 296 to 302 for this detail. 



County High School Teachers by Subject; County School Clerks; 87 
Certificates Issued 



TABLE 54— Number of Clerks Employed in County Schools, 1946-47 





Number of Clerks 
















Total 


Average 


County 










Salaries 


Annual 




1945 


-46 


1946 


-47 




Salary 


Total and Average 


50 





79 


3 


$94,902.75 


$1,196.76 


Baltimore 


10 


3 


24 





26,556.15 


1,106.51 




11 


5 


12 





25,378.88 


2,114.91 


Prince George's 


7 


2 


10 





8,888.07 


888.81 


Allegany 


8 





9 





10,779.10 


1,197.68 




3 


5 


6 


2 


3,610.28 










6 





6!702".27 


1,117.05 


Anne Arundel 


3 





3 





5,604.00 


1,868.00 


Frederick 


3 





3 





2,500.00 


833.33 


Worcester 






3 





1,095.00 


365.00 


Harford 




2 




* 


62.00 


Carroll 


1 





1 





1,300.00 


1,300.00 


Dorchester 







1 





576.00 


576.00 


St. Mary's 












1,815.00 


1,815.00 


Garrett 








1 


36.00 


36.00 


Kent 


.3 













* Includes 2 women giving less than .1 time. 



TABLE 55— Number of Certificates Issuedl 1943-4, 1944-5, 1945-6, 1946-7 



Number of Certificates IssuEDf 



Grade of Certificate 


1943-44 


1944-45 


1945-46 


1946-47 


Administration and Supervision: 












Administration and Supervision 

Elementary School Supervision 


4 




3 




7 


5 


5 


6 




9 


Supervision of Special Subjects (High School) .. 


3 


3 


1 




1 


Supervision of Special Subjects (Elem. School) 




2 


2 






Attendance Officer 


3 


1 






3 


Helping Teacher 






3 




1 


County Librarian 










3 


High School: 












Principal 


6 


7 


9 




13 


Academic 


156 


137 


182 




210 


Special 


72 


64 


84 




112 


Vocational 


37 


27 


31 




28 


Nonpublic 


34 


41 


42 




43 


Elementary: 












Principal 


12 


9 


16 




8 


Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education- 


395 


234 


213 




293 


Bachelor of Science in Special Subjects 


3 


2 


1 




5 


Advanced First Grade 


83 


10 


10 




6 


First Grade 


1 


1 








Second Grade 


1 


1 








Nonpublic Bachelor of Science 


2 




i 




i 


Nonpublic Advanced First Grade 


24 


15 








Nonpublic First Grade 


8 


3 


i 






War Emergency Certificates: 












Degree: 












High School Teaching 


144 


140 


166 




202 


Elementary School Teaching 


62 


48 


86 




107 


Non-Degree: 












High School Teaching 


20 


48 


28 




31 


Elementary School Teaching 


114 


166 


137 




162 


Attendance Officers 


2 










Provisional Certificates 


8 


7 


11 




6 


Substitute Teachers* Certificates: 












Degree 






20 




9 


Non-Degree 






82 




67 



t To white and colored teachers. 



88 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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324 
12.7 




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145 
18.7 


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255 
17.9 


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eo^ojeoinxxxt-t>xt>o5t-xo5'^osoosoo 


2,833 
14.7 II 



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t-aic-Tj<uoLn-»j<inx— i-rft-int-pit-o-*— ixc; 


3,470 
13.6 


i-HinrHcocoint~THt-T}<o5Ln--L.ncoo5»-HTj'Tj<xc 
TfcoTj'coc^JcO'-icocococococoi-ico-^Treoeo'^'c; 


1184 
19.9 il 


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cc 


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in 


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c 


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a> 


cocooco-^t-couo i-Hcocot^coM-vmuoi-ncot^ 


coc 
^x 


mrrcocococo^'-i— i—ico'-'co ^^^_t> 


ceo 
m • 


00 :t}<co.-h^ : : ; ; ; : : ^ -h ■ co 

; ; : : ; ; ; ; : ; : : 


CO m 

CO 


osxcocoun.-ixt-i.ocoininin'-iTti.oi.oinc^'xj'os 
co-Hco^^^ ^ ^ m 


CO o; 
CO • 

CO X 




ccr. 

TT • 
^CC 


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••'4 

co'^co-^eo©c-'*-Ht~incoTi<co-HxoiOt-ooj 
in-'jaj-Hco'^xcot-cot-coc-cococot^t-cocct- 

CO — 


2,286 
10.2 


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o «^ 

o-H^Jp;•^J<lncot~xo;o--^^ro■<}■l-':cct-xai -^j 

2 

CO 



92 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 







05«DajONoot>Ni-iecect>ooc<j«o«oioooooooo 


I, 328 

II. 9 


J^ll^ fiJOTUnTRCT 




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Oi-<cgco'^in^t-«a>o>-icgeo'^i«<ot>«os 



Experience of Colored and Causes of Withdrawals of White 
County Teachers 



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CO CO 00 Tj* TJ« Tj* Tj* Tf* Tj* ^ 



94 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



© 

o > 

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Causes of Withdrawal of Colored and Turnover of All County 

Teachers 



95 



TABLE 61 

Number and Percent of Teachers New to Maryland County Schools 





New to Counties 




Number New to County Who W^ere 








Change 
in 

Number 






Experienced 


Year 


Number 


Percent 


of 
Teach- 
ing Posi- 
tions 
October 

to 

October 


In- 
experi- 
enced 


Sub- 
stitutes 


But 

New 

to 
State 


In 

Counties 
But Not 
Teaching 
Preced- 
ing Year 


From 
An- 
other 
County* 


From 
Other 
Type 
School 
in Same 
County* 


Otherf 



White Elementary School Teachers 



1937-38 


203 


7 


4 


-18 


82 


29 


40 


52 


40 


4 




1938-39 


195 


7 


2 


-20 


107 


25 


22 


41 


18 


7 




1939-40 


199 


7 


4 


-17 


106 


26 


18 


49 


18 


4 




1940-41 


205 


7 


6 


-5 


127 


20 


29 


29 


19 


10 




1941-42 


355 


13 


4 


-38 


142 


67 


63 


83 


31 


4 




1942-43 


565 


21 


3 


+ 8 


272 




169 


124 


54 


5 




1943-44 


521 


19 


4 


+ 42 


165 


lb 


215 


131 


49 


5 


47 


1944-45 


553 


20 


1 


+ 67 


176 


88 


190 


99 


46 


10 


29 


1945-46 


621 


22 


7 


-52 


159 


85 


219 


157 


50 


12 


47 


1946-47 


712 


25 


3 


+79 


145 


106 


279 


181 


°57 


15 


41 










White 


High School Teachers 










1937-38 


231 


14 


5 


+92 


129 


15 


66 


21 


25 


10 




1938-39 


220 


13 


2 


+ 82 


144 


23 


37 


16 


25 


13 




1939-40 


242 


13 


9 


+ 72 


156 


31 


38 


17 


19 


13 




1940-41 


262 


14 


7 


+ 45 


173 


12 


44 


33 


20 


7 




1941-42 


421 


22 


6 


+ 73 


233 


26 


111 


51 


25 


30 




1942-43 


587 


32 


2 


-19 


270 




237 


80 


61 


21 




1943-44 


517 


28 


7 


-55 


196 


6 


241 


74 


58 


27 


10 


1944-45 


525 


29 





+ 14 


178 


71 


210 


66 


46 


24 


15 


1945-46 


779 


37 





+286 


240 


51 


302 


186 


50 


116 


22 


1946-47 


763 


33 


4 


+ 193 


298 


53 


278 


131 


t57 


53 


28 


Colored Elementary School Teachers 


1937-38 


47 


7 





-23 


35 


4 


1 


7 


21 






1938-39 


50 


7 


6 


-18 


40 


1 


4 


5 


25 






1939-40 


57 


8 


9 


-17 


42 


1 


3 


11 


22 






1940-41 


41 


6 


5 


-14 


30 


2 


2 


7 


7 






1941-42 


59 


9 


8 


-24 


37 


8 


5 


9 


5 


i' 




1942-43 


87 


14 


7 


-9 


65 




9 


13 


9 






1943-44 


120 


20 


3 


-6 


81 


6 


18 


15 


9 




5 


1944-45 


132 


22 


3 


+ 14 


84 


17 


16 


15 


21 




3 


1945-46 


108 


18 


2 


-10 


48 


13 


20 


27 


18 


1 


4 


1946-47 


104 


17 





+ 18 


45 


8 


19 


32 


6 


5 


1 



Colored High School Teachers 



1937-38 


38 


28.4 


+ 17 


30 




8 




8 






1938-39 


35 


23.6 


+ 14 


27 


1 


5 


2 


8 






1939-40 


35 


20.8 


+ 20 


29 


2 


3 


1 


10 


4 




1940-41 


42 


24.1 


+ 12 


32 


2 


7 


1 


6 






1941-42 


38 


19.9 


+ 11 


27 




7 


4 


3 


4 




1942-43 


65 


32.8 


+ 5 


49 




10 


6 


11 


2 




1943-44 


79 


37.4 


+ 15 


52 


5 


19 


3 


4 


1 


1 


1944-45 


90 


43.1 


+ 7 


49 


9 


28* 


4 


11 






1945-46 


96 


37.0 


+43 


59 


7 


15 


14 


12 


11 




1946-47 


104 


35.3 


+35 


64 


1 


23 


16 


3 


10 


1 



* Excluded from total number and percent new to counties. 

t Withdrawals during year who returned during the same year excluded from total number and percent. 

° One transfer from Baltimore City is included in the total number and percent. 

t Three transfers from Baltimore City are included in the total number and percent. 



96 



1947 Annual Rei ort of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 62 



Number and Percent of White Elementary School Teachers* New to the Schools of Each 
Individual County During the School Year, 1946-47 





New to County 








Number 


New to County or City Who Were 








Change 






















in 








EXI'ERIENCED 












Number 























of 
















County 






Teach- 








In 




From 






Number 


Percent 


ing Posi- 


In- 


Sub- 


But 


Counties 


From 


Other 










tions 


experi- 


stitutes 


New 


or City 


An- 


Type 


Othert 








October 


enced 




to 


But Not 


other 


School 








to 






State 


Teaching 


County 


in Same 










October 








Preced- 




County 


















ing Year 




or City 




County Total and 






















Average 


°t712 


°t25.3 


-|-79 


145 


106 


279 


181 


°57 


tl5 


41 


Queen Anne s 


5 


14.3 


— 2 


1 




2 


2 




1 


1 




11 


14 3 


n 
U 


A 

'k 








5 






Frederick 


21 


14^6 


— 12 


5 


o 
o 


3 


7 


3 


2 


2 


TTcinf 


5 


14.7 


— 2 


1 




1 


q 








Dorchester 


9 


15.0 


-2 


4 


2 


1 


2 




2 


i 


Caroline 


g 


15 8 


+ 1 


1 




1 


4 








Talbot 


6 


15.8 


+ 1 


1 




2 


2 


1 








38 


16.8 


+ 4 


C 

D 


1 


18 


13 






3 


Calvert 


4 


18.2 









o 
e. 


1 








Worcester 


8 


18.2 





1 


1 


2 


3 


1 




2 


Cecil 


14 


18.4 


-1 




2 


6 


5 








Allegany 


48 


19.4 


-f-1 


7 


2 


5 


21 


13 




2 


Carroll 


23 


21.3 





11 


1 




10 








Somerset 


10 


26.3 


+1 


1 


2 


3 


3 


1 






Harford 


30 


26.8 


+2 


9 




17 


4 




3 


1 


Anne Arundel 


53 


29.1 





18 


'7 


20 


6 


2 


4 


5 


Garrett 


31 


29.8 




1 


16 


5 


9 






2 


Prince George's 


104 


32.1 


+ 19 


11 




66 


18 


9 


3 


8 


Baltimore 


168 


35.8 


+45 


41 


46 


36 


38 


67 




4 


Montgomery 


119 


38.6 


+24 


18 


13 


62 


16 


10 




7 


Charles 


17 


40.5 





3 


3 


8 


3 








Howard 


21 


41.2 


-2 




2 


11 


7 


1 








17 


47.2 


+3 


1 


5 


7 


3 


1 




2 


Baltimore City 






















Elementary and 














24 




12 


64 


Occupational 


°tl22 


°t9.3 


+ 13 


58 


7 


a25 


8 


Total State 


°t825 


°t20.0 


+ 92 


203 


113 


a304 


205 


°65 


tl7 


105 



* Teachers in grades 7 and 8 of junior or junior-senior high schools are excluded from this Table. They are in- 
cluded in Table 63, page 97. 

° Teachers who transferred from one county to another are excluded from total for counties as a group and total for 
State in columns one and two, but transfers from county to City and vice versa are included in totals. 

t Transfers from other type of school in same county or City are excluded from all totals in columns one and two. 
X Withdrawals during year who returned before close of the year are excluded from all totals in columns one and two. 
a Includes four who transferred from private schools. 
6 Transfer from Baltimore City. 



Turnover of White County Teachers 



97 



TABLE 63 — Number and Percent of White Junior High, Junior-Senior High, Senior High 
School Teachers New to the Schools of Each Individual County During the School Year, 1946-47 





New to County 




Number New to County or City Who Were 










Change 
























in 








Experienced 














Number 
























of 
















Year 








Teach- 








In 




From 












ing Posi- 


In- 


Sub- 


But 


Counties 


r rom 


Other 






Number 


Percent 


tions 


experi- 


stitutes 




or City 


An- 


Tvnp 


OtherJ 










October 


enced 




to 


t5\iz rvi oi 


other 














to 






State 


Teaching 


County 


in Same 












October 








Preced- 


County 




















mg I ear 








County Total and 
























Average 


*t763 


*t33 




+ 193 


298 


53 


278 


131 


*57 




28 


Kent.. 


5 


19 


2 


+3 


1 


1 


1 


2 




1 




Allegany 

Cecil 


48 


20 


7 


+4 


14 


3 


17 


12 


2 


10 


g 


17 


23 


3 


+ 6 


3 


I 








2 




Washington 


49 


24 




+ 16 


14 


3 


17 


7 


g 


2 


1 


Garrett 


13 


26 





+3 


7 


2 


1 


3 




2 




Wicomico 


14 


26 


4 


+ 1 






7 


2 




1 


2 


Carroll 


36 


32 


1 


+ 6 


12 


3 


9 


5 


"i 








42 


33 


6 


+26 


16 




7 


8 


6 


3 




Somerset 


13 


34 


2 


+ 4 


6 


1 


2 


4 




1 




Caroline 


18 


36 





+ 6 


14 




1 


3 






1 


Montgomery 


97 


36 


3 


+ 13 


25 


4 


38 


23 


-j 


3 


3 


Worcester 


16 


38 


1 


+ 1 


9 


1 


2 


4 






2 




21 


38 


2 




10 


1 


3 


6 


1 


3 




Howard 


19 


38 


8 


+4 


8 


2 


6 


2 


1 


1 




Baltimore 


103 


39 


2 


+ 50 


38 


9 


40 


8 


°8 


2 


3 


Queen Anne's 


13 


41 


9 


+2 


6 




1 


6 








Harford 


44 


42 


7 


+ 15 


25 


2 


7 


6 


"°4 


"2 


i 


Talbot 


16 


43 


2 


+ 4 


10 




4 


1 




1 




Anne Arundel 


63 


44 





+ 10 


19 


"7 


21 


9 


°7 


9 


3 


Prince George's 


122 


47 


3 


+9 


42 


1 


65 


1 


3 


9 


1 


Charles 


22 


56 


4 


+ 1 


2 


2 


9 


8 






1 


Calvert 


10 


62 


5 


+ 3 


3 




7 






1 




St. Mary's 


16 


64 





+ 1 


4 


5 


5 


1 


1 






Baltimore City: 
























Junior High 


69 


11 


8 


-4 


39 


5 


al2 


6 


7 


22 


34 


Senior High 


11 


2 


6 


+20 


7 


2 






1 


22 


15 


Vocational 


11 


9 


6 


+ 8 


7 




1 


3 




3 


2 


Total State 


*t843 


*t24 


7 


+ 217 


351 


60 


0292 


140 


65 


100 


79 



* Teachers who transferred from one county to another are excluded from total for counties as a group and total 
for State in columns one and two, but transfers from county to City and vice versa are included in totals. 

t Transfers from other type of school in same county or City are excluded from all totals in columns one and two. 

t Withdrawals during year who returned before close of the year are excluded from all totals in columns one and 
two. 

° Includes one transfer from Baltimore City. 

a Includes five who transferred from private schools. 



98 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 64 

Maryland Students Who Completed in June, 1946, at Cc lieges Indicated, the 
Education Courses Necessary for Certification Compared With the Number o f 
Graduates Who Took Positions in the County High Schools in 
the Fall of 1946* 



College 



Number of Graduates 



Who Met Requirements for 
Certification from 



Maryland 
Counties 



Baltimore 
City 



Who Received 
Maryland County 
High School 
Positions* 



Western Maryland College 

University of Maryland 

Washington College 

Hood College 

Goucher College 

St. Joseph's College 

Johns Hopkins University. 
College of Notre Dame 



According to reports from colleges. 



TABLE 65 

Number and Percent of Men Teachers in Maryland Counties 





White 


Colored 


Year 


Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 


Ending June 30 


















Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


1941 


232 


8.6 


719 


40.5 


74 


11.9 


83 


47.8 


1942 


190 


7.1 


670 


36.2 


66 


10.9 


89 


46.4 


1943 


139 


5.2 


538 


29.7 


58 


9.7 


81 


42.0 


1944 


108 


4.0 


488 


27.3 


44 


7.5 


72 


34.8 


1945 


104 


3.7 


465 


25.8 


43 


7.1 


78 


36.8 


1946 


107 


3.9 


629 


29.4 


45 


7.5 


88 


33.7 


1947 


125 


4.5 


787 


33.8 


52 


8.6 


103 


34.4 



See Table X, pages 277 to 278. 



Men Teachers; Turnover of Colored County Teachers 



99 



TABLE 66— Number and Percent of Colored Teachers New to the Schools of Each Individual 
County During the School Year, 1946-47 





New to County 




Number New to County or City Who Were 








Change 
in 






Experienced 


County 


Num- 
ber 


Per- 
cent 


Number 
of 

Teach- 
ing 
Positions 

October 
to 

October 


In- 
experi- 
enced 


Sub- 
stitutes 


But 

New 

to 
State 


In 

County 
or City 
But Not 
Teach- 
ing Pre- 
ceding 
Year 


From 
An- 
other 
County 


From 
Other 
Type 
School 
in Same 
County 


Other 
X 



Colored Elementary School Teachers 



County Total 

and Average 


*tl04 


*tl7.0 


+ 18 


45 


8 


19 


32 


*6 


t5 


1 


Allegany 





0.0 



















Harford 


1 


4.8 


-2 






1 






1 




Caroline 


1 


6.7 





1 














Wicomico.- 


2 


6.7 











2 








Montgomery 


3 


7.1 


-1 








3 






1 


St. Mary's - 


2 


9.1 











2 








Cecil - 


1 


11.1 





1 














Charles 


4 


11.4 


-2 


3 






1 








Frederick 


2 


11.8 











2 








Queen Anne's 


2 


11.8 


+ 1 
-1 


1 






1 








Carroll 


1 


14.3 








1 








Talbot 


3 


14.3 


% 


1 




1 


1 




1 




Baltimore 


8 


14.5 


+9 
+ 1 

+ 5 
+2 



3 


3 




2 








Anne Arundel 


16 


19.0 


6 


1 


6 


3 








Prince George's 


21 


22.6 


9 




7 


5 




1 




Dorchester 


7 


24.1 


2 






4 


1 






Washington 




25.0 






1 








Worcester 

Kent 


6 
4 


26.1 
26.7 



+ 1 


4 
1 




1 


1 
1 


2 






Howard 


5 


31.3 


+ 1 
+3 
+ 1 

+ 48 


2 


1 


1 




1 






Calvert 


9 


32.1 


4 


1 


1 


2 


1 






Somerset 


11 


44.0 


7 


2 






1 


2 




Baltimore City 
Elementary and 
Occupational 


62 


8.5 


37 


4 


4 


16 


1 


2 


14 


Total State 


*tl65 


*tl2.3 


+ 66 


82 


12 


23 


48 


7 


7 


15 








Colored High School Teachers 


County Total 
and Average 


*tl04 



*t35.3 
0.0 


+35 



64 




23 


16 


*3 


no 


1 


Allegany 








Washington 





0.0 


+ 1 
















Cecil 


1 


14.3 


+ 1 









1 








Howard 




14.3 








1 








Queen Anne's 


1 


14.3 





1 














Harford 


2 


14.3 


+3 






1 






2 




Dorchester 


3 


21.4 


+ 1 
+2 



1 




1 


1 








Talbot 


3 


21.4 


1 






2 








Caroline 


2 


25.0 


1 




1 










Anne Arundel 


8 
8 


25.8 


+ 4 
+2 
+ 4 


6 




1 


1 




1 




Baltimore 


33.3 


3 


1 


1 


2 


1 






Charles 


6 


33.3 


2 


2 




2 




Prince George's 


12 
3 


38.7 


+ 7 


9 




2 


1 




2 




Kent 


42.9 


+ 1 



2 




1 










Wicomico 


7 


43.8 


3 




3 


1 








Calvert 


4 


50.0 





1 




3 








Carroll 


3 


50.0 





3 














Worcester 


8 


53.3 


+1 

+3 
+2 
+ 1 
+2 

+24 
+2 


7 






1 




2 


1... 


Frederick 


6 


54.5 


3 




1 


2 








Montgomery 


12 


63.2 


8 




3 


1 








Somerset 


11 
6 


64.7 


8 




2 






1 




St. Mary's 


66.7 


4 




2 










Baltimore City 
Junior 


24 


12.7 


16 




2 


3 


3 


5 




Senior 


7 


7.9 


5 


1 


1 


1 


1 


Vocational 


1 


1.9 









1 








Total State 


*tl33 


*t21.3 


+ 61 


85 


2 


26 


20 


*6 


tl6 


2 









* Transfers from one county to another are excluded from total for counties as a group and totals for State in 
columns one and two. t Excluded from all totals i n columns one and two. 

t Withdrawals during year who returned before close of the year are excluded from all totals in columns 1&2. 



151207 



100 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of^ Education 



TABLE 67— County Teachers in Service October, 1946, Who Attended Summer 
Schools, Workshops, and Evening Classes in Spring and Summer, 1948 



County 


Teachers Employed Oct. 1946 

Who Attended Summer 
and Evening Sessions, 1946 


School Attsndei 


Number on 
County 
Staff 


Number 


Percent 


Elem. 


High 


Elem. 


High 


Elem. 


High 



White County Teachers 



Total White a406 



25 
ttt*14 
52 
3 



19 
19 

t7 
3 

tl3 
23 
11 

*14 

to 

tt*59 
50 
1 

t*2 
5 
2 
55 
17 
12 



6404 

28 
14 
tt44 
2 



20 
18 
7 
7 
31 
12 
11 
7 
7 

ttt78 
32 
1 



14.4 

10.1 
7.7 
11.1 
13.6 



17.6 
25.0 
16.7 
5.0 
9.0 
22.1 
9.8 
27.5 



19.2 
15.4 
2.9 
5.6 
13.2 
5.3 
24.3 
22.1 
27.3 



17.6 

12.1 
9.8 
16.7 
12.5 



17.9 
24.7 
17.9 
12.7 
24.8 
24.0 
10.7 
14.3 
26.9 
29.2 
12.4 
3.2 



21.1 



30.5 
13.2 
19.0 



Total. 



University of Maryland 

Columbia University 

Johns Hopkins University 

Western Maryland College 

Western Maryland Worl^hop 

George Washington University .... 
Salisbury State Teachers College .. 
Frostburg State Teachers College 

Frostburg Workshop 

Shepherd State Teachers College . 

University of Delaware 

Pennsylvania State College 

Duke University 

University of Chicago 

Radford College 

Towson State Teachers College ... 

Towson Workshop 

West Virginia University 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Maine ... 

Fairmont State College 

Ohio State University 

67 Others 



Colored County Teachers 



ttl82 


104 


29 


7 


35 


3 


1 


1 


25 





16 


7 


16 


11 


19 





35 


5 


29 


7 


52 


7 


29 


2 


2 


1 


7 


1 


12 


5 


4 


2 


26 


7 


25 





2 


2 


28 


6 


33 


3 


2 


2 


22 


2 


28 


6 


tl3 


6 


37 


1 


33 


3 


8 


8 


27 


6 


57 


1 


6 


2 


35 


3 


18 


2 


2 


7 


9 


5 


50 





5 


4 


31 


3 


57 


1 


6 


3 


40 





42 


9 


tl5 


12 


35 


7 


63 


2 


24 


8 


25 


8 


25 


8 


9 


1 


52 


9 


14 


3 


7 


2 


31 


8 


22 


2 


7 


5 


28 





29 


4 


8 


5 


38 


1 


35 


7 


1 


2 


25 





33 


3 


12 


6 


40 





37 


5 


3 


7 


13 





46 


7 



Total 


184 


104 


Morgan State College 


81 


9 


Hampton Institute 


30 
10 
11 


12 
11 
9 


Temple University 

University of Pennsylvania 


Columbia University 


t6 
11 


13 


Howard University 


6 


Catholic University 


7 


2 


Bowie State Teachers College 

Bowie Workshop 


4 
1 


4 

5 


Boston University 


3 


4 


Virginia State College for Negroes . 
University of Chicago 


2 
1 


5 
5 


New York University 




6 


West Chester State Teachers Col ... 
Storer College 


3 
3 


1 


Indiana State Teachers College 
Pennsylvania State College 


2 
tl 
6 


1 

2 




9 









* Each asterisk denotes one attendance officer, 
t Each dagger denotes one supervisor. 
a Excludes 4 attendance officers and 9 supervisors. 
b Excludes 5 supervisors. 

c Excludes 2 attendance officers and 6 supervisors. 



Summer School Attendance of County Teachers; Pupils 101 
Belonging Per Teacher 



OS -3 



15 
S § 
s 



S a; 

< E 



0) 

c 
s 

QQ 

;z: 

> 



S o 
D 2 

^ 5 

Oh 

c o 
< z 
a < 



O S 
Eh 



s 



o S 

Eh 



00 ; : ; ; :m : -"t in «o ^J oi t> o ec ^ co 



1-1 U5 OJ 00 1-1 CO t- «5 eo < 



na Tj< osj t> o ?D 



I eo 1-1 N 1-1 a o 1 



:O5t-T}<ic«Dcct>-«j'ece0' 



'0'HOX'<4<uo^xicxioiCTj<»-imc^«ceoomi-< t>t- 



iot>M;Di*sC'-io>«oeoeox«)eoc<i' 



i-< O5t>rcc^i.ixot>t-x^ini-tt> 



^J'HXco^^^^J-Hot~m^J 



c- 



e 



00 ^S*^-V-3 



* 9 c • 



M ^- _ 5J 



ass 

.£'5 » 



a; c o 0) 
r: 1' t f-S ^ 



= = c 



II 



CD 

0) i 



o o 



102 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 10 

Average Number of White Pupils Belonging per Teacher and Principal in Public 
Elementary Schools (Grades 1-6, 1-7 or 8): 1945, 1946, 1947 



County 
County Average 

St. Mary's 
Kent 

Dorchester 

Talbot 

Uontganery 

Garrett 

Queen Anne's 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Washington 

Calvert 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Allegany* 

Charles 

Harford 

Prince George's 
Wicomico* 
Anne Arundel 
Caroline 
Howard 
Frederick 
Baltimore* 
Baltimore City 
State Average 




* Excludes elementary schools at State Teachers Colleges. 
For basic data by county see Table XVIII, page 286. 



Pupils Belonging Per White Teacher 



103 



CHART 11 



Average Number of White Pupils Belonging per Teacher and Principal in Public 
Junior, Junior-Senior, Senior, and Regular High Schools: 1945, 1946, 1947 



County 
County Average 

Caroline 

Howard 

Queen Anne's 

Montgomery 

Charles 

Kent 

Somerset 

Harford 

Dorchester 

Carroll 

Talbot 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

Prince George's 

St. Mary's 

Cecil 

Garrett 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel 

Washington 

Allegany 

Calvert 

Baltimore 

Baltimore City 

State Average 



191^5 
23.1 
18.1 
19.3 
18.8 
19.6 
20.1 
18.0 
19.1 
21.3 
21.2 
19.1 
20.1 
19. li 
21.9 
22.9 
19.I4 
22.7 
20.8 
2li.l 
2h.l 
2U.3 
2U.1 
20.5 
32.6 

21. h 
22.7 



19U6 
23.5 

20.1, 
20.8 
19.8 
19.3 
19.6 
18.8 
20.5 
22.1 
21.6 
20.7 
22.3 
21.2 
21.8 
22.6 
21.2 
23.5 
22.3 
25.5 
23.8 
2U.7 
2I4.9 
20. 14 
32.3 



19U7 





m 




For basic data by county see Table XIX, page 287, 



104 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 12 

Average Number of Colored Pupils Belonging per Teacher and Principal in Public 
Elementary Schools (Grades 1-6, 1-7): 1945, 1946, 1947 



County Average 

Queen Anne's 
Cecil 
Karford 
St. Mary's 
Talbot 

Prince George's* 

Anne Ariindel* 

Howard 

:vicomico 

Montgomery 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Dorchester 

Allegany 

Sccnerset 

Calvert 

Kent 

Worcester 

Caroline 

Charles 

Washington 

Baltimore 

Bal -imore City 

Sta;e Average 




* Excludes elementary school at Bowie State Teachers College. 
For basic data by county see Table XX, page 288. 



» 

Pupils Belonging Per Colored Teacher 105 



CHART 13 



Average Number of Colored Pupils Belonging per Teacher and Principal in Public 
Junior, Junior-Senior, and Regular High Schools: 1945, 1945, 1947 



County 
County Average 

Allegany 

Washington 

Charles 

Carroll 

Queen Anne' s 

St. Mary's 

Wicomico 

Talbot 

Somerset 

Frederick 

Caroline 

Kent 

Cecil 

Prince George's 

Dorchester 

Harford 

Baltimore 

Howard 

Worcester 

Montgomery 

Jlnne Arundel 

CalTert 

Baltimore City 
State Average 



19a5 
2U.3 

8.6 
17.5 
2U.5 
21.3 
27.2 
22.6 

25.3 
19.2 
23.9 
29.5 
2U.1 
26.7 
20.2 
19.3 
25.2 
25.5 
2U.6 
25.0 
29.9 
32.2 
25.5 
28.5 

20.2 

23.0 



19li6 
25.5 



1917 




2h. 
29.8 
2I4.3 
26.7 
2h.2 
27.2 
2li.3 
27.6 
27.5 
25.1 

30.9 Ql 

27.3 
28.0 
2U.3 

2U.6 

25.0 




For basic data by county see Table XXI, page 289. 



106 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 69 



Average Number of Pupils Belonging Per County Teacher and Principal 1923-1947 





Average 


Number Belonging Per 


Average Number Belonging Per 




County White Teacher and 


County Colored Teacher and 






Principal in 




Principal in 


Year 
















Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 




Schools* 


Schools 


Schools* 


Schools 


1923 


31 


7 


20 





38 .3 


15.2 


1924.. . 


31 


5 


19 


8 


35 . 9 


14.8 


1925 . 


32 


1 


20 


1 


35 . 7 


16.8 


1926 


32 





20 


3 


34 . 6 


19.0 


1927.. 


32 


3 


20 


4 


34 . 


19 .9 


1928 


32 


8 


21 





33 . 7 


21.5 


1929 


32 


9 


21 


5 


33 . 3 


23 . 1 


1930 . 


33 


6 


21 


6 


33.0 


25.0 


1931 


34 





21 


9 


33.3 


25.2 


1932.. . 


34 


9 


22 


3 


34.0 


25.0 


1933 


36 


2 


24 


4 


34.9 


26.7 


1934.. 


36 


1 


24 


8 


35.0 


26.3 


1935 


36 


1 


24 


7 


34.0 


26.5 


1936 


35 


8 


25 


1 


33.2 


29.8 


1937 


35 


4 


24 


9 


33.3 


30.7 


1938 


35 


2 


24 





33.7 


29.6 


1939 


35 


6 


24 


2 


34.9 


28.0 


1940 


35 


5 


24 


5 


35.3 


27.6 


1941 


35 


8 


24 


1 


35.8 


27.2 


1942 


36 





23 


3 


36.3 


25.5 


1943 


36 


8 


23 





36.3 


25.4 


1944 


36 


5 


22 


9 


36.1 


24.7 


1945 


36 





23 


1 


36.1 


24.3 


1946 


35 


2 


23 


5 


35.7 


25.5 


1947 


34 


6 


22 


8 


35.4 


24.4 



Excludes pupils in elementary schools of State teachers colleges. 



TABLE 70— Average Annual Salary Per County Teacher and Principal 1923-1947 





Average Salary Per County 
White Teacher and 
Principal in 


Average Salary Per County 
Colored Teacher and 
Principal in 


Year 












Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 




Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


1923 


$990 


$1,436 


$513 


$906 


1924 


1,030 


1,477 


532 


835 


1925 


1,057 


1,485 


546 


808 


1926 


1,103 


1,517 


563 


891 


1927 


1,126 


1,534 


586 


908 


1928 


1,155 


1,544 


602 


897 


1929 


1,184 


1,557 


621 


879 


1930 


1,199 


1,550 


635 


874 


1931 


1,217 


1,559 


643 


882 


1932 


1,230 


1,571 


653 


856 


1933 , 


1,231 


1,532 


657 


837 


1934 


1,122 


1,394 


595 


784 


1935 


1,135 


1,398 


602 


790 


1936 


1,202 


1,469 


636 


817 


1937 


1,220 


1,488 


653 


821 


1938 


1,295 


1,587 


745 


905 


1939 


1,314 


1,595 


846 


997 


1940 


1,360 


1,605 


906 


1,018 


1941 


1,387 


1,618 


993 


1,103 


1942 


1,427 


1,639 


1,124 


1,290 


1943 


tl,539 


tl,735 


tl,291 


tl.450 


1944 


tl,805 


tl,997 


Jl,551 


tl,705 


1945 


*1,862 


*2,042 


*1,599 


*1,719 


1946 


2,027 


2,183 


1,737 


1,845 


1947 


2,306 


2,439 


2,002 


2,100 



t Salaries for 1943 include county bonus paid in 12 counties. 

i Salaries for 1944 include county bonus in 22 Counties and State bonus in all Counties. 
* Salaries for 1945 include County and State bonus in all Counties. 



Pupils Belonging and Average Salary Per Teacher 



107 



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108 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 14 

Average Salary per County White and Colored 
Teacher and Principal: 



Public Elementary and High School 
1925—1947 



MOO 

2,300 
2.2.00 
2.100 
2.000 

1.^00 

i.aoo 
1,700 
l.()00 

isoo 
1.400 

1.300 

Uoo 

1.100 
1000 
900 

; 800 

^00 
600 






























— 
















r 






















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/ / 
/ 1 






















/ 






















7// 




















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/ / 




















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I 






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/ 






















t 
/ 






















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/ 

/ 










,- 












/ 

/ / 

— ^ 






















/ / 




















/ 










































/ 

/■ 










/ Co 

/ 












/■ 






















































Co 



































































1925 1927 1931 1333 1535 1537 1W3 iHl l^i5 iHI 



Average Salary Per Principal and Teacher 



109 



CHART 15 

Average Salary per Public School Principal and Teacher: 1945, 1946,-1947 



County Average 


41873 


Montgomery 


2lhS 


Washington 


2031i 


Allegany 


1922 


Baltimore 


2100 


Frederick 


1799 


Kent 


1772 


Carroll 


1793 


Prince George's 


1863 


Wicomico 


lb 72 


Cecil 


177^ 


Queen Anne' s 


1811 


Howard 


1753 


Talbot 


1706 


Dorchester 


1609 


Caroline 


17la 


Garrett 


1739 


Anne Arundel 


1732 


Harford 


1752 


Charles 


1706 


Somerset 


163U 


Worcester 


1620 


Calvert 


1617 


St. Mary's 


1700 


Baltimore City 


2339 


State Average 


2063 



191.6 
J20U8 

2233 
2318 
2131 
2171 
202u WTZl 
19214 PEffl 
2001 
20U3 
20u6 
1905 
1970 UJ£| 
1916 
1338 
131.8 
1859 
1866 
1929 
1923 
1775 
1328 
1336 
179i* 
173U 



BOS 



25UO 
2233 



For basic data by county, see Table XV, page 283, and Table X, page 278. 



110 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 16 

Average Salary per White Public Elementary School Principal and Teacher: 

1945, 1946, 1947 



County 
County Average 




Baltimore City 
State Average 



For basic data by county see Table XVIII, page 285. 



Average Salary Per White Teacher 



111 



CHART 17 

Average Salary per White Public High School Principal and Teacher: 



1947 



County 

County Average 

Montgomery 

Baltimore 

Washington 

Kent 

Allegany 

Frederick 

Wicomico 

Carroll 

Garrett 

Queen Anne' s 

Prince George's 

Howard 

Cecil 

Charles 

Anne Arundel 

Talbot 

Dorchester 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Harford 

Calvert 

Worcester 

St. Maiy's 

Baltimore City 

State Average 



19U7 Average Salary Per 

Prin- Teach- Prin. and 

cipal' er Teacher 

$3666 $23li5 



hS6S 
U091 
U679 
3178 
3850 
376U 
3171 
3623 
3I431 
31^17 
3I466 
3U75 
3321 
3202 
3698 
3332 
30b2 
3155 
311a 
3236 
3500 
3063 
3210 



2598 
2517 
2550 
2li89 
2U9U 
2336 
2303 
22US 
2229 
2209 
2252 
2206 
2180 
2129 
2162 
2163 
2105 
2091 
20li3 
2063 
2031* 
1998 
1817 



Ii2l5 310li 
3768 2599 




For basic data by county see Table XIX, page 286. 



112 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 18 

Average Salary per Colored Public Elementary School Principal and Teacher 

1945, 1946, 1947 



County- 
County Average 

Allegainy 

Montgomery 

Baltimore 

Washington 

Caroline 

Anne Arundel 

Kent 

Queen Anne^s 

Frederick 

Wiccmico 

Frince George's 

Dorchester 

Harford 

Talbot 

Carroll 

Howard 

Cecil 

Somerset 

Charles 

Calvert 

Worcester 

St. Mary's 

Baltimore City 
State Average 



19hS 19J^6 
$1599 $1737 



19la7 




2033 2316 
1835 20U8 



For basic data by county see Table XX, page 288 



Average Salary Per Colored Teacher 113 



CHART 19 

Average Salary per Colored High School Principal and Teacher: 1946 



County 
Co. Av. 

Wash. 

All. 

Mont, 

Balto. 

Cecil 

Fred. 

Carr. 

A. A. 

Caro. 

Q. A. 

Wic. 

Kent 

P. G. 

Dor. 

Harf. 

How. 

Talb. 

Chas. 

Calv. 

Som. 

St. M. 

TYor. 



Balto. 
City 



State 
Average 



19li7 Average Salary Per 

Prin- Teach- Prin. and 
cipal f?r Teacher 




3760 26UI4 
3061 235U 



For basic data by county see Table XXI, page 289. 



114 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 72 

Number of County Elementary Schools Giving Instruction in Grades 1-6 or 1-7(8) Having 
Following Number of Teachers and Principals, School Year 1946-47 



Number 






del 


























>> 


rge's 
















OF 

Teachers 

AND 

Principals 


Total 


Allegany 


Anne Arun 


Baltimore 


Calvert 


Caroline 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charles 


Dorchester 


Frederick 


Garrett 


Harford 


Howard 


Kent 


Montgomei 


Prince Geo 


Queen Ann 


St. Mary's 


Somerset 


Talbot 


Washingtoi 


Wicomico 


Worcester 



County Elementary Schools for White Pupils 



All Schools 


a501 

105 
76 
36 
52 
34 
35 
31 
26 
17 
17 
14 
11 
5 
10 
7 
3 
6 
2 
1 
3 
10 


35 

*o4 
3 
2 
2 
1 
6 
6 
3 
1 


27 

*1 
1 
5 
3 
3 
3 
1 
1 
1 
4 
2 
1 


a42 


6 


9 

*1 
2 
1 


17 

*°3 


17 

4 
t5 
1 
1 


7 
*1 


26 

15 

5 


29 

*o4 
4 
4 
4 
3 
2 
3 
1 
2 


47 

28 
7 
4 
4 


28 

8 
6 


10 

*3 


10 

*2 
4 
2 


35 

3 
3 
3 
2 
2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
3 


44 

°J6 
2 
1 
3 
4 
2 
4 
6 
3 
2 


13 

°5 
t2 
2 
3 


13 

4 

8 


11 

4 

2 


9 

*2 
1 
2 
2 
1 


41 

*5 
10 
2 
9 


15 

2 
3 
1 
3 
1 
1 


10 


1.0- 1.4 


1.5- 2.4 


t2 
2 
5 
3 
2 
4 
2 
4 
4 
1 
4 


2 
1 
2 


t4 
2 
1 


2.5- 3.4 






1 
1 
1 
1 

2 


3.5- 4.4 


2 
2 
3 
2 
1 


1 

4 


1 
2 
1 
1 
1 


2 
3 
3 
3 
1 
1 




1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


4.5- 5.4 


1 






5.5- 6.4 




2 


1 


1 






4 
1 
3 
1 
1 
1 




6.5- 7.4 


1 










1 
1 


7.5- 8.4 




1 




2 












8.5- 9.4 




1 








1 








9.5-10.4 




3 




















1 

3 




10.5-11.4 








1 
1 






1 








1 










1 


11.5-12.4 


1 
1 
2 
1 
1 












1 






3 
2 
1 
3 










12.5-13.4 




















2 
3 
2 
















13.5-14.4 




1 














1 




1 














1 






14.5-15.4 




























1 






15.5-16.4 














1 










1 
















16.5-17.4 




1 








1 












1 


2 




1 












17.5-18.4 










1 






















1 
1 






18.5-19.4 












































19.5-20.4 






1 
6 
























2 
1 
















20 . 5-or over 


1 


1 


































1 













































County Elementary Schools for Colored Pupils 



All Schools 


261 


2 


34 


16 
3 


16 
9 


4 


4 


5 


19 


11 


8 




11 


8 


6 


19 


35 
8 


12 


14 


8 


9 


1 


11 


8 


1.0- 1.4 


97 


1 


*10 




2 


2 


9 


*7 


3 




5 


1 


3 


5 


10 


8 


007 




4 




1.5- 2.4 


95 




14 


8 


4 




1 


2 


8 


1 


4 




4 


6 


1 


9 


15 


4 


5 






4 


5 


2.5- 3.4 


33 


1 


5 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 




1 






1 


1 


1 


3 


9 


1 


2 








2 




3.5- 4.4 


12 


2 




2 


1 














1 


1 




1 


1 


1 




2 


4.5- 5.4 


11 




1 


2 




1 






2 


1 






1 






1 




1 








1 


5.5- 6.4 


5 




1 














1 










1 


1 






1 










6.5- 7.4 


1 


























1 




















7.5- 8.4 


1 






1 










































9.5-10.4 


1 








































1 








11.5-12.4 


3 




1 














1 


























1 




14.5-15.4 


2 






1 
























1 

































































a Includes 27 seventh grades which are housed in elementary schools but offer a junior high school 
curriculum. 

* Includes one school having a two-teacher organization. 
° Includes two schools having a two-teacher organization, 
t Includes one school having a graded organization. 
X Includes two schools having a graded organization. 



Number of White County Elementary Schools and 115 
County One-Teacher Schools 

TABLE 73 

Decrease in Teachers Employed in County One-Teacher Schools,* 1920-1947 



County Elementary School Teachers 



School Year 
Ending 
June 30 


White 


Colored 


Total 


In One-Teacher Schools 


Total 


In One-Teacher Schools 


XT U 

In umber 


Percent 


JN umoer 


Percent 


1920 


2,992 


1171 

1,1 ( 1 


39 


1 


683 


422 


61 


8 


1921 


3,037 


1 1 /to 
1,1457 


37 


8 


694 


408 


58 


8 


1922 


3,054 


1 1 OA 


36 


8 


708 


406 


57 


3 


1923 


3,063 


1 093 


35 


7 


712 


403 


56 


6 


1924. 


3,065 


l!055 


34 


4 


728 


395 


54 


4 


1925 


3,047 


1,005 


33 





721 


397 


55 


1 


1926 


3,067 


956 


31 


2 


728 


394 


54 


1 


1927.. 


3,088 


898 


29 


1 


725 


382 


52 


7 


1928 


3,070 


823 


26 


8 


734 


378 


51 


5 


1929 


3,078 


739 


24 





734 


372 


50 


7 


1930... 


3,050 


663 


21 


7 


733 


363 


49 


5 


1931 


3,049 


586 


19 


2 


739 


353 


47 


7 


1932 


3,022 


489 


16 


2 


727 


344 


47 


3 


1933 


2,954 


407 


13 


8 


718 


334 


46 


5 


1934 


2,947 


377 


12 


8 


708 


331 


46 


7 


1935 


2,941 


365 


12 


4 


714 


318 


44 


5 


1936 


2,949 


342 


11 


6 


709 


309 


43 


6 


1937 


2,972 


324 


10 


9 


697 


293 


42 





1938 


2,965 


289 


9 


7 


677 


271 


40 





1939. 


2,946 


260 


8 


8 


658 


232 


35 


3 


1940 


2,944 


209 


7 


1 


644 


198 


30 


7 


1941 


2,921 


184 


6 


a 


627 


181 


28 


9 


1942 


2,935 


160 


5 


5 


611 


146 


24 





1943 


2,929 


143 


4 


9 


601 


132 


22 





1944 


2,979 


118 


4 





602 


121 


20 


2 


1945 


3,050 


106 


3 


5 


611 


112 


18 


3 


1946 


2,719 


88 


3 


2 


597 


98 


16 


4 


1947 


2,806 


83 


2 


9 


608 


91 


15 






TABLE 74— Number and Percent of Teachers and Pupils in One-Teacher* 
Elementary Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending June 30, 1947 



County 



Total and Average 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Charles 

Worcester 

Allegany „ 

Prince George's .... 

Frederick 

Montgomery 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Talbot 

Kent 

Howard 

Cecil 

Harford 

Queen Anne's 

Somerset 

St.lMary's 

Dorchester 

Garrett 



Schools for White Pitpils 



Teachers in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 



Num- 
ber 



82.8 



1.0 
2.0 
1.0 
3.0 
4.0 
2.0 
1.0 
1.0 
2.0 
4.0 
8.0 
3.0 
4.0 
4.0 
15.0 
27.8 



Per- 
cent 



2.9 



.4 
.6 
.7 
.9 
1.8 
2.6 
2.6 
3.0 
3.9 
5.0 
7.1 
8.3 
10.5 
10.9 
25.0 
27.0 



Pupils in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 



Num- 
ber 



1,793 



24 
47 
20 
75 
98 
51 
14 
17 
61 
116 
218 
62 
75 
95 
284 
536 



Per- 
cent 



1.8 



.4 
.4 
.8 
1.3 
19 
1.1 
1.7 
3.3 
4.3 
5.5 
5.5 
6.1 
9.9 
15.8 
16.4 



County 



Total and Average 

Caroline 

Somerset 

Washington 

Worcester 

Baltimore 

Howard 

Prince George's 

Montgomery 

Wicomico 

Talbot 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel 

Dorchester 

Kent 

Cecil 

Harford 

Allegany 

Charles 

Carroll 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 

Queen Anne's 



Schools for Colored 
Pupils 



Teachers in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 



Num- 


Per- 


Num- 


Per- 


ber 


cent 


ber 


cent 


91.0 


15.0 


2,811 


13.1 


3.0 


5.4 


135 


5.4 


1.0 


6.3 


40 


7.4 


8.0 


8.9 


240 


8.0 


5.0 


11.9 


187 


13.0 


4.0 


13.3 


93 


9.1 


3.0 


14.3 


83 


12.4 


3.0 


17.6 


89 


15.0 


9.0 


19.8 


269 


9.7 


6.0 


20.7 


177 


17.3 


3.0 


20.7 


100 


18.5 


2.0 


22.2 


40 


15.0 


5.0 


23.8 


128 


19.6 


1.0 


24.4 


29 


19.5 


9.0 


25.7 


331 


23,3 


2.0 


28.6 


43 


18.1 


9.0 


32.1 


322 


31.7 


8.0 


36.4 


227 


33.1 


10.0 


58.8 


278 


56.2 



Pupils in 
One-Teacher 
Schools 



* Schools having a one-teacher organization, i.e., grades one to five, six, seven, or eight. 



116 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 75— Size of Teaching Staff in Maryland County High Schools for White 
Pupils, Year Ending June 30, 1947 



Number 

OP 

Teachers 



Grand Total *153 11 10 



15 9 



5844 12 14 325 



County Junior-Senior, Senior and Not Reorganized High Schools 



Total 

2 


121 

3 
4 
5 
4 
7 
8 
7 
5 
6 
8 
5 
7 
9 
5 
3 
2 
3 
2 
2 
2 
1 

1 
1 
1 

3 
1 
2 
2 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

• 1 
1 
1 

1 


8 


4 


7 


1 


5 


g 


7 


3 


6 

1 
1 
1 


6 


5 


g 


4 


4 


7 


IC 


q 


o 


A 

4 


q 
o 


D 


O 
1 

2 
2 


4 
1 


3 


































\ 






4 
















1 














5 
















1 
1 




J 
1 












6 


2 
1 


i 

1 






1 
1 


i 

2 


1 

2 
1 




2 


1 

2 

1 


1 
I 

1 


















7 




















g 






















9 


I 






















10 




2 




1 


J 












11 






i 




1 
1 

1 


2 
1 


2 




1 
















12 


















\ 

1 




13 




1 




2 






I 


\ 












14 
15 


1 


J 

3 


\ 




2 




16 








1 






























17 


























\ 






19 


1 

i 


















1 


i 


i 






I 










20 




1 








1 






















21 






























22 


















1 


i 






23 






































24 


















1 
























26 






























1 
















27 
























1 






















28 














































31 


1 










1 


















1 
1 
1 
















34 


































35 






1 








































36 




































1 




38 


i 












39 




1 
1 










































41 












































42 


























1 


















43 






1 






































46 














































48 




































1 






51 










































53 


1 




1 








































58 










































60 




















































































1 


1 


County Junior High Schools 


Total 

1 : 


*32 

1 

2 
3 
2 
4 
2 
2 
3 

1 

2 

2 
1 

1 

2 

1 

1 


3 


6 


*2 






1 


1 


3 


1 


2 










5 


4 






1 
1 




3 






2 


i 
















3 


i 


1 
1 










1 
1 
































4 


1 






1 


































5 
































6 












1 


1 


1 












1 
















7 


1 
1 


1 
1 
1 

1 


1 
























8 










































9.. 


























1 


















10 








































12 : 












































13 
















1 










1 
1 

1 


















16 


































17 












































19 , 














































25 








































2 
1 






27 










































46 






























1 































































* Excludes 27 schools having seventh grades which are housed in elementary school buildings but 
oflFer a junior high school curriculum. 

For teaching staff in individual high schools, see Table XXII, pages 290 to 295. 



Size of Teaching Staff and Enrollment in White County High Schools 117 



TABLE 76 — Size of Enrollment in Maryland County High Schools for White 
Pupils, Year Ending June 30, 1947 



Average 
Number 
Belongino 


1 All Schools 


Allegany | 


1 Anne Anindel | 


1 Baltimore | 


1 Calvert 1 


1 Caroline | 


1 Carroll 1 


1 Cecil 1 


1 Charles | 


Dorchester | 


V 
0) 


1 Garrett | 


1 Harford | 


1 Howard | 


1 Kent 1 


Montgomery | 


Prince George's | 


Queen Anne's 1 


St. Mary's 1 


1 Somerset ] 


o 
"5 


Washington | 


Wicomico 1 


1 Worcester 1 


Total 


*180 


11 


10 


* 

36 


1 


5 


9 


8 


6 


7 


8 


5 


8 


4 


4 


12 


14 


3 


2 


5 


3 


9 


6 


4 






































County Junior-Senior, Senior and Not Reorganized High Schools 




2 


















1 






























51- 75 


5 


















1 




















1 


1 




2 




76- 100 


10 
6 










1 




1 


1 


2 






1 




1 










1 




2 




101- 125 




... 










2 








1 


1 




1 






.... 










1 


126- 150 


7 




1 






1 


1 


1 


■ 




v 

1 


1 










1 














151— 175 


7 


i 


1 








1 










1 


1 
























17o- <iOO 


13 


2 






1 


1 






... 
1 




1 




2 


.... 
1 


.... 
2 




.... 
1 












- 

1 


OAl OOC 


5 










1 


2 












2 




















226- 250 


5 










1 
























1 




1 


i 

... 




1 


251- 275 


^ 










1 


1 


-■ 


















1 








ilb- oOO 


8 














1 


1 










1 




1 


1 






2 




1 






301- 325 


8 






1 










1 




1 








4 




i 








326- 350 


3 




















1 






















1 






351— 375 


2 


























1 




1 
















376- 400 


2 




















1 




















1 






401— 425 


4 


1 






1 
















1 
























501- 525 _ 


3 












1 
























1 


1 






526- 550 


4 


1 




1 










1 




1 
























551- 575 


2 
























1 






1 


















601- 625 


2 






1 






















1 
















626- 650 


1 






























1 
















701- 725 


1 
















































751- 775 


2 












1 


















1 


















776- 800 


2 




























1 












1 




801- 825 


1 


i 














































826- 850.... 


1 




i 








































.... 


851- 875 


1 
































1 
















926- 950 


1 




1 












































951- 975 


1 




1 












































1201-1225 






















1 




























1226-1250 


1 








































1 






1301-1325 


1 
















































1326-1350 


1 






1 










































1401-1425 


1 


1 














































1451-1475 „ 


1 






1 










































1576-1600 


1 


1 

































































































County Junior High Schooi^ 



25- and under 


5 
7 
5 
9 
3 
4 
6 
2 
3 
2 
2 

2 
2 

2 
1 

1 
1 

1 

1 




1 


4 
7 
4 
5 
2 
2 
4 

1 
































1 










26- 40 




1 


1 


1 
1 














41- 50 














51- 75 
































76- 100 












1 






101- 125 














1 


1 


























126- 150 


1 

i 
1 


2 

2 
1 




























151- 175 




























176- 200 






























201- 225 










1 
















226- 250 


































276- 300 












1 
1 

1 


















301- 325 












1 










1 
















351- 375 












376- 400 






1 
















551- 575 
















1 
1 

1 






576- 600 










































676- 700 


















1 












951- 976 





























































* Includes 27 sceools having seventh grades which are housed in elementary school buildings but 
offer a junior high school curriculum. 



118 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 77 

Size of Teaching Staff and Size of Enrollment in Maryland County Junior, Junior- 
Senior and Not Reorganized High Schools for Colored Pupils, Year Ending 

June 30, 1947 



Number of 
Teachers 



Average Number 
Belonging 



All Schools 36 1 1 



11113112111 



1 2 



Number of High Schools Distributed by Size of Teaching Staff 



2 


*1 
t5 
1 
2 
5 
*8 
4 

1 
2 
1 
1 
2 

1 

1 

1 






























*1 

°2 
















3 
















*1 


























°2 


4 






























1 
1 










5 






1 
1 






































6 


1 








1 










1 
1 
















1 






7 


1 


1 
1 






1 


1 




♦1 
1 


1 




1 




8 








1 


1 












10 
































1 


11 




















1 
















1 








12 






1 




































13 
























1 
















14 


















1 


















1 








16 






































1 




19 




























1 














31 




1 



















































































Number of High Schools Distributed by Size of Enrollment 



51- 75.. 

76-100.. 
101-125.. 
126-150.. 
151-175.. 
176-200.. 

mm 

226-250. 
251-275.. 

301-325. 
326-350. 
351-375. 

526-550. 

851-875. 































°2 














*1 
















*1 














*1 




1 






















1 




1 


















1 






1 




*1 






2 










1 
















1 


























1 








1 




1 




*1 






1 


















1 










1 


1 


























1 












1 




























































1 








1 






































1 












1 












1 












1 




















































1 






























1 




















1 























































































* Each asterisk represents one junior high school. 

• Each degree represents two junior high schools, 
t Junior high schools. 

For individual high schools, see Table XXII, pages 290 to 295. 



Size of County Colored High Schools; Number of Public 119 
High Schools; Vocational Rehabilitation Services Rendered 

TABLE 78— Number of Public High Schools, Year Ending June 30, 1947 



PuBUC HiOH Schools For 



White Pupils I Colores) Pupils 



County 


Total 


Junior- 
Senior, 
Senior or 
Not Re- 
organized 


Junior 


Total 


Junior- 
Senior, 
Senior or 
Not Re- 
organized 


Junior 


Total Countiea 


*163 


121 


*32 


36 


29 


7 


Allegany 


11 


8 


3 


1 


1 




Anne Arundel „ 


10 


4 


6 


1 


1 




Baltimore 


♦9 


7 


*2 


3 


3 




Calvert 


1 


1 





1 


1 


— 


Caroline 


5 


5 




1 


1 




Carroll 


9 


8 


i 


1 


1 




Cecil. 


8 


7 


1 


1 


1 




Charles 


6 


3 


3 


3 


2 


i 


Dorchester 


7 


6 


1 


1 


1 




Frederick 


g 


Q 


2 




1 




Garrett 


5 


5 










Harford 


8 


8 




2 


"2 






4 






]^ 






Kent 


4 


4 




1 


1 




Montgomery 


12 


7 




1 


1 




Prince George's 


14 


10 


4 


6 


2 


4 


Queen Anne's 


3 


3 




1 


1 




St. Mary's 


2 


2 




2 


2 




Somerset 


5 


4 


"l 


2 


2 




Talbot 


3 


3 




1 


1 




Washington 


9 


6 


3 


1 


1 




Wicomico „ 


6 


6 




1 


1 




Worcester 


4 


4 




3 


1 


"2 


Baltimore City 


27 


14 


13 


7 


4 


3 


Total State . _ 


*180 


135 


*45 


43 


33 


10 



* Excludes 27 schools having seventh grades which are housed in elementary school buildings but 
offer a junior high school curriculum. 



TABLE 79— Vocational Rehabilitation Services Rendered During 1946-47 



County 


Total 
Number 
Cases 


Rehabili- 
tated 


Being 
Followed 
on Jobs 


Training 
Completed 


Being 
Prepared 
for Jobs 


Surveyed, 
imder 
Advise- 
ment 


Closed 
after 
Other 
Services 


Total Counties.... 


1,105 


213 


10 


50 


169 


516 


147 


Allegany 


142 


27 




4 


14 


66 


31 


Anne Arundel 


53 


5 


"i 


1 


14 


27 


5 


Baltimore 


140 


30 


3 


10 


22 


62 


13 


Calvert 


11 


1 






3 


5 


2 


Caroline 


20 


4 


1 


1 


4 


9 


1 


Carroll 


27 


7 


1 




6 


11 


2 


Cecil 


23 


4 


1 


"i 


3 


8 


5 


Charles 


25 


6 






4 


10 


5 


Dorchester 


39 


8 




i 


6 


18 


6 


Frederick 


54 


10 




2 


13 


17 


12 


Garrett 


49 1 


7 






6 


28 


8 


Harford 


26 1 


3 


"i 




2 


15 


5 


Howard 


24 


4 




"2 


3 


13 


2 


Kent 


12 


2 




2 


1 


6 


1 


Montgomery 


64 


6 




2 


9 


43 


4 


Prince George's .. 


122 


22 




3 


18 


74 


5 


Queen Anne's 


12 


3 






1 


7 


1 


St. Mary's 


20 


4 




" i' 


3 


9 


3 




26 


6 




2 


4 


10 


4 


Talbot 


19 


4 








11 


4 


Washington 


85 


25 


i 


"7 


id 


25 


17 


Wicomico 


82 


14 


1 


10 


16 


32 


9 


Worcester 


30 


11 






7 


10 


2 


Baltimore City.... 


1,362 


302 


58 


120 


176 


391 


315 


Total State _.. 


2,467 


515 


68 


170 


345 


907 


462 



120 1947 Annual Report of Maryland Stats Department of Education 



TABLE 80 — Costs of Vocational Rehabilitation Case Services Rendered Year 

Ending June 30, 1947 



Type of Service 


Number of 
Clients 


Average 
Cost 


Total 
Expenditure 


IlXAMINA 1 lUNb (Diagnosis) 








Medical 


654 


$8.26 


$5,399.91 


Psychiatric 


15 


11.50 


172.50 


treatment 








Medical 


13 


33.63 


437.24 


Psychiatric 


12 


46.58 


559.00 


Surgical 


17 


94.70 


1,610.00 


Dental 


« 2 


19.75 


39.50 


PROSTHETIC APPLIANCES 








Artificial Limbs 


51 


153.66 


7,837.00 


Hearing Aids 


11 


122.19 


1,344.10 


Braces 


38 


27.81 


1,056.80 


Glasses 


27 


10.28 


227.43 


Surgical Appliances 


5 


62.80 


314.00 


Repairs to Appliances 


8 


13.55 


108.39 


Other 


3 


12.80 


38.40 


hospitalization 


26 


118.48 


3,080.57 


PHYSICAL & occupational THERAPY.. 


9 


21.82 


196.40 


transportation 








Medical Services 


59 


6.68 


394.35 


MAINTENANCE 










21 


14.90 


312.93 


TRAINING 








Educational Institution 


313 


91.49 


28,638.65 




68 


50.31 


3,420.91 


Correspondence 


48 


14.64 


702.65 


Tutorial 


56 


54.49 


3,051.50 


Training Supplies — Equipment 


233 


25.08 


5,843.33 


Transportation 


146 


17.87 


2,610.01 


Maintenance 


176 


217.26 


38,237.32 


OCCUPATIONAL TOOLS AND 








EQUIPMENT 


7 


186.21 


1,303.48 


TOTAL 


*2,467 


$43.37 


$106,986.37 



* Includes 449 who received guidance, counseling, and other services from the staff paid from 
Federal funds. Cost of this staff is not included above. 



Cost of Vocational Rehabilitation; Baltimore City 121 
Adult Education and Summer Schools 



TABLE 81— Baltimore City Adult Education 



Enrollment 



Type of Work 


White 


Colored 


Nights 
in 
















Session 




1947 


1946 


1945 


1947 


1946 


1945 


1946-47 


Americanization 


363 


532 


569 








94 


Academic: 








Elementary 


50 


99 


71 


660 


740 


861 


94 


Secondary** 


2,998 


1,740 


1,204 


513 


607 


474 


** 


Commercial 


873 


633 


848 


293 


^66 


350 


94 


Vocational:* 
















Industrial 


1,192 


581 


245 


563 


300 


124 


47 


Home Economics 


233 


112 


432 


600 


761 


419 


47 


Parent Education . . 


1,212 


1,901 


1,545 


359 


373 


391 


47 


Industrial Trainingt 


852 


302 


70 










Informal Program 


464 


535 


471 








47 











** The junior high school academic classes met 94 nights while the senior high school academic 
classes met 125 nights. 

* Vocational courses are reimbursed from Federal vocational Smith-Hughes or George-Deen funds. 
Persons taking them are employed at work related to the field in which the course is given. 

t Courses in industrial work not reimbursed from Federal funds. The students may be unemployed 
or working in fields other than industrial work. 



TABLE 82— Baltimore City Summer Schools, 1946 



Type of School 


Number 
of 

Schools 


Total Enrollment 


Net Roll at End op Term 


Number 
of 

Principals 
and 

Teachers 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Review 
Work 


CINC, 

Advanced 
Work 


White Schools 
Secondary 

Senior 

Junior 


1 
1 
4 
1 


1,245 
386 
430 
110 


885 
278 
339 
146 


1,980 
558 
599 
234 


1,887 
558 
599 


93 


28 
10 
19 
13 

70 

|., 

27 
12 


Elementary 




Demonstration 


234 


Total White 

Colored Schools 
Secondary 

Senior 

Junior 




7 

I. 

3 
1 


2,171 

120 
143 
913 
114 


1,648 

232 
235 
1,047 
228 


3,371 

324 
321 
1,811 
332 


3,044 

252 
321 
1,811 


327 
72 


Elementary 




Demonstration 


332 






Total Colored... 


5 


1,290 


1,742 


2,788 


2,384 


404 


52 


All Schools 
















1946 


12 


3,461 


3,390 


6,159 


5,428 


731 


122 


1945 


13 


3,213 


3,252 


5,750 


5,052 


698 


123 


1944 


15 


3.458 


3,416 


5,976 


5,108 


868 


143 


1943 


14 


3,156 


3,201 


5,483 


4,548 


935 


130 


1942 


15 


3,597 


3,397 


6,154 


4,819 


1,335 


147 


1941 


14 


3,261 


3,233 


5,728 


4,987 


741 


120 


1940 


14 


3,641 


3,347 


6,135 


5.370 


765 


127 


1939 


14 


3,644 


3,359 


6,208 


5,505 


703 


121 


1938 


14 


3,299 


3,350 


5,822 


4,917 


905 


128 


1937 


14 


2,905 


2,948 


5,142 


4,290 


852 


121 


1936 


14 


3,400 


3,028 


5,544 


4,963 


581 


122 


1935 


14 


4,150 


3,929 


7,015 


6,304 


711 


128 


1934 


15 


3,728 


3,472 


6,139 


5,324 


815 1 


120 



122 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 20 

Total School Current Expenses and Total State Aid in 23 Counties and Baltimore 

City:* 1920—1946 




1520 '22 'U> 'ZQ '30 "52 "M '^h '3^ *40 'AZ '44 'ib '-^Q 



* Includes expenditures from City funds for training teachers in City training schools but excludes 
amounts appropriated by City and State for the Retirement Fund. 



Current Expenses, Source of Funds, Capital Outlay, by Year 123 

TABLE 83 

cJchool Current Expenses from State, Federal, and Local Funds, and Capital 
Outlay by Boards of Education in the Counties and Baltimore City, 1920-1947 





Current Expense Disbursements 




Year Ending 








Capital 


June 30 


1 From 


From 


From 


Outlay 




Total 1 State Funds 


Federal Funds 


Local Funds 





Total Counties 



1920 


$3,703,153 


$1,181,156 


$5,037 


$2,516,960 


$485,601 


1922 


5,291,124 


1,527,627 


t33,853 


3,729,644 


1,121,554 


1925 


6,743,015 


2,130,518 


t43,252 


4,569,245 


2,527,823 


1927 


7,517,729 


2,291,235 


t48,965 


5,177,529 


1,023,362 


1929 


8,164,657 


6a2,279,589 


t54,425 


5,830,643 


1,773,070 


1931 


8,852,073 


2,323,767 


t78,755 


6,449,551 


2,172,088 


1933 


8,485,146 


2,531,668 


t78,343 


5,875,135 


688,497 


1935 


8,189,909 


3,665,763 


t75,727 


4,448,419 


1,590,879 


1937 


9,082,523 


3,583,329 


t92,553 


5.406,641 


2,531,071 


1939 


10,216,150 


4,300,033 


tl66,016 


5,750,101 


2,845,537 


1940 


10,752,978 


4,415,744 


tl66,215 


6,171,019 


2,773,778 


1941 


Ul, 108,701 


4,406,610 


Jtl67,417 


6,534,674 


1,116,817 


1942 


ni,687,272 


4,828,593 


Jtl85,069 


6,673,610 


1,483,259 


1943 


112,185,970 


4,830,993 


ttl88,549 


7,166,428 


816,813 


1944 


114,164,717 


6,376,332 


Jtl83,768 


7,604,617 


423,538 


1945 


J15,038,389 


6.240,694 


tt214,274 


8,583,421 


703,839 


1946 


17,176,530 


7,816,534 


tl89,548 


9,170,448 


1,592,508 


1947 


21,257,594 


8,354,423 


t205,947 


12,697,224 


3,174,964 



Baltimore City* 



1920 


$3,706,642 


$706,758 


$6,529 


$2,993,355 


$60,741 


1922 


6,594,168 


1,015,034 


11,939 


5,567,195 


1,417,569 


1925 


7,237,993 


1,024,179 


18,301 


6,195,513 


3,224,734 


1927 


7,878,719 


1,066,385 


20,112 


6,792,222 


4,200,038 


1929 


8,767,395 


61,017,153 


20,338 


7,729,904 


633.632 


1931.. 


9,666,385 


932,251 


13,773 


8,720,361 


3.658,046 


1933 


8,388,125 


1,072,738 


10,663 


7,304,724 


1,268,159 


1935 


8,502,074 


954,383 


25,913 


7,521,778 


642,191 


1937 


9,031,032 


943,073 


22,536 


8,065,423 


1,156,748 


1939 


9,747,952 


950,005 


55,923 


8,742,024 


30,785 


1940 


9,845,208 


953,033 


56,690 


8,835,485 


13,032 


1941 


il0,238,979 


937,901 


t57,256 


9,243,822 


145,492 


1942 


J10,301,657 


930,151 


t55,978 


9,315,528 


238.119 


1943 


t9,741,713 


921,520 


:64,354 


8,755,839 


17.989 


1944 


tll,012,413 


1,662,672 


t45,953 


9,303,788 


8,721 


1945 


Jll,398,134 


1,342,119 


175,627 


9,980,388 


113,214 


1946 


12,056,034 


1,451,523 


77,328 


10,527,183 


605,127 


1947 


13,321,612 


1,480,161 


61,361 


11,780,090 


372,505 



Entire State* 



1920 


$7,409,795 


$1,887,914 


$11,566 


$5,510,315 


$546,342 


1922 


11,885,292 


2,542.661 


45,792 


9,296,839 


2.539.123 


1925 


13,981,008 


3,154,697 


61,553 


10,764,758 


5.752.557 


1927 


15,396,448 


3.357,620 


69,077 


11,969,751 


5,233,400 


1929 


16,932,052 


63,296,742 


74,763 


13,560,547 


2,406,702 


1931 


18,518,458 


3,256.018 


92,528 


15,169,912 


5,830,134 


1933 


16,873,271 


3,604,406 


89,006 


13,179,859 


1,956,656 


1935 


16,691,983 


4,620,146 


101,640 


11,970,197 


2,233,070 


1937 


18,113,555 


4,526,402 


115,089 


13,472,064 


3,687,819 


1939 


19,964,102 


5.250.038 


221,939 


14,492,125 


2,876,322 


1940 


20,598,186 


5,368,777 


222,905 


15,006,504 


2,786,810 


1941 


J21,347,680 


5,344,511 


J224,673 


15,778,496 


1,262,309 


1942 


t21,988,929 


5,758,744 


1241,047 


15,989,138 


1,721,378 


1943 


J2 1,927,683 


5,752,513 


:252,903 


15,922,267 


834,802 


1944 


J25,177,130 


8,039,004 


J229,721 


16,908,405 


432.259 


1945 


126,436,523 


7,582,813 


1289,901 


18,563,809 


817,053 


1946 


29,232,564 


9,268,057 


266,876 


19,697,631 


2,197,635 


1947 


34,579,206 


9,834,584 


267,308 


24,477,314 


3,547,469 



* Includes expenditures from City funds for training of teachers in City training school (s), but 
excludes amounts appropriated by City and State for the Retirement Fund. 

t Includes amounts received from the Federal Government toward salaries and expenses at Indian 
Head, Charles County, and, beginning 1945, the Frank Knox School, St. Mary's County. 

i Excludes expenditures for Vocational Training for War Production Workers. 

6 Excludes receipts from liquidation of Free School Fund. 

a Excludes $6,500 to be used by Charles County for school building purposes. 



124 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 21 

Percent of Current Expenditures for Year Ending June 30, 1947 



County 



Received from 



HH State, Excluding Equalization Fund 
[ I Equalization Fund 
\ :/;{] Federal Aid 

[ I County Levy and Other County Sources 



Total Counties 

Charles 

St. liary's 

Garrett 

Calvert 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Howard 

Dorchester 

Carroll 

TTcrcester 

Anne Arundel 

Queen Anne' s 

Talbot 

ITiconico 

Kent 

Allegany 

Frederick 

Washington 

Prince George's 

Harford 

Cecil 

Baltimore 

Montgomery 

EaltL-core City 

Total State 




For basic data see Tables 84 and XI-XIII, pages 125 and 279-281. 



Current Expenses by Souiice of Funds 



125 



TABLE 84 

Percent of Current Expense Disbursements Received by County Boards of 
Education from State, Federal and Local Sources, for the 
Year Ending June 30, 1947 
(Ranked in order of percent from county and other sources from lowest to highest) 



_ 

COUNTY 


Total 
Disburse- 

I or 
Current 
Expenses 


Amount Received For Current 
Expenses From 


Percent of Current Expense 
Disbursements Received from 


State 
Aid*t 


Federal 
Aid*t 


County 
Levy and 
Other 

County 
Sourcest 


State Aid Excluding 
Equalization Fund 


State Equalization 
Fund 


Total- 
State Aid 


Federal Aid 


County Levy and 
Other County 
Sources 


. 

Total 




















Counties 


$21,257,594 


$8,354,423 


$205,947 


$12,697,224 


20.6 


18.7 


39.3 


1.0 


59.7 


St. Mary's 


291,796 


187,238 


J26,788 


77.770 


26.3 


37.9 


64.2 


9.2 


26.6 


Charles 


473,902 


291,540 


:46,427 


135,935 


23.0 


38.5 


61.5 


9.8 


28.7 


Garrett 


513,227 


346,082 


7,730 


159.415 


21.7 


45.7 


67.4 


1.5 


31.1 


Calvert 


255,744 


173,686 


2,151 


79,907 


22.2 


45.8 


68.0 


.8 


31,2 


Somerset 


375,862 


249,048 


1,520 


125.294 


26.0 


40.3 


66.3 


.4 


33.3 


Caroline 


360,711 


215,564 


2,671 


142.476 


24.7 


35.1 


59.8 


.7 


39.5 


Howard 


419,721 


219,095 


3,171 


197,455 


22.7 


29.5 


52.2 


.8 


47.0 


Dorchester .. 


546,092 


280,790 


4,004 


261,298 


22.6 


28.8 


51.4 


.7 


47.9 


Carroll 


786,382 


407,344 


2,475 


376,563 


22.4 


29.4 


51.8 


.3 


47.9 


Worcester 


410,002 


208,559 


1,455 


199,988 


24 4 


26.4 


50.8 


.4 


48.8 


Anne Arundel 


1,398,011 


705,768 


8,697 


683,546 


22.2 


28.3 


50.5 


.6 


48.9 


Queen Anne's 


321,831 


155,430 


3,045 


163,356 


22.2 


26.1 


48.3 


.9 


50.8 


Talbot 


360,176 


168,388 


3,963 


187.825 


23.1 


23.7 


46.8 


1.1 


52.1 


Wicomico 


626,347 


282,832 


1,353 


342,162 


22.2 


23.0 


45.2 


.2 


54.6 


Kent 


300,972 


133,003 


1,431 


166,538 


22.4 


21.8 


44.2 


.5 


55.3 


Frederick 


1,021,203 


429,777 


5,243 


586,183 


22.6 


19.5 


42.1 


.5 


57.4 


Allegany 


1,975,299 


804,838 


17,596 


1,152,865 


17.9 


22.8 


40.7 


.9 


58.4 


Washington . 


1,563,733 


614,221 


16,689 


932,823 


19.6 


19.7 


39.3 


1.1 


59.6 


Pr. George's . 


2,377,770 


926,876 


7,162 


1,443,732 


20.0 


19.0 


39.0 


.3 


60.7 


Harford 


808,289 


234,009 


8,068 


566,212 


22.7 


6.3 


29.0 


1.0 


70.0 


Cecil , 


558.774 


142,482 


803 


415,489 


23.7 


1,8 


25.5 


.1 


74.4 


Baltimore 


2,969,982 


643,796 


16,366 


2,309,820 


21.7 




21.7 


.6 


77.7 


Montgomery 


2,541,768 


534,057 


17,139 


1,990,572 


13.3 


7.7 


21.0 


.7 


78.3 


Baltimore 




















Citvb 


13,286,902 


1,480,161 


61,361 


11,745,380 


11 1 




11.1 


. 5 


88.4 


Total State.. . 


$34,544,496 


$9,834,584 


$267,308 


$24,442,604 


17.0 


11.5 


28.5 


.8 


70 7 



• Includes State and Federal funds for school year ending June 30, 1947, even if received after June 
30, 1947. 

t Excludes State, Federal, and county funds for school lunch program and for public school health 
services, the latter expended by health offices in the counties and City of Baltimore. 

X Includes payments by the Federal Government toward salaries and expenses at Indian Head 
School in Charles County, totaling $42,894. and at Frank Knox School in St. Mary's County, totaling 
$23,806. 

b Excludes $1,168,964 for teachers in the Baltimore City Retirement System of which an estimated 
$403,065 was contributed by Baltimore City and $765,899 by the State, as well as $34,710 for Coppin 
"Teachers College from Citv funds. 

For details, sea Tables XI, XII. and XIII. pages 279. 2S0 and 281. 



126 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 22 

How Tax Dollar for School Current Expenses Was Used in 1946-47 in the 

Maryland Counties 



INCLUDING TRANSPORTATION 




EXCLUDING TRANSPORTATION 




* Fixed charges and payments to adjoining counties. 

Auxiliary agencies in top circle include transportation, libraries, health and public payments for 
school lunch program. 

Auxiliary agencies in bottom circle include libraries, health and public payments for school lunch 
program. 



Expenditure of School Tax Dollar 



127 



TABLE 85 — Percent Distribution of School Expenditures for the Year Ending 

June 30, 1947 



Percent of Total Current Expense Funds Used For 



County 



03 0/ ^ 







* 








i 








c 
u 


Sec 


a 


c 

CQ 


< 




ratif 


c 
c 


lUar 




<v 
o. 


'c5 


X 
3 


>< « o 


O 




<J 





Including Cost of Transportation* 



County Average 


2 


9 


1 


4 


65 


9 


4 





7 


5 


3 


9 


13 


5 





9 


13 





Allegany 


2 


3 


1 


4 


62 


7 


3 


6 


8 


5 


3 


3 


17 


6 





6 


2 


5 


Anne Arundel 


3 


2 




2 


66 


6 


3 


1 


7 


4 


4 


1 


13 


5 





9 


7 


2 


Baltimore 


2 


4 


1 


6 


66 


6 


5 


7 


7 


5 


5 


1 


9 


8 


1 


3 


25 


2 


Calvert 


4 


8 


2 


6 


55 


8 


2 





6 





3 


1 


25 








7 


3 


8 




3 


6 


1 


2 


65 


3 


2 





5 


4 


2 


6 


19 








9 





4 


Carroll 


2 


4 


1 


8 


68 


3 


3 





5 


5 


1 


9 


15 


9 


1 


2 


3 


2 


Cecil 


2 


3 


1 


6 


66 


8 


4 


1 


7 


4 


4 


3 


12 


6 





9 


2 


9 


Charles 


2 


6 


1 


9 


58 


4 


3 


2 


9 


4 


2 


9 


20 


7 





9 


1 





Dorchester 


2 


7 


1 


5 


62 


1 


2 


4 


7 


5 


5 


7 


17 


2 





8 


1 


4 




2 


4 


1 


2 


68 


8 


2 


7 


6 


2 


1 


4 


16 


6 





7 


1 


7 


Garrett 


3 


2 


1 


3 


63 





2 


9 


4 


3 


2 


9 


20 


6 


1 


8 


5 


1 


Harford 


2 


9 


1 


7 


64 


9 


4 


3 


7 


8 


5 


9 


11 


7 





8 


6 


5 


Howard 


3 


4 


1 


3 


63 


6 


3 


7 


6 


5 


3 


2 


18 


1 





2 


5 


8 


Kent 


4 


9 


1 


6 


63 


3 


4 


2 


6 


8 


3 


9 


14 


2 


1 


1 


1 





Montgomery 


3 


2 


1 


6 


65 


9 


5 


5 


10 


8 


2 





10 


6 





4 


29 


2 


Prince George's 


2 


9 


1 


5 


69 


3 


3 


9 


7 


9 


5 


6 


8 


4 





5 


15 


6 


Queen Anne's 


3 


4 


2 


2 


62 


9 


3 


6 


6 


1 


3 


5 


17 


4 





9 


2 


3 


St. Mary's 


4 


1 


2 





59 





3 


7 


6 


5 


3 


4 


20 


6 





7 





1 


Somerset 


3 


1 


1 


5 


64 


1 


3 


3 


5 


8 


3 


8 


15 


5 


2 


9 


1 


4 


Talbot 


3 


3 


1 


5 


66 


8 


3 


5 


5 


5 


2 


7 


14 


9 


1 


8 





1 


Washington 


2 


6 


1 


6 


71 


4 


3 


8 


5 


6 


4 


2 


10 


3 





5 


14 


9 


Wicomico 


3 





1 


7 


63 


2 


4 


6 


6 


7 


4 


6 


14 


8 


1 


4 


5 


7 


Worcester 


2 


8 


1 


2 


59 


8 


2 


9 


7 





7 





18 


8 





5 


1 


3 


Baltimore City 


2 


9 


1 


5 


66 


9 


2 


7 


11 





3 


9 


t5 


9 


5 


2 


2 


5 


State Average 


2 


9 


1 


4 


65 


6 


3 


6 


8 


8 


3 


8 


10 


3 


3 


6 


9 






Excluding Cost op Transportation* 



County Average. 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's... 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City... 

State Average 





3.2 


1 


8 


72 


9 


4 


5 


8 


3 


4 


3 


4 


1 


0.9 




2.4 




6 


66 


9 


3 


8 


9 





3 


5 


12 


2 


0.6 




3.6 


1 


6 


74 


5 


3 


3 


8 


2 


4 


6 


3 


2 


1.0 




2.6 


1 


7 


72 


5 


6 


4 


8 


2 


5 


6 


1 


6 


1.4 




6.4 


3 


4 


74 


3 


2 


8 


8 





4 


1 





1 


0.9 




4.2 


1 


4 


77 


6 


2 


6 


6 


4 


3 


1 


3 


6 


1.1 




2.8 


2 





79 


3 


3 


6 


6 


4 


2 


2 


2 


3 


1.4 




2.6 


1 


8 


76 


3 


4 


5 


8 


4 


4 


9 





5 


1.0 




3.2 


2 


3 


70 





3 


7 


11 


3 


3 


5 


4 


9 


1.1 




3.1 


1 


7 


72 





2 


9 


8 


7 


6 


6 


4 





1.0 




2.7 


1 


4 


79 


1 


3 


3 


7 




1 


6 


4 





0.8 




4.0 


1 


8 


78 


2 


3 


5 


5 


2 


3 


5 


1 


6 


2.2 




3.1 


1 


9 


70 


2 


4 


8 


8 


4 


6 


4 


4 


3 


0.9 




4.0 


1 


5 


75 





4 


3 


7 


7 


3 


7 


3 


5 


0.3 




5.6 


1 


9 


72 


7 


4 


7 


7 


9 


4 


5 


1 


5 


1.2 




3.4 


1 


7 


70 


1 


5 


7 


11 


5 


2 


1 


5 





0.5 




3.1 


1 


8 


73 





3 


1 




3 


5 


9 


3 


5 


0.6 




4.0 


2 


5 


74 


2 


4 




? 


2 


4 


2 


2 


5 


1.1 




5.1 


2 


5 


73 


8 


4 


9 


8 


2 


4 


2 





5 


0.8 




3.6 


1 


8 


74 


2 


3 


9 


6 


7 


4 


4 


2 


1 


3.3 




3.8 


1 


7 


77 


3 


4 


1 


6 


4 


3 


2 


1 


4 


2.1 




2.8 


1 


8 


75 


5 


3 


8 


5 


9 


4 


5 


5 


2 


0.5 




3.4 


2 





72 





5 


2 


7 


6 


5 


2 


3 





1.6 




3.4 


1 


4 


71 


8 


3 


7 


8 


4 


8 


4 


2 


3 


0.6 




2.9 


1 


5 


67 


1 


2 


8 


11 





3 


9 


t5 


6 


5.2 




3.1 


1 


7 


70 


5 


3 


6 


9 


5 


4 


1 


4 


8 


2.7 



* Auxiliary agencies exclude estimated expenditures by health offices in counties and Baltimore 
City for services rendered to school children. For these costs see Table 139, page 256. The upper table 
includes costs of transportation in "Auxiliary Agencies;" the lower table excludes them. For the first 
time county and Federal expenditures on the school lunch program are included with auxiliary agenciai. 

t Baltimore City expenditures for the Retirement System are excluded. 



128 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 88 

Cost Per Pupil Belonging for General Control 



County 



1945 


1946 


1947 


$2.27 


$2.60 


$3.39 


4.07 


5.20 


6.68 


3.83 


4.63 


5.16 


4.53 


4.75 


5.01 


2.80 


3.00 


4.72 


4.38 


4.33 


4.67 


3.88 


4.19 


4.21 


2.87 


3.13 


4.04 


3.64 


3.75 


4.01 


3.68 


3.85 


3.85 


3.10 


3.08 


3.52 


3.03 


3.22 


3.51 


2.84 


3.35 


3.44 


2.02 


2.56 


3.32 



County 



1945 


1946 


1947 


$1.41 


$1.99 


$3.32 


2.53 


2.78 


3.30 


1.85 


2.08 


3.30 


2.31 


3.16 


3.20 


2.45 


2.89 


3.12 


1.92 


2.23 


3.02 


2.35 


3.02 


3.00 


1.94 


2.08 


2.70 


2.46 


2.65 


2.68 


1.41 


1.63 


2.44 


3.32 


3.61 


3.94 


$2.67 


$2.98 


$3.59 



County Average 

Kent 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 

Montgomery 

Queen Anne's 

Caroline 

Howard 

Talbot 

Garrett 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Dorchester 

Harford 



Prince George's 
Anne Arundel .. 

Washington 

Worcester 

Charles 

Allegany 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Cecil 

Baltimore 

Baltimore City 

State Average . 



Fjr basic data see Table XIV, page 282, and Table VI, page 273. 

TABLE 87 

Average Current Expense Cost Per Maryland County White and Colored 
Elementary and High School Papil Belonging, 1923-1947^ 





Elementary 


High Schools 




SCHOOI^ 






Year 










White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


1923 


$39.84 


$17.08 


$91.12 


$77.38 


1924 


43.06 


19.33 


96.44 


73.66 


1925 


43.66 


19.98 


95.16 


58.71 


1926 


46.02 


21.29 


97.20 


59.67 


1927 


47.26 


22.41 


98.43 


57.37 


1928 


47.81 


22.97 


95.82 


52.13 


1929 


49.49 


24.31 


96.00 


49.13 


1930 


49.78 


25.02 


97.60 


45.86 


1931 


50.17 


25.09 


98.54 


47.31 


1932 


49.27 


24.97 


94.78 


48.58 


1933 


46.82 


24.12 


82.35 


44.34 


1934 


44.36 


22.58 


76.21 


44.80 



Year 



1935 
1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 
1940 
1941 
1942 
1943 
1944 
1945 
1946 
1947 



Elementary 
Schools 



White Colored 



$45.16 
47.90 
49.72 
53.41 
53.50 
56.07 
56.95 
58.75 
60.70 
*71.16 
*74 . 83 
t83.15 
t95.84 



$24.19 
25.64 
26.86 
30.10 
32.91 
35.77 
38.69 
43.40 
48.34 
*58 . 43 
*60.23 
167.46 
t76.69 



High Schools 



White Colored 



$77.58 
80.48 
82.47 
90.87 
89.94 
91.45 
93.49 
97.86 
102.57 
*118.20 
°*123.04 
°tl27.02 
°tl47.66 



t Excludes General Control, Fixed Charges, and costs of health services rendered by county and 
State Health Departments for which see Table 139, page 256. 
* Includes State and County bonus. 

t Prior to 1946, pupils in Grade 7 or Grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools were considered ele- 
mentary and not high school pupils. 

° Prior to 1945 payments for transportation made by parents of high school pupils were excluded, 
but for 1945 and thereafter these payments in Baltimore and Montgomery County are included. 
For 1947 they amount to $.55 per white high and $.68 per colored high school pupil. 

For basic data, see Tables XVIII, XIX, XX and XXI, pages 286, 287, 288 and 289. 



General Control and Current Expense Cost Per Pupil 



129 



i5 



I 0) 

o g 



c c 

o o 



5 -o 



E 



X X 
05 OS 



xosi^LrnDxt^ai-T 
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g^o ci ^ oi °^ """^ 2 S2 2 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 1h 



■^j^i.t^osrjxxtOTj'cct-'Ho^o 
,t--Ht>t>o;cxc^-Ha:t>ecc-05 

«c«cxot^^-x;ct>^J — — 



tC'-Nt>xt^"<tm;DXiccg-<9'X005t>xc^'--^c-eo 
NO-Hrtt-xc~^"«S'i.t;co:ifl«c^t-csoect>c^iflt- 

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cceceo-'ri.ii-'^-^j'xtcccL.-Tf^cxx-^^Dvrt-'j'Ti'Tj'ico 



' CO X 
: i-C 05 ^ 



ca o 

c i 3 C £ c 



i-CiNO-^ercvjececMcocc-'S'tnTj'ccTficcc-^cccow 




ac5 3 



J2 O 



o 



*i -3 
C < 
3(25 



5 J 

u 



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at; « 



52 



C sj 

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c ca 0! c 2«; 

33 

■grt^ S ° 0) 
g-« § ca- 

3 



_ y 
3 '3 



130 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 89 

Cosi per Pupil Belonging in Maryland County White One-Teacher, Two-Teacher 
and Graded Schools, Exclusive of Expenditures for General Control, Supervision 
and Fixed Charges for the Year Ending June 30, 1947 



County 



County 
Average: 

1946 

1947 

Montgomery .... 

Talbot 

Kent 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Allegany 

St. Mary's 

Garrett 

Queen Anne's ... 
Prince George's 

Washington 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Harford 

Cecil 

Howard. 



One-Teacher 
Schools 



No. 


Cost Per 




Pupil 


88 


$105.35 


83 


118.40 


3 


168.88 


1 


161.31 


1 


157.68 


15 


146.74 


1 


136.12 


1 


130.71 


4 


122.93 


28 


118.75 


3 


117.14 


2 


116.26 


4 


111.70 


4 


101.77 


2 


96.96 


8 


90.76 


4 


90.68 


2 


87.09 



County 



County 
Average: 

1946 

1947 

Worcester 

Calvert... 

Kent 

Montgomery . 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Dorchester 

St. Mary's .... 

Carroll 

Wicomico 

Howard 

Anne Arundel 

Charles 

Frederick 

Cecil 

Prince George 

Allegany 

Harford 

Baltimore 

Queen Anne's. 
Washington ... 

Caroline 

Garrett 



Two-Teacher 




Graded 


Schools 


County 


Schools 










No. 


Cost Per 




No. 


Cost Pel 




Pupil 






Pupil 






County 










Average: 






104 


$98.66 


1946 


324 


$79 . 88 


92 


108.82 


1947 


326 


92.23 


3 


156.49 


St. Mary's 


1 


*122.76 


2 


156.15 


Calvert 


4 


115.60 


5 


148.32 


Queen Anne's.... 


7 


113.63 


3 


147.37 


Montgomery .... 


29 


109.96 


2 


142 . 52 


Kent 


4 


107.08 


2 


128.00 


Charles 


6 


*105.52 


5 


125.24 


Talbot 


6 


104.11 


8 


122.84 


Worcester.. 


7 


100.28 


3 


119.78 


Dorchester 


6 


100.07 


3 


117.54 


AUeganv 


28 


97.15 


1 


114.94 


Wicomico 


10 


95.28 


2 


111.89 


Carroll 


14 


93.96 


1 


109.79 


Washington 


26 


93.26 


7 


103 . 04 


Prince George's 


38 


92.68 


4 


102.67 


Somerset 


5 


91.18 


4 


99.60 


Howard 


7 


90.82 


6 


98.68 


Garrett 


12 


90.81 


6 


94.60 


Cecil 


9 


90.21 


1 


94.35 


Frederick 


21 


88.29 


3 


94.04 


Caroline 


6 


88.24 


11 


93.75 


Harford 


14 


85.89 


3 


87.96 


Baltimore 


41 


80.19 


7 


79.17 


Anne Arundel .. 


25 


79.24 



* Includes expenditures by the Federal Government for the Indian Head School, Charles County, 
and for the Frank Knox School, St. Mary's County. 



Cost Per Pupil in White Elementary Schools 



131 



CHART 23 

Cost per White Public Elementary School Pupil Belonging for Current Expenses 
Excluding General Control: 1945, 1946, 1947 



County 


19hS 


I9I46 


County Average 


% IS 


$ 83 


Calvert 


77 


lUO 




122 




ivenu 


7h 


ila 


Queen Anne ' s 




101 


Dorchester 


fin 


100 


Montgomery 


96 


97 


Talbot 


01 


9o 


Charles 


8Ii 


93 


Worcester 


oj 


99 


Somerset 


76 


93 


Allegany* 


61 


89 


Wi comic 0* 


73 


89 


Carroll 


75 


90 


Washington 


Ih 


85 


Garrett 


82 


89 


Prince George' s 


70 


80 


Cecil 


63 


73 


Frederick 


69 


81 


Howard 


73 


6a 


Caroline 


75 


81 


Harford 


72 


77 


Baltimore* 


60 


65 


Anne Arundel 


69 


76 


BaltiiEore City 


85 


91 


State Average 


78 


86 



19147 










1 as 






* Excludes pupils attending elementary schools at State Teachers Colleges. 

Excludes health expenditures by County and City health departments. See Table 139, page 256 for 
these expenditures in 1946-47. 

For basic data by county see Table XVIII, page 286. 



132 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State D epartment of Education 



TABLE 90 



Cost Per White Pupil in Maryland Elementary Schools, Grades 1-6, 1-7 (8), for the Main 
Subdivisions of Expenditures, Exclusive of General Control and Fixed Charges, for the Year 

Ending June 30, 1947 





Instructional Service 
















Total 


















Operation 


Mainte- 


Auxiliary 


Current 


Capital 


County 


















nance 


Agencies* 


Expenses 


Outlay 




Supervision 


Salaries 


All Other 




















County Average: 
































1946 


$1 


76 


$57 


57 


$2 


48 


$7.25 


$3 


68 


$10 


41 


$83 


15 


$3.13 


1947 




98 


66 


69 


3 


22 


8 


49 


3 


96 


11 


50 


95 


84 


16.49 


Allegany 


2 


22 


72 


02 


3 


59 


9 


99 


3 


15 


t8 


87 


99 


84 


.69 


Anne Arundel 


1 


43 


55 


62 


2 


00 


6 


87 


4 


22 


11 


76 


81 


90 


1.28 


Baltimore 




38 


57 


52 


3 


70 


6 


92 


4 


85 


8 


79 


83 


14 


38.43 


Calvert 


3 


85 


63 


78 


1 


91 


11 


38 


5 


62 


39 


04 


125 


58 


2.30 


Caroline 


2 


67 


59 


58 




94 


5 


20 


2 


40 


19 


85 


90 


64 


.61 


Carroll 


2 


21 


67 


26 


2 


10 


6 


34 


1 


11 


m 


58 


96 


61 


1.78 


Cecil 


1 


53 


65 


82 


2 


96 


6 


21 


4 


19 


12 


27 


92 


98 


5.17 


Charles 


2 


12 


662 


16 


3 


34 


613 


55 


63 


44 


23 


92 


6108 


52 


.76 


Dorchester 


1 


95 


72 


69 


2 


40 


9 


99 


8 


17 


17 


89 


113 


09 




Frederick 


1 


80 


64 


81 


1 


29 


7 


10 


1 


26 


15 


55 


91 


82 


1.92 


Garrett 


2 


29 


64 


82 


2 


30 


4 


65 


2 


23 


18 


45 


94 


74 


2.62 


Harford 




75 


59 


96 


3 


66 


8 


58 


5 


81 


8 


99 


88 


74 


3.57 


Howard 


1 


86 


58 


98 


2 


95 


7 


91 


2 


78 


16 


42 


90 


92 


7.92 


Kent 


3 


82 


80 


65 


3 


77 


10 


94 


5 


09 


16 


98 


121 


26 


.23 


Montgomery 


2 


30 


80 


29 


5 


77 


14 


41 


2 


54 


8 


01 


113 


32 


50.34 


Prince George's 


2 


07 


69 


34 


2 


98 


9 


04 


4 


95 


a6 


60 


94 


66 


24.72 


Queen Anne's 


3 


18 


71 


83 


4 


28 


8 


23 


5 


01 


21 


04 


113 


56 


5.87 


St. Mary's 


3 


49 


675 


88 


5 


32 


69 


25 


64 


05 


27 


47 


6125 


46 


.43 


Somerset 


2 


78 


66 


30 


4 


10 


6 


17 


5 


66 


17 


39 


102 


41 


.74 


Talbot 


2 


99 


73 


41 


3 


19 


7 


96 


4 


65 


17 


14 


109 


35 


.41 


Washington 


2 


10 


74 


70 


2 


10 


6 


67 


3 


83 


6 


25 


95 


65 


3.45 


Wicomico 


1 


65 


64 


37 


4 


95 


8 


53 


4 


42 


14 


53 


98 


45 


10.48 


Worcester 


2 


18 


64 


60 


1 


93 


9 


40 


7 


80 


21 


94 


107 


85 


1.11 


Baltimore City 


2 


44 


73 


44 


3 


71 


14 


04 


5 


05 


1 


18 


99 


87 


1.82 


State Average 


$2 


13 


$68 


83 


$3 


37 


$10.25 


$4 


31 


$8 


22 


$97 


12 


$11.83 



* Excludes estimated expenditures for health services rendered public school children by county, City and State 
health departments. See Table 139, page 256. 

t Includes $0.49 per pupil paid by Garrett County to transport 69 pupils to school in Allegany County. 

X Includes $0.37 per pupil paid by Frederick County to transport 61 pupils to school in Carroll County. 

a Includes $0.15 per pupil paid by Anne Arundel County to transport 115 pupils to school in Prince George's 
County. 

6 Includes expenditures by the Federal Government at Indian Head, Charles County, and at the Frank Knox 
School, St. Mary's County. 

For basic data, see Table XVIII, page 286. 



Cost Per Pupil White Elementary and High Schools 133 



TABLE 91 



Cost Per Pupil in Maryland High Schools for White Pupils for the Main Subdivisions of 
Expenditures, Exclusive of General Control and Fixed Charges, for Year 
Ending June 30, 1947 





Instructional Service 
















Total 


















Operation 


Mainte- 


Auxiliary 


Current 


Capital 


County 


















nance 


Agencies 


Expenses 


Outlay 




Supervision 


Salaries 


All Other 




















County Average: 
































1946 


$1.20 


$92 


91 


$6 


16 


$9 


86 


$4 


67 


$12 


22 


$127 


02 


$21.15 


j.y4( 


1.70 


107 


17 


8 


07 


11 


28 


6 


52 


al2 


91 


147 


66 




Allegany 


1 


99 


101 


10 


6 


08 


13 


30 


5 


24 


*9 


55 


137 


26 


7.58 


Anne Arundel 




87 


96 


67 


5 


77 


10 


22 


5 


55 


13 


93 


133 


01 


22.87 


Baltimore 


1 


99 


91 


67 


10 


52 


9 


52 


6 


48 


a9 


94 


130 


12 


24.24 


Calvert 


2.60 


82 


67 


6 


38 


7 


06 


3 


91 


42 


75 


145 


37 


15.07 


Caroline 






116 


78 


4 


68 


10 


21 


4 


66 


21 


45 


157 


78 


.83 


Carroll 


2 


84 


115 


55 


5 


73 


7 


93 


4 


25 


tl7 


58 


153 


87 


8.74 


Cecil 


2 


19 


103 


69 


8 


08 


11 


49 


7 


27 


14 


01 


146 


74 


1.88 


Charles 


3 


14 


118 


27 


5 


97 


20 


66 


6 


96 


29 


65 


184 


65 


2.49 


Dorchester 


1.39 


110 


03 


5 


55 


14 


35 


10 


86 


19 


28 


161 


46 


6.80 


Frederick 




64 


104 


51 


6 


22 


7 


56 


2 


36 


616 


29 


137 


58 


2.33 


Garrett 






104 


34 


6 


24 


6 


25 


7 


11 


28 


71 


152 


65 


17.46 


Harford 


2 


17 


106 


89 


8 


18 


10 


32 


10 


34 


11 


02 


148 


92 


14.09 


Howard 






121 


15 


7 


90 
86 


11 


20 


5 


13 


23 


16 


168 


54 


10.89 


Kent 




131 


02 


10 


11 


52 


6 


84 


20 


45 


180 


68 


4.05 


Montgomery 


2 


59 


138 


84 


13 


03 


21 


21 


3 


68 


a7 


91 


187 


26 


95.36 


Prince George's 


1 


63 


104 


69 


7 


65 


10 


35 


9 


91 


t6 


57 


140 


79 


21.15 


Queen Anne's 






121 


40 


6 


13 


11 


96 


5 


59 


22 


88 
63 


167 


97 


1.80 


St. Mary's 




87 


22 


5 


41 


13 


22 


10 


61 


37 


154 


08 


Somerset 




109 


84 


5 


38 


10 


03 


4 


42 


19 


66 


149 


32 


20.85 


Talbot 




107 


38 


5 


93 


7 


83 


2 


50 


18 


07 


141 


71 


.32 


Washington 


2 


33 


110 


96 


8 


30 


7 


47 


7 


64 


7 


54 


144 


24 


51.55 


Wicomico 


2 


84 


111 


80 


8 


05 


10 


23 


7 


74 


16 


90 


157 


57 


4.53 


Worcester 






99 


28 


7 


33 


11 


07 


17 


10 


22 


95 


157 


73 


4.39 


Baltimore City 


1 


96 


138 


16 


7 


50 


21 


23 


7 


04 


3 


14 


179 


03 


6.47 


Junior High 


2 


92 


117 


36 


6 


85 


19 


43 


4 


48 


2 


80 


153 


84 


11.28 


Senior High 




52 


156 


65 


7 


12 


21 


68 


9 


67 


3 


34 


198 


98 


.11 


Vocational 


2 


79 


196 


25 


15 


27 


33 


35 


11 


96 


4 


71 


264 


32 


5.82 


State Average 


$1 


79 


$117 


26 


$7 


89 


$14 


52 


$6 


69 


a$9 


73 


$157 


88 


$18.90 



* Includes $.66 per pupil expended by Garrett to transport 81 pupils to Allegany, 
t Includes $.33 per pupil expended by Frederick to transport 31 pupils to Carroll. 
X Includes $.07 per pupil expended by Anne Arundel to transport 25 pupils to Prince George's. 
a Includes expenditures by pupils toward cost of transportation: Total Counties, $.55; Baltimore County, $2.02; 
Montgomery County, $2.23; Entire State $.37. 

b Includes $.32 per pupil expended by Washington to transport 25 pupils to Frederick. 
For basic daU, see Table XIX, page 287. 



134 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 24 

Cost per White Public High School Pupil Belonging for Current Expenses 
Excluding General Control: 1945, 1946, 1947 



County 
County Average 

Montgomery 

Charles 

Kent 

Howard 

Queen Anne's 

Dorchester 

Caroline 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

St. Mary's 

Carroll 

Garrett 

Somerset 

Harford 

Cecil 

Calvert 

Washington 

Talbot 

Prince George's 
Frederick 
Allegany 
Anne Arundel 
Baltimore 

Baltimore City 

State Average 




Excludes payment of $20 and $15 by parents for each high school pupil transported a full school 
year in Baltimore County and Montgomery County, respectively. 
For basic data see Table XIX, page 287. 



Cost Per White High and Colored Elementary School Pupil 



135 



TABLE 92 

Cost Per Colored Pupil in Maryland Elementary Schools, Grades 1-6, 1-7 (8) for the Main 
Subdivisions of Expenditures, Exclusive of General Control and Fixed Charges for the Year 

Ending June 30, 1947 



County 



Instructional Service 
















Total 














Operation 


Mainte- 


Auxiliary 


Current 


















nance 


Agencies* 


Expenses 


Supervision 


Salaries 


All Other 














$1 


88 


$48 


74 


$1 


65 


$4 


39 


$2 


36 


$8 


44 


$67.46 


2.37 


56 


52 


2 


31 


5 


30 


2 


92 


9 


86 


79.27 






73 


10 


2 


16 


10 


77 


18 


17 




23 


104.43 


2 


27 


61 


31 


1 


18 


5 


76 


2 


93 


2 


78 


76.23 


1 


13 


51 


51 


3 


50 


5 


88 


3 


64 


6 


67 


72.35 


2 


71 


47 


00 




61 


2 


22 


1 


30 


5 


18 


59.03 


1 


22 


53 


96 


1 


09 


3 


43 


3 


33 


14 


68 


77.70 


1 


44 


54 


96 


3 


62 


5 


41 


3 


16 


18 


42 


87.01 


4 


87 


62 


61 


3 


30 


10 


34 


2 


93 


23 


69 


107.75 


2 


42 


43 


36 


2 


72 


3 


81 


1 


34 


9 


64 


63.29 


2 


78 


55 


55 


1 


13 


4 


67 


2 


45 


14 


91 


81.50 


2 


87 


56 


90 


1 


13 


5 


39 




79 


15 


39 


82.49 


2 


96 


62 


14 


3 


70 


8 


33 


3 


64 


10 


05 


90.82 


2 


49 


56 


05 


1 


57 


2 


40 


4 


09 


11 


44 


78.05 


2 


25 


54 


52 


3 


11 


3 


75 


1 


28 


14 


88 


79.80 


2 


51 


74 


10 


3 


44 


10 


51 


2 


34 


16 


82 


109.72 


1 


86 


59 


08 


2 


33 


6 


14 


4 


32 


6 


20 


79.91 


6 


77 


69 


04 


4 


58 


3 


57 


3 


76 


16 


07 


103.80 


3 


72 


53 


12 


1 


44 


2 


09 




49 


12 


85 


73.71 


2 


64 


49 


65 


1 


38 


4 


06 




61 


11 


64 


70.97 


2 


81 


60 


12 


3 


33 


4 


12 


2 


02 


14 


53 


86.92 






52 


91 


1 


39 


3 


11 


2 


67 


15 


69 


75.77 


3 


17 


58 


12 


3 


55 


4 


36 


4 


38 


11 


90 


85.47 


2 


04 


44 


77 


1 


51 


3 


73 


2 


02 


11 


72 


65.79 


1 


73 


71 


24 


3 


41 


10 


24 


3 


33 


1 


21 


91.16 


$2.02 


$64 


52 


$2 


91 


$7 


99 


$3 


14 


$5 


15 


$85.74 



County Average 

1946 

1947 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel.... 

Baltimore. 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's . 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City .. 

State Average.... 



* Excludes estimated expenditures for health services rendered public school children by county. City and State 
health departments. See Table 139, page 256. 
For basic data see Table XX, page 288. 



136 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 25 

Cost per Colored Public Elementary School Pupil Belonging for Current 
Expenses Excluding General Control: 1945, 1946, 1947 



County 



County Average 


* An 
$ ou 


« A7 
♦ Of 


Montgomery 


83 


93 


Cecil 


68 


97 


Allegany 


96 


85 


Queen Anne's 


75 


8U 


Harford 


62 


81 


Carroll 


78 


79 


Talbot 


62 


71 


Wicomico 


63 


75 


Frederick 


66 


70 


Dorchester 


56 


67 


Prince George's'* 


58 


68 


Kent 


59 


66 


Howard 


60 


6U 


Caroline 


61i 


69 


Anne Arundel* 


59 


65 


Washington 


l\x 


62 


St. Mary's 


61 


67 


Baltimore 


53 


57 


Somerset 


56 


60 


Worcester 


50 


60 


Charles 


50 


57 


Calvert 


U6 


50 


Baltimore City 


11 


82 


State Average 


69 


76 




* Excludes pupils attending elementary school at Bowie State Teachers College. 
Excludes health expenditures by County and City health departments. See Table 139, page 256 
for these expenditures in 1946-47. 

For basic data by county see Table XX, page 288. 



Current Expense Cost Per Colored Pupil Belonging 137 



CHART 26 

Cost per Colored Public High School Pupil Belonging for Current Expenses 
Excluding General Control: 1945, 1946, 1947 



County 
County Average 
Allegany 
Washington 
Cecil 
Carroll 
Queen Anne's 
Kent 
Charles 
Wiconico 
Montgomery 
Calvert 
St. Mary's 
Prince George's 
Caroline 
Howard 
Frederick 
Baltiaore 
Anne Arundel 
Dorchester 
Talbot 
Harford 
Somerset 
Worcester 

Baltimore City 
State Average 




Excludes payments of $20 and $15 by parents for each high school pupil transported a full school 
year in Baltimore County and Montgomery County, respectively. 
For basic data by county see Table XXI, page 289. 



138 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 93 



Cost Per Pupil in Maryland High Schools for Colored Pupils for the Main Subdivisions of 
Expenditures, Exclusive of General Control and Fixed Charges, for the Year 
Ending June 30, 1947 



• 


Instructional Service 


















































Total 






County 














Operation 


Mainte- 


Auxiliary 


Current 


Capital 




Supervision 


Salaries 


All Other 






nance 


Agencies 


Expenses 


Outlay 


County Average: 


































1946 


$ 


43 


$72 


39 


$4 


38 


$6 


73 


$3 


85 


$19 


66 


$107 


44 


$13 


25 


1947 


1 


14 


85 


96 


5 


91 


8 


11 


5 


22 


*20 


94 


127 


29' 


14 


04 


Allegany 






160 


26 


9 


29 


18 

8 


73 


41 


42 


11 


22 


240 


92 
98 






Anne Arundel 


1 


94 


77 


55 


5 


30 


13 


4 


49 
63 


21 


59 


118 




Baltimore 


4 


66 


87 


78 


9 


32 


8 


11 


3 


*6 


57 


120 


06 


110 


66 


Calvert 






65 


30 


3 


41 


8 


68 


3 


52 


56 


17 


137 


07 


2 


99 


Caroline 




87 


77 


5 


29 


6 


12 


2 


30 


21 


72 


123 


19 




Carroll 




111 


01 


7 


30 


6 


30 


3 


10 


30 


64 


158 


35 


1 


74 


Cecil 




92 


30 


7 


14 


20 


72 


2 


76 


43 


58 


166 


50 




Charles 




95 


23 


4 


75 


10 
6 


03 


4 


66 


27 


20 
88 


141 


87 


1 


60 


Dorchester.. 


.57 


83 


93 


3 


68 


11 


4 


63 


18 


117 


81 




Frederick 


95 


41 


5 


10 


4 


94 




47 


15 


05 


120 


97 




Garrett.... 












Harford 


2 


20 


78 


91 


6 


29 


7 


85 


4 


90 


9 


04 


109 


18 


15 


79 


Howard 


3 


57 


75 


53 


6 


56 


4 


27 


5 


80 


26 


78 


122 


51 


3 


15 


Kent 






86 


73 


7 


00 


11 


29 


16 


49 


24 


77 


146 


27 


4 


00 


Montgomery 




76 


83 


84 


8 


11 


11 


75 


3 


65 


*30 


96 


139 


06 


24 


76 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


2 


09 


86 


15 


4 


38 


7 


34 


6 


80 


18 


96 


125 


71 


10 


48 






104 


89 


6 


36 


9 


52 


4 


00 


31 


09 


155 


86 




23 


St. Mary's 




83 


18 


10 


45 


8 


46 




89 


24 


89 


127 


86 






Somerset 




78 


32 


3 


54 


7 


13 


6 


41 


11 


84 


107 


24 


5 


16 


Talbot 




85 


56 


5 


92 


4 


22 


3 


42 


16 


77 


115 


90 




26 


Washington.... 




156 


55 
86 


8 


94 


7 


17 


3 


79 


10 


04 


186 


48 


3 


59 


Wicomico 




94 


7 


33 


6 


52 
98 


9 


02 


21 


60 


139 


33 


5 


63 


Worcester 




63 


17 


3 


04 


5 


2 


22 


17 


33 


91 


74 




12 


Baltimore City 


2 


01 


105 


61 


6 


79 


16 


96 


7 


31 


2 


59 


141 


28 


1 


64 


Junior High 


2 


98 


92 


59 


5 


73 


13 


60 


7 


26 


1 


60 


123 


75 


2 


26 


Senior High 




57 


134 


43 
89 


8 


43 


19 


50 
96 


3 


57 


4 


63 


171 


13 






Vocational 




58 


104 


8 


25 


26 


15 


36 


2 


87 


158 


91 


2 


22 


State Average 


$1 


61 


$96 


45 


$6 


38 


$12 


83 


$6 


34 


*$11 


15 


$134 


76 


$7 


42 



* Includes cost of transportation fares paid per pupil as follows: Total Counties, $.67; Baltimore County, $2.32; 
Montgomery County, $6.66; Entire State, $.31. 
For basic data, see Table XXI, page 289. 



Cost Per Colored High School Pupil; Growth in County White High 

Schools 



I 

I 



1 

m 

ill 



i 











1 


-t— 4— 4- -(- -1-4- -1- 4—1- -1— 1- 


h 


i 


eC H — i — 1— H— -)— -1—4— 4— 


i 


1 


-g •f-4-4- 4- 4- 




i 




i 






i 












1 


of 


1 


1 


i ||x2^S3^^§^^S^|g^2^?5|§?? 


1 


i 




1 


i 


Cq__ ^ 




i 


2- 




i 






1 


*56,208 

6,207 
3,608 
9,297 
433 
977 
2,344 
1,717 
831 
1,170 

1,203 
2,217 
1,014 
549 
5,631 
6,246 
632 
584 
774 
846 
5,113 
1,199 
919 




1 

2 


*53,725 

5,861 
3,520 
8,513 
279 
972 
2,291 
1,678 
809 
1,108 
3,114 
1,142 
2,192 
1,012 
483 
5,347 
6,065 
610 
580 
733 
777 
5,031 
1,207 
910 




1 

2 




1 


i 

2 




1 


i 

2 






1 

2 






i 


? ^ ^ ^ ^ 




County 


Total 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

(Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery .. 
I'r. George's ... 
Queen Anne's.. 
St. Mary's .. 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington .... 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Growth in County Colored High Schools; Federal Vocational Funds 141 



TABLE 98 

Federal Vocational Funds Allotted to and Expended in Maryland, 1946-47 



Purpose 


1947 
Allotment 


1947 
Expenditures 


Unexpended 
Balance 


Agriculture 


$69,133.88 
104,538.88 
49,673.98 
26,613.46 
15,668.77 


='$69,132.89 
*93, 170.16 
*49, 673.98 
t26,580.24 
*12,541.69 


$ .99 
11,368.72 


Trade and Industry 






33.22 
3,127.08 


Distributive Occupations 


Total 


$265,628.97 


$251,098.96 


$14,530.01 





* The following amounts shown above opposite agriculture, $2,334.03; trade and industry, $4,277.62 ; 
home economics, $5,245.00; and distributive occupations, $2,412.68 are included in Table 102 as 
Federal aid for State Administration and Supervision opoosite these same stub titles. 

t An amount of $350.62 reported above opposite teacher training and supervision is included for 
trade and industry in Tables 97, 100 and 101. In Table 100 there is included for Allegany $90.68, 
Baltimore County, $54.62, and in Table 101, Baltimore City, $205.32. An amount of $12,360.87 
included above for teacher training and supervision is shown in Table 102 as Federal aid for State 
administration and supervision in agriculture, $4,465.39; in trade and industry, $3,303.19; and in 
home economics, $4,592.29. 



TABLE 97 

Federal Vocational Funds Expended by Subject and Type of School, 1946-47 



Type of School 


Subject 


Total 


Agriculture 


Industrial 
Education 


Home 
Economics 


Distributive 
Education 


County Day 

White 

Colored 


$38,618.25 
14,410.59 

8,240.33 
932.88 


$20,889.97 
930.67 

all, 137.30 
612.00 

2,009.16 
5,159.55 

40,045.11 
5,000.00 

3,278.00 
6205.32 


$21,160.84 
9,444.42 

6,139.50 
1,396.50 


$2,788.50 


$83,457.56 
24,785.68 

25,544.13 
2,941.38 

2,009.16 
5,159.55 

42,567.79 
11,684.22 

5,808.00 
205.32 
1,858.33 


County Evening 

White 

Colored 


27.00 


University of Maryland 

Mining 




Volunteer Firemen 








Baltimore City 

Day 






2,522.68 
396.50 

2,530.00 


Evening 

Cooperative and Con- 
tinuation 




6,287!72 


Teacher Training 






Supervision 






1,858.33 


Total 








$62,202.05 


$89,267.08 


$44,428.98 


$10,123.01 


$206,021.12 



a Includes $145.30 charged to teacher training in Table 96; 6. All charged to teacher training in 
Table 96. 



142 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Federal Aid for Vocational Work in County Day High Schools 143 




144 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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County Adult Education; Federal Vocational Aid for Baltimore 145 
City and State Administration, Supervision and Teacher Training 



The State Board of Education in October approved the pay- 
ment of $550 from State adult education funds for the Tax 
Assessors Institute. 



TABLE 101 

Federal Aid for Vocational Education in Baltimore City Schools for School Year 

Ending June 30, 1947 



Type of School 


Total 
Federal 
Funds 


Enrollment 


Amount 

Aid Per 

Pupil 
Enrolled 


Male 


Female 


Trade and Industrial 

Day Vocational 


$40,045.11 






$15.39 


White 


964 
816 
17 
1,994 


539 
283 
48 
170 


Colored 






Cooperative and Continuation 


3,278.00 
5,000.00 
205.32 

6,287.72 


50.43 
23.11 


Evening 


Teacher Training 


Home Economics 






7.29 


White 




439 
423 

697 


Colored .«. 








Distributive Occupational Classes: 

Part-time 


2,522.68 
2,530.00 


64 


3.31 
42.88 


Cooperative part-time 


White 


7 


22 
30 


Colored 






Evening 


396.50 
1,858.33 


262 


1.51 


Supervision 




Total 








$62,123.66 


4,124 


2,651 


$9.17 





TABLE 102 

Expenditures for Administration and Supervision and Teacher Training in 
Vocational Education, Year Ending June 30, 1947 



Purpose 


State Administration 

AND SXJPERVISION 


Teacher 
Training 


Total 


State 
Funds 


Federal 
FWds 


University 
of Md. 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


State and 
University 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Agriculture i 

Trade and Industry 

Home Economics 

Distributive Education, Oc- 
cupational Information 
and Guidance 


$t5,638.73 
t4,970.65 
t6,965.23 

t9,509.31 


$t°6,799.39 
t°7,580.81 
t°7,793.03 

t:8,353.00 


$*3, 187.25 
*10,643.53 
*2,746.70 


$*3,187.25 
*8,617.66 
*2,746.70 


$8,825.98 
15,614.18 
9,711.93 

9,509.31 


$9,986.64 
16,198.47 
10,539.73 

8,353.00 


Total 






$27,083.92 


$30,526.23 


*$16,577.48 


*$14,551.61 


$43,661.40 


$45,077.84 



* Includes for Princess Anne College $940.13 for agriculture; $1,613.33 for trade and industry; 
$684.95 for home economics; total, $3,238.41. 

► tState funds totalling $3,578.71 and federal funds totalling $2,475.60 for administration are in- 
cluded above for each of the four services. 

° Federal funds above for State administration and supervision appear opposite the appropriate 
stub heading in Table 96, except for the following amounts included in teacher training: agriculture, 
$4,465.39; trade and industry, $3,303.19; and home economics, $4,592.29. 

X Above Federal funds opposite distributive occupations, occupational information and guidance 
include $5,934.32 appearing in Table 96 opposite agriculture, $4,596.84; home economics, $2,044.26, 
while the amount for trade and industry in Table 96 is $706.78 less. 



146 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 103 



Maryland County Expenditures for Transporting Pupils to School, 1925-1947 





Public 






X UDlic riincls 




ExpGn<iitur6s 


JN umDGr 


■NT U f 

JNurnDGr oi 


Spent per 


Yf-ar 


for 


of 


Pupils 


Pupil TrjinS" 




Trsnsportstion ^(z& 


CountiGs 


i. rflnspor tGci(z 


portedfl 


1925 


tPd? 041 

tp^^^yVX J. 


22 


8 618 


$28.09 


1926 


^19 4Q=; 


22 


10 567 


29.57 


1927 




23 


23*385 


27.88 


1928 




23 


15 907 


27.45 


1929 




23 


18 928 


27.07 


1930 




23 


22*814 


26.41 


1931 


*744 400 


23 


?Q OOfi 


27^66 


1932 


*«^4 fi7Q 


23 


35 019 


23.84 


1933 


Q^Q 974. 


23 


40 308 


21.29 


1934 


8fi^ 


23 


42*241 


20.44 


1935 


892 422 


23 


44 576 


20.02 


1936. 


952^598 


23 


49'051 


19!42 


1937 


1,019,872 


23 


52,248 


19.52 


1938 


1,121,498 


23 


56,268 


19.93 


1939 


1,202,784 


23 


61,753 


19.48 


1940 _ 


1,285,520 


23 


66,036 


19.47 


1941 


1,326,389 


23 


70,162 


18.90 


1942.... 


1,411,110 


23 


74,113 


19.04 


1943 


1,491,244 


23 


74,711 


19.96 


1944 


1,561,711 


23 


74,813 


20.87 


1945 


1,696,487 


23 


77,349 


21.93 


1946 


1,857,239 


23 


82,020 


22.64 


1947 


2,007,421 


23 


88,214 


22.78 



TABLE 104 

County Pupils Transported to Public Schools at Public Expense, 1925-1947 



Pupils Transported to School at Public Expense 



Number Transported 



Elementary 



White 



6,269 
7,613 
9,778 
11,774 
14,028 
16,670 
20,593 
24,787 
28,741 
29,969 
31,147 
32,676 
34,076 
35,980 
38,201 
40,633 
42,765 
45,055 
45,733 
46,025 
47,807 
42,505 
45.260 



Col- 
ored 



144 
105 
tl40 
t201 
t247 
t310 
t493 
t724 
t847 
tl,051 
tl,096 
tl,389 
tl,807 
t2,749 
14,147 
t4,834 
t5,472 
t6,650 
t6,591 
t6,904 
t7,486 
t7,397 
t8,285 



High 



White 



2,197 
2,835 
3,424 
3,870 
4,632 
5,660 
7,746 
9,019 
10,157 
10,581 
11,517 
13,191 
13,970 
14,556 
16,147 
17,122 
18,326 
18,893 
18,804 
18,340 
18,444 
27,177 
29.270 



Col- 
ored 



1 
14 
15 
20 
23 
174 
215 
477 
502 
740 
1,035 
al,795 
a2,395 
a2,983 
a3,258 
a3,447 
a3,599 
a3,515 
a3,583 
3,544 
3,612 
4,941 
5,399 



Percent Transported 



Elementary 



White 



Col- 
ored 



High 



White 



Col- 
ored 



Public Funds 
Expended for 
Transportation 
of Pupilstb 



White 
Pupils 



$238,094 
308,596 
368,089 
431,065 
506,478 
594,473 
726,747 
807,373 
828,067 
826,817 
850,481 
890,325 
944,922 
1,013,356 
1,066,880 
1,134,161 
1,160,242 
1,223,726 
1,288,998 
1,337,030 
1,437,994 
1,554,280 
1,660.138 



Colored 
Pupils 



$3,947 
3,899 
5,079 
5,517 
*5,907 
*8,675 
*17,653 
*27,305 
30,207 
36,732 
41,938 
a62,272 
a74,951 
al08,142 
al35,904 
al51,359 
al66,146 
al87,384 
a202,246 
224,681 
258,493 
302,959 
347.283 



t Includes county pupils transported to elementary school at Bowie Normal School or Teachers 
College from 1927 to date. 

* Includes Rosenwald aid toward transportation of pupils. e^^^^^i ^nnntiP^ 

t Excludes payments by parents toward cost of high school transportation in several count es. 

a Includes Baltimore County pupils toward whose transportation costs to Baltimore City higti 
schools, Baltimore County contributed from 1936 to 1943 inclusive rp^^;,^,, rnllptrp from 

b Excludes cost of State bus transporting pupils to Bowie Normal School or Teachers College from 
1927 to date. 



Pupils Transported to School at Public Expense 147 
AND Cost Thereof 



TABLE 105 

Maryland Pupils Transported to School in 1946-47 at Public Expense 



County 


Pupils Transported 


Public Expense for Transportation 


Total 


To Elemen- 
tary School 


To High 
School 


Total 


To Elemen- 
tary School 


To High 
School 


Total Counties 


88,214 


53,545 


34,669 


$2,007,420.78 


$1,243,804.12 


$763,616.66 


Baltimore 


12,868 


8,261 


4,607 


tl96,205.13 


139,007.29 


t57,197.84 


Anne Arundel 


*7,237 


*4,162 


3,075 


145,802.12 


82,097.02 


63,705.10 


Montgomery 


7,512 


4,865 


2,647 


tl34,288.32 


95,867.43 


138,420.89 


Frederick 


a4,975 


3,093 


al,882 


132,466.06 


84,194.82 


48,271.24 


Allegany 


65,589 


63,209 


62,380 


128,690.39 


74,002.90 


54,687.49 


Prince George's 


c*7,775 


c*4,186 


c3,589 


122,876.84 


71,763.24 


51,113.60 


Carroll 


d4,588 


d2,912 


dl,676 


111,291.75 


69,743.95 


41,547.80 


Garrett 


2,664 


1,717 


947 


91,006.57 


59,078.71 


31,927.86 


Washington 


4,420 


2,424 


1,996 


83,310.97 


46,953.24 


36,357.73 


Charles 


2,792 


1,816 


976 


78,640.67 


47,187.99 


31,452.68 


Wicomico 


2,381 


1,585 


796 


76,111.07 


50,468.57 


25,642.50 


Dorchester 


2,125 


1,300 


825 


75,175.59 


47,277.96 


27,897.63 


Worcester 


2,310 


1,417 


893 


68,894.30 


41,252.44 


27,641.86 


Cecil 


2,524 


1,464 


1,060 


67,901.53 


39,052.03 


28,849.50 


Calvert 


1,578 


927 


651 


63,649.61 


33,623.70 


30,025.91 


Howard 


2,773 


1,690 


1,083 


63,393.01 


36,750.06 


26,642.95 


Harford 


3,568 


2,152 


1,416 


62,089.73 


38,197.28 


23,892.45 


St. Mary's 


1,671 


924 


747 


58,978.82 


34,343.62 


24,635.20 


Caroline 


1,981 


1,212 


769 


57,861.88 


35,150.42 


22,711.46 


Somerset 


2,024 


1,240 


784 


51,552.60 


32,024.02 


19,528.58 


Queen Anne's . . 


1,635 


996 


639 


49,324.87 


31,416.85 


17,908.02 


Talbot 


1,798 


1,062 


736 


49,153.85 


29,864.76 


19,289.09 


Kent 


1,426 


931 


495 


38,755.10 


24,485.82 


14,269.28 


Baltimore City 


468 


468 




39,423.39 


39,423.39 




Entire State 


88,682 


54,013 


34,669 


$2,046,844.17 


$1,283,227.51 


$763,616.66 



* Includes county pupils transported to elementary school at Bowie Normal School or Teachers 
College. 

t Excludes payments by parents toward cost of high school transportation in Baltimore and Mont- 
gomery Counties. 

a Includes 25 Washington County pupils attending a Frederick County high school at a total cost 
of $975 to Washington County. 

6 Includes 69 elementary and 81 high school pupils from Garrett County attending Allegany schools 
at a total cost of $8,030.83 to Garrett County. 

c Includes 105 elementary and 25 high school pupils from Anne Arundel County attending Prince 
George's County schools at a total cost of $2,070 to Anne Arundel County. 

d Includes 61 elementary and 31 high school pupils from Frederick County attending Carroll 
County schools at a total cost of $2,126 to Frederick County. 



148 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 103 — Expenditures of Public Funds per Maryland County 
Transported to School, for Year Ending June 30, 1947 



Pupil 



County 



Average Expenditure of 
Public Funds per County 
Pupil Transported to 
School for 



All 
Pupils 



White 
Pupils 



Colored 
Pupils 



County 



Average Expenditure of 
Public Funds per County 
Pupil Transported to 
School for 



All 
Pupils 



White 
Pupils 



Colored 
Pupils 



County Average 

Calvert 

Dorchester 

St. Mary's 

Garrett 

Wicomico 

Queen Anne's 

Worcester 

Caroline 

Charles 

Talbot 

Kent 



$22.78 

40.34 
35.38 
35.30 
34.16 
31.97 
30.17 
29.82 
29.21 
28.17 
27.34 
27.18 



$22.27 

43.37 
39.62 
39.48 
34.16 
33.55 
28.55 
36.06 
31.33 
32.24 
31.49 
28.09 



$25.55 

34.27 
28.02 
26.06 



28.11 
36.39 
19.93 
23.25 
21.56 
20.90 
25.40 



Cecil 

Frederick 

Somerset 

Carroll 

Allegany 

Howard 

Anne Arundel .. 

Washington 

Montgomery.... 

Harford 

Prince George's 
Baltimore 



$26.90 
a26.63 

25.47 
d24.26 
623.03 

22.86 
♦20.23 

18.85 
tl7.88 

17.40 
*cl5.93 
tl5.25 



$24.12 
a26.04 
30.99 
rf23.77 
622.94 
22.88 
19.17 
18.23 
tl5.57 
17.46 
C14.64 
tl4.81 



$49.47 
33.76 
17.96 
33.58 
39.83 
22.79 

*27.52 
68.47 

t30.36 
17.09 

*22.12 

121.59 



* Pupils transported include 92, 29 from Anne Arundel and 63 from Prince George's transported 
to the elementary school at Bowie State Teachers College who are excluded in calculating average 
expenditure per pupil transported. 

t Excludes payments by high school pupils in Baltimore and Montgomery Counties. 

a Includes average cost of $39.00 for 25 Washington County pupils attending a Frederick County 
high school at a total cost of $975.00 to Washington County. 

6 Includes average cost of $53.54 for 69 elementary and 81 high school pupils from Garrett County 
attending Allegany County schools at a total cost of $8,030.83 to Garrett County. 

c Includes average cost of $15.92 for 105 elementary and 25 high school pupils from Anne Arundel 
County attending Prince George's County schools at a total cost of $2,070.00 to Anne Arundel County. 

d Includes average cost of $23.11 for 61 elementary and 31 high school pupils from Frederick County 
attending Carroll County schools at a total cost of $2,126.00 to Frederick County. 

TABLE 107 — Number and Percent of Maryland County Pupils Transported 
to School at Public Expense, Year Ending June 30, 1947 



County 



Total and Average: 

1945 

1946 

1947 

Howard 

Carroll 

Queen Anne's 

Charles 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 

Kent 

Caroline 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Garrett 

Talbot 

Frederick 

Cecil 

Anne Arundel 

Harford 

Dorchester 

Wicomico 

Baltimore 

Montgomery 

Allegany 

Prince George's. 

Washington 



White 


Colored 


Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


47,807 


43 


1 


18,444 


49 


6 


*7,486 


32 


7 


3,612 


70 


3 


42,405 


44 


3 


27,177 


52 


2 


*7,397 


34 




4,941 


71 


6 


45,260 


46 


6 


29,270 


53 


4 


*8,285 


37 


6 


5,399 


70 


9 


1,384 


74 


8 


900 


91 


8 


306 


55 


9 


183 


91 





2,773 


73 





1,586 


69 


5 


139 


58 


2 


90 


73 


2 


781 


69 


1 


517 


83 


7 


215 


44 


1 


122 


89 


1 


1,107 


76 


7 


619 


77 


6 


709 


49 


1 


357 


96 


2 


599 


60 


3 


551 


99 


6 


325 


47 




196 


94 


7 


637 


87 


1 


415 


99 





290 


27 


9 


236 


97 


9 


589 


59 


9 


354 


66 


2 


342 


62 


9 


141 


78 


3 


864 


61 


4 


596 


63 


3 


348 


61 


3 


173 


82 


8 


852 


58 


9 


565 


62 


7 


565 


64 


1 


328 


71 





694 


55 


5 


473 


61 


5 


546 


59 


8 


311 


71 





1,717 


52 


5 


947 


80 


7 














601 


50 


1 


492 


60 


4 


461 


67 


7 


244 


74 


2 


2,847 


55 


5 


1,751 


56 


2 


246 


41 


1 


131 


50 


4 


1,334 


50 


3 


913 


55 


2 


130 


47 


6 


147 


83 


1 


3,774 


56 





2,519 


72 


6 


*388 


12 


8 


556 


61 


6 


1,854 


47 


5 


1,194 


56 


5 


298 


45 


6 


222 


61 


5 


774 


42 


7 


574 


49 


9 


526 


51 


1 


251 


69 


9 


1,154 


41 


7 


534 


45 


5 


431 


41 




262 


69 


9 


7,581 


43 


8 


4,464 


49 


7 


680 


26 


8 


143 


22 


8 


4,172 


41 


7 


2,168 


40 


4 


693 


48 


1 


479 


87 


4 


3,206 


37 


4 


2,356 


38 


6 


3 


2 





24 


23 


5 


3,581 


31 


5 


2,801 


47 


2 


*605 


17 


9 


788 


87 


5 


2,385 


32 





1,981 


39 


7 


39 


22 


5 


15 


13 


6 



* Includes in number and excludes in percentage 29 pupils from Anne Arundel and 63 pupils from 
Prince George's transported to elementary school at Bowie State Teachers College. 

Rank is determined by the total percentage of total number transported to the total enrollment. 



Cost Per Pupil Transported; Percent Transported; 
Number of Schools To Which Transportation Provided 



149 



TABLE 108 — Number of County Schools to Which Transportation Was Provided at Public 
Expense, and Number of Buses Used, Year Ending June 30, 1947 



County 




Schools 


FOR White Pupii^ 




Schools 

for 
Colored 
Pupils 


Total 
Number 
of Differ- 
ent 
Schools 


Number of BusesJ 


With Elementary Grades Only 


With 
High and 

Ele- 
mentar>' 
Grades 


With 
High 
School 
Only 


Owned by 


One- 
teacher 


Two- 
teacher 


Graded 


County 


Con- 
tractors 


Total Counties 


31 


58 


197 


102 


68 


171 


627 


144 


=911 


Allegany 




3 


19 


6 


5 


2 


35 , 




=78 


Anne Arundel 






19 


5 




*8 


37 




60 


Baltimore 




1 


11 


20 


9 


12 


53 


28 


°84 


Calvert 






4 






4 


10 




22 


Caroline 




3 


1 


5 




4 


13 




37 


Carroll 




2 


8 


6 


2 


3 


21 


' i 


49 


Cecil 


2 


3 


5 


4 


4 


5 


23 




33 


Charles 






2 


4 


2 


12 


20 


.... 


31 


Dorchester 


6 


3 


3 


6 


1 


12 


31 




45 


Frederick 




4 


15 


6 


2 




34 


2 


77 


Garrett 


12 


5 


7 


4 


1 




29 


8 


44 


Harford 


2 


1 


6 


6 


2 


lb 


27 1 


13 


24 


Howard 


2 


1 


4 


3 


1 


6 


17 




25 


Kent 




5 


2 


2 


2 


6 


17 




24 


Montgomery 


i 


2 


26 


2 


10 


15 


56 


66 




Prince George's 


1 




23 


5 


8 


*13 


50 


17 


33 


Queen Anne's 


1 


3 


7 




3 


9 


23 




26 


St. Mary's 


3 


8 


1 




2 


9 


23 




24 


Somerset 




2 


3 


2 


2 


9 


18 




35 


Talbot 


1 


1 


5 


1 


2 


9 


19 


i 


27 


Washington 




6 


18 




3 


1 


34 


8 


°44 


Wicomico 




1 


5 


5 


1 


6 


18 




45 


Worcester 




3 


3 


4 




9 


19 




44 


Baltimore City 






4 






2 


6 




°12 


Entire State 


31 


58 


201 


102 


68 


173 


633 


144 


=923 



* Excludes elementary school at Bowie State Teachers College and bus carrying pupils there, 
t Two of these to high school only. 

X Excludes total of 87 private cars and station wagons used: in Allegany, 7; Anne Arundel, 2; Baltimore, 1; Calvert 
6; Carroll, 3; Charles, 5; Dorchester, 3; Frederick, 1; Garrett, 23 including 1 station wagon county owned; Harford, 2; 
Queen Anne's, 16; St. Mary's, 10; Talbot, 4; Washington, 2; Wicomico, 1; and Worcester, 1. 

° Includes Isuses owned by common carrier lines: 75 in counties; 27 in Allegany; 46 in Baltimore County; and 2 
in Washington County; 1 in Baltimore City; and 76 in State. 



150 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 109 



Capital Outlay for the Year Ending June 30, 1947* 







White Elementary Schools 


















White 


Colored 


Grand 


County 










High 


Schools 


Total* 




One- 


Two- 


Graded 


All 


Schools 








Teacher 


Teacher 












m» fc 
















Total Counties.. 


$1,851.33 


$5,519.34 


$1,514,166.45 


$1,521,537.12 


$1,260,190.77 


$215,410.32 


*$2,997,138.21 


Allegany 






3,674.21 


3,674.21 


44,298.74 




47,972.95 


Anne Arundel.... 






8,567.99 


8,567.99 


76,508.85 


23,464.49 


tl08,541.33 


Baltimore 






662,695.85 


662,695.85 


210,596.15 


122,464.48 


1995,756.48 


Calvert 




580.81 


1,094.0T» 


1,674.88 


6,088.22 


2,236.64 


9,999.74 


Caroline 




848.17 


848.17 


748.17 




1,596.34 


Carroll 






6,712.86 


6,712.86 


19,229.01 


221.06 


26,162.93 


Cecil 






13,868.17 


13,868.17 


2,994.60 


63.30 


16,926.07 


Charles 






602.99 


602.99 


1,417.51 


1.867.68 


3,888.18 


Dorchester 






125.90 




125.90 


Frederick 




311.68 


9,500.22 


9,811.90 


7,016.66 


477.00 


17,305.56 


Garrett 


183.00 


684.95 


2,096.23 


2,964.18 


14,400.39 




17,364.57 


Harford 


312.89 


472.95 


5,560.79 


6,346.63 


22,415.64 


1,500.62 


30,262.89 


Howard 


8.31 




14,762.54 


14,770.85 


6,468.63 


731.44 


21,970.92 


Kent 




220.40 


220.40 


2,088.11 


684.25 


2,992.76 


Montgomery .... 


1,347.13 


2,857.23 


468,615.66 


472,820.02 


485,432.94 


29,192.70 


*t987,445.66 


Prince George's 






264,206.63 


264,206.63 


102,455.39 


28,254.00 


t394,916.02 


Queen Anne's.... 






6,623.10 


6.623.10 


1,070.27 


32.00 


7,725.37 


St. Mar>''s 




409.77 




409.77 






409.77 


Somerset 






914.93 


914.93 


1,553.35 


2,744.95 


5,213.23 


Talbot 






141.69 


141.69 


259.12 


82.00 


482.81 


Washington 






20,474.71 


20,474.71 


248,327.27 


373.76 


269,175.74 


Wicomico 




164.03 


21,461.77 


21,625.80 


2,848.68 


965.75 


25,440.23 


Worcester 




37.92 


1,523.47 


1,561.39 


3,847.17 


54.20 


5,462.76 


Baltimore City.. 




tl00,775.20 


n00,775.20 


165,714.49 


106,015.24 


372,504.93 


Elementary.... 






tl00,775.20 


tl00,775.20 




92,362.57 


193,137.77 


Junior High .. 








tl54,894.62 


11,254.90 


166,149.52 


Senior High .. 










1,129.32 




1,129.32 


Vocational .... 










t9,690.55 


$2,397.77 


12,088.32 


Total State 


$1,851.33 


$5,519.34 


$1,614,941.65 


$22,312.32 


$1,425,905.26 


$321,425.56 


*$3,369,643.14 



* Excludes school buses purchased and $12,000 for junior college in Montgomery County. For purpose of 
expenditures see Table XVII, page 285. 

► t Includes Federal funds for school planning and construction as follows: Anne Arundel, $29,809.99; Baltimore, 
$61,250.00; Montgomery, $20,250.00; and Prince George's, $42,415.00. ..^^ „no *- 

t Includes following expenditures by the Public Improvement Commission: White elementary schools $66,002.4o. 
white junior high schools $153,590.16; white vocational schools $9,690.55 and colored vocational school $2,432.77. 



Capital Outlay; School Bonds Outstanding 



151 



TABLE 110 
School Bonds Outstanding as of June 30, 1947 









Assessa nle 


Percent that 




School Bonds 


Basis Taxable 


Basis Back of 


Indebtedness 


County 


Outstanding 


at Full Rate for 


Each Dollar of 


for Schoo 


1 Bonds 




June 30, 1947 


County Purposes 


School 


Is of Total 






Indebtedness 


County 


Basis 




Total Counties. 


$19,860,424 




$1,535,886,770 


$77 


1 


3 


Allegany 


a2, 593, 000 


113,054,962 


44 


2 


3 


Anne Arundel 


6=^852,744 


177,279,032 


91 


1 


1 


Baltimore 


c3, 814,000 


1354,887,823 


93 


1 


1 


Calvert 


J239,000 


8,116,542 


34 


2 


9 


Caroline 


85,000 


18,060,175 


212 





5 


Carroll 




50,893,819 


o 






Cecil 


el84,090 


t54,115,271 


294 





3 


Charles 


/79,000 


114,867,774 


188 





5 


Dorchester 


g274,520 


28,562,460 


104 


1 





Frederick 


d739,940 


76,500,614 


103 


1 





Garrett 


k 


20,821,072 









Harford 


?nl37,500 


t73,388,191 


534 





2 


Howard 


rf248,570 


22,990,562 


92 


1 


1 


Kent 


n 


19,147,035 









Montgomery 


°6,164,870 


t205,499,010 


33 


3 





Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


?n*2,729,190 


tl48,933,377 


55 




8 


pl32,000 


20,135,362 


153 





7 


St. Mary's 


r 


tll,9Sl,691 


o 






Somerset 


r32,500 


14,515,934 


447 





2 


Talbot 


<il00,000 


25,544,980 


255 





4 


Washington... 


A-757,500 


103,712,054 


137 





7 


Wicomico. 


s599,000 


45,011,220 


75 


1 


3 


Worcester 


98,000 


27,867,810 


284 





4 


Baltimore City 


<*14,648,482 


tl,459,341,034 


100 


1 





Total State 


$34,508,906 


$2,995,227,804 


$87 


1 


1 



Excluding tht following which have been authorized by State legislation but not issued: 



a 


$2,000,000 


g 


$85,000 





$5,000,000 


b 


$2,500,000 
$12,000,000 


h 


$700,000 


P 


$50,000 


c 


k 


$1,500,000 


r 


$200,000 


d 


$500,000 


in 


$4,000,000 




$1,030,000 


e. 


t$2,250,000 


n 


$1,000,000 


t 


t$26,000,000 


f 


$800,000 







* Excluding the following balances in sinking funds: 

Anne Arundel— $130,256; Prince George's— $266,810; Baltimore City— $1,929,518 

X Subject to favorable referendum, 
t Excludes assessments on Federal housing projects. 
° Represents infinity. 



152 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 111 

School Debt* and Interest Paymentst Per Pupil Belonging, 1947 



County 



School Debt 
Per Pupil 
Belonging 



Interest 
Payments 
Per Pupil 
Belonging 



County 



School Debt 
Per Pupil 
Belonging 



Interest 
Payments 
Per Pupil 
Belonging 



County Average 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel.... 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 



$111 


53 


$3 


25 


176 


91 


6 


09 


62 


40 


1 


77 


133 


93 


8 


86 


100 


46 


2 


24 


27 


95 


1 


08 


"o 


00 





00 


39 


07 


1 


32 


19 


77 




87 


64 


02 


2 


42 


82 


55 


3 


43 





00 





00 


19 


68 




22 



Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's. 

Queen Anne's 

St. Man,-'s 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Baltimore City 
j State Average . 



$70 


60 


$2 


60 





00 





00 


359 


26 


9 


45 


129 


81 


2 


99 


55 


93 


1 


22 





00 





00 


9 


86 




35 


33 


64 


1 


43 


60 


32 


2 


51 


114 


27 


3 


21 




23 


1 


17 


139 


74 


5 


13 


$121 


95 


$3 


95 



* See Table 110, page 151, for school bonds outstanding. 

t See Table XVII, page 285, for interest payments on bonded indebtedness. 



TABLE 112 
Value of School Property, 1922-1947 



Year 


Value 


OF School Property 


Value Per Plt^il E.ntiolled 
















Maryland 


Counties 


Baltimore 


Maryland 


Counties 


Baltimore 






Cityt 




Cityt 


1922 


$20,453,646 


$10,014,638 


$10,439,008 I 


$82 


$68 


$103 


1923 


22.236,638 


11,796.630 


10,440,008 1 


87 


77 


100 


1924..... 


28 264.507 ' 


12,813,396 


15,451,111 


110 


85 


147 


1925 


33,622,503 


14.946.810 


18,675,693 


129 


97 


164 


1926 


38 865.024 


16,704 564 


22 160 460 


148 


108 


205 


1927 


48,654,045 


17.889.796 


30.764.249 


182 


114 


277 


1928 


51,765 517 


18,994 670 


32,770 847 


191 


120 


291 


1929 


52.801,013 


19 920 102 


32,880,911 


193 


124 


290 


1980 


55,741,316 


21,483,720 


34,257,596 


201 


132 


297 


1981 


61,141,759 


23,830,725 


37,311,034 


217 


144 


321 


1932 


64,116,448 


24,608,923 


39,507,525 


222 


146 


331 


1933. 


66,030,676 


25,350,740 


40,679,936 


225 


147 


335 


1934 


72,241,647 


25,501,303 


46,740,344 


246 


149 


384 


1935 


74,116,872 


26,847,518 


47,269,354 


251 


156 


384 


1936 


74,429,453 


26,778,790 


47,650,663 


250 


155 


380 


1937 


*78,573,662 


*29,656,237 


48,917,425 


*264 


*171 


395 


1938 


*81,336,202 


*31, 702,972 


49,633,230 


*277 


*184 


410 


1989 


*82,477,467 


*32,801,326 


49,676,141 


*278 


=*188 


408 


1940..... 


*86,373,506 


*36,605,396 


49.768,110 


*291 


*208 


412 


1941 


*87,253,746 


*37,426,526 


49,827,220 


*292 


*210 


414 


1942 


*88,171,154 


*38,442,796 


49,728,358 


*296 


*213 


421 


1943 


*89,953,989 


=^39,490,295 


50,463,694 


*300 


*217 


430 


1944 


*89,951,808 


*39,824,086 


50,127,722 


*304 


*223 


427 


1945 


*89, 660,481 


1 *39,934,051 


49,726,430 


*303 


*219 


437 


1946 


*94,935,593 


^=45,209, 163 


49,726,430 


*320 


*245 


442 


1947 


*96,879,433 


*47,079,154 


49,800.279 


*322 


*251 


440 



* Includes value of equipment in Maryland counties, but excludes value of administration buildings, 
t E.xcludes value of equipment, and also of administration buildings, warehouses, and storage build- 
ings. 



School Debt and Interest Payments Per Pupil; 
Value of School Property 



153 



TABLE 113 

Value of School Property, Including Equipment, Per Pupil Belonging, 1947 



County 


School Property Used by 
White Pupils 


School Property Used by 
Colored Pltils 


Value* 


Average 
Number 
Belonging 


Value 

Per 
White 
Pupil 


Value* 


Average 
Number 
Belonging 


Value 

Per 
Colored 
Pupil 


Total Counties- 


-1945 


$37,731,770 


145,701 


$259 


$2,202,281 


27,184 


S«l 




1946 


42,696,100 


146,067 


292 


2,513,063 


27,953 


90 




1947 


44,386,424 


150,053 


296 


2,692,730 


28,831 


93 


Allegany 




a5,387,420 


14,411 


a374 


86,593 


246 


352 


Anne Arundel 




Ja2,756,880 


10,024 


0275 


:343,275 


3,641 


94 


Baltimore 




t°a8, 514,422 


26,039 


a327 


=445,913 


3,111 


143 


Calvert 




al73,690 


1,133 


al53 


40,850 


1,246 


33 


Caroline 




J641,075 


2,290 


280 


73,000 


751 


97 


Carroll 




U,380,437 


5,979 


231 


19,200 


359 


53 


Cecil 




Jl, 184,950 


4,274 


277 


i42,935 


438 


98 


Charles 




t356,400 


2,219 


161 


*218,250 


1,776 


123 


Dorchester 




1,041,600 


2,915 


357 


*104,900 


1,373 


76 


Frederick 




al, 894,915 


8,121 


c233 


112,960 


842 


134 


Garrett 




J572,210 


4,398 


130 








Harford 




tal,099,000 


5,987 


al84 


J66,400 


999 


.... 
66 


Howard 




a766,100 


2,798 


a274 


36,700 


723 


51 


Kent 




a231,600 


1,493 


a 155 


J36,500 


711 


51 


Montgomery- 




t7,250,700 


15,198 


477 


:i95,000 


1,962 


99 


Prince George's 




3,545,800 


17,154 


207 


327,000 


3,870 


84 


Queen Anne's 




555,000 


1,723 


322 


58,700 


637 


92 


St. Marv's 




t251,725 


1,492 


169 


t24,825 


881 


28 


Somerset 




502,600 


1,982 


254 


80.700 


1,315 


61 


Talbot 




513,263 


1,991 


258 


t35,113 


982 


36 


Washington 




t3,401,900 


12,283 


277 


37,000 


276 


134 


Wicomico 




1,838,887 


3,860 


476 


227,866 


1,382 


165 


Worcester 




525,850 


2,289 


230 


J79,050 


1,310 


61 ■ 


Baltimore City 




6a42.344,317 


70,792 


6a598 


6a7,455,962 


34,036 


f>a219 


Total State 




$86,730,741 


220.845 


$393 


$10,148,692 


62,867 


$161 



* No valuations are included for administration buildings, warehouses, storage buildings, school 
buildings no longer in use or sites on which construction is incomplete and not yet in use. 
t E.xcludes value of school properties owned by the Federal Government. 
I Excludes value of rented buildings. 

° Includes value of school properties ov^Tied by the Federal Government. 

a For white schools, marked with a valuations are appraisals based on replacement costs as deter- 
mined by fire insurance underwTiters: for white schools not marked ^ith a valuations are original 
costs. Appraisals of county schools used by colored pupils were made by the State super\Tsor of colored 
schools, and these are related to a common base. All valuations for Baltimore City are estimates of 
replacement costs. 

b Value of equipment is not included. 



154 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 114— County Tax Levy, 1947-48t 



County 





Levy for Public Schools 




1 oleI 










County 










Levy 


Current 


Debt 


Capital 


Total 




Expenses 


Service g 


Outlay 




$29,873,833 


$12,880,716 


$2,045,323 


$686,671 


$15,612,710 


t*l,929,852 


*840,473 


ff342,936 




*1,183,409 


°2,078 201 


690,274 


115,455 


35,800 


841 529 


a:7'l04',161 


c2,387,873 


234,544 


106,500 


c2,728,'917 


*204,234 


*93,008 


9^29,175 


4,108 


*126,291 


*267,560 


*128,048 


i?9,905 


8,627 


*146,580 


763,793 


425,954 


;i50,000 


26,000 


501,954 


*689,421 


*392,539 


{^30,161 


43,350 


466,050 


*260,845 


mi,002 


gl5,548 


2,000 


*128,550 


2625,012 


223,000 


g57,683 


5,000 


285,683 


1,150,998 


d615,300 


gl04,374 


2,800 


d722,474 


a502,182 


171,275 


1,742 


30,883 


203,900 


61,053,702 


531,400 


Sr24,887 


e93,000 


e649,287 


480,853 


201,324 


!736,193 


9,900 


247,417 


314,875 


182,983 


7,000 


189,983 


5,344,537 


2,398,554 


^464,325 




2,862,879 


2,983,961 


1,390,310 


^327,805 


114,280 


1,832,395 


*322,141 


m*140,075 


gl4,400 


10,000 


*164,475 


*183,686 


*84,385 


954 


5,841 


*91,180 


*288,451 


*107,815 


^/7,656 


20,250 


*135,721 


*336,176 


TO*173,403 


Srl6,740 


12,500 


*202,643 


1,675,725 


1,038,837 


gll5,785 


106,000 


1,260,622 


782,809 


365,767 


^40,733 


2,832 


409,332 


*530,658 


ml87,117 


(?4,322 


40,000 


231,439 


66,486,543 


12,693,320 


^2,230,435 


126,500 


15,050,255 


$96,360,376 


$25,574,036 


$4,275,758 


$813,171 


$30,662,965 



Levy 
for 
Libraries 



AUJCounties 

Allegany 

Anne Arundelf- 

Baltimoref 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchesterf 

Frederickf 

Garrettt 

Harfordt 

Howardf 

Kentt 

Montgomery .... 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's.... 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washingtonf 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore Cityf 

otal State 



$180,155 



14,200 
43,269 



10,000 

900 
1,000 
4,189 
16,000 
4,595 

^29^312 
29,090 
3,900 

900 
4,800 
15,000 
3,000 



/1,000,515 
$1,180,670 



* Includes specifically allocated license fees from motor vehicles. Class A and Class D. 

t Levy made for 1947 calendar year is included. Had practices of preceding years been continued, 1948 data would 
have been included. 

X Excludes State funds as follows: for care of the insane, $10,000; lateral roads gasoline tax, $200,000. 
° Excludes $45,000 from the State Roads Commission — lateral roads gasoline tax. 
X Excludes $285,000 from the State Roads Commission — lateral roads gasoline tax. 

z Excludes State funds as follows: ferry and draw operation, $2,473; welfare, $500; lateral roads gasoline tax, 
$20,000. 

a Excludes State funds as follows: State Hospital fund, $6,000; State Forestry Department, $800. 
h Excludes $170,000 from the State Roads Commission — lateral roads gasoline tax. 
c Includes $2,886.24 paid directly by the County Commissioners to retired teachers. 
d Includes $3,000 paid directly by the County Commissioners to retired teachers. 

e County Commissioners agree to provide in addition up to $60,000 for school building fund from redistributon of 
State funds or additional county funds. 
/ Includes $157,800 for debt service. 

g Includes amounts paid directly by county commissioners. 

h Payment toward increased salaries made available in the preceding school year. 

k Not a county levy, but includes local levies in Bethesda, Silver Spring, specifically for libraries, excluded from total 
in obtaining county tax rates in Table 119, page 161. 

m Excludes supplementary appropriations made later as follows: Queen Anne's $1,535.98; Talbot $840.45 plus 
$659.25 oyster licenses; Worcester, $33,178.38. 



County Tax Levy, and Percent of County and Town Levies 
Used for Schools 



c SfiH 

0) o 
OUT) 



c g a 



^2 



c 

tM I— I 



— o o 



«2M 



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156 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 27 



Percent of Total Tax Levied by County and Incorporated Towns Devoted to School 

Purposes 1947-48 (*1947) 



County 
County Average 

Washington 

Kent 

Cecil 

Talbot 

Harford 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 

Howard 

Charles 

Carroll 

Caroline 

Queen Anne' s 

Prince George's 

Montgomery 

Frederick 

Baltimore 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Anne Arundel 

Somerset 

Garrett 

Allegany 

Dorchester 

Baltimore City 

State Average 



Total 
53.2 

63.7 
5U.5 
58.7 
53.5 
55.3 
U7.0 
58.1 
51.5 
U7.7 
57.1 
U5.8 
hS.l 
73.3 
76.U 
U2.7 
38.1 
36. li 
U3.9 
38.3 
36.7 
36.5 
U.7 
36.5 

22.6 

33.2 



;urrent 
expenses 



□ 8l^hi!^i!faf^ 




EBSHUHHUil] 




ED 


E 


z.<o EE 






1 




* Calendar year 1947, 



Percent Levied for Schools; Change in Reporting County 157 
Levies and Assessments in Calendar Year Counties 

County Levies and Assessments 
In the annual reports of the State Department of Education, 
County and City levies have been included for the year follow^- 
ing the year for which the annual report was made. For ex- 
ample, the report of the activities of the school year 1945-46 
included the levies for the year 1946-47 which were made dur- 
ing the earlier year. For counties levying for the calendar year, 
however, the annual reports for the years ending June 30, 1928 
through June 30, 1946 carried the practice of including the 
levy made for the calendar year following the school year in 
progress, when it would have been better practice to have in- 
cluded it for the calendar year w^hich started during the year 
for which the annual report was being made. The effect of in- 
cluding the later year delayed the report and this practice 
seemed undesirable. It was therefore decided to change the prac- 
tice in the 1946-47 report. This means that levy and assessable 
basis for calendar year counties are somewhat similar in the 
annual reports for 1945-46 and 1946-47. The small differences 
in the assessments in these annual reports for calendar year 
counties are due to the inclusion of complete assessments by the 
State Tax Commission for the year 1947 in this report, while 
those for the calendar year 1946 were included in the report for 
the preceding year. The tables in this report on levy and as- 
sessable basis, especially for calendar year counties, begin a 
new series which are not comparable with those of previous 
years. In each case, however, the assessable basis which 
properly supports the levy for the period shown is included in 
this report. 

Another change appears in the levy and assessable basis 
included in this report due to legislation which removed Class 
A and Class D motor vehicles from the assessable basis fixed 
by the county commissioners. See page 11 and page 16 for a 
summary of these laws. Instead of the inclusion of the assess- 
ment of Class A and D motor vehicles in the second column and 
total of the table showing assessable basis as in former years, 
an estimated assessable basis has been inserted in the last 
column, calculated by dividing the amount estimated as re- 
ceived by the county commissioners as their share of the Class 
A and D fees by the published county tax rate. This is neces- 
sary in calculating the Equalization Fund because the schools 
are allotted the percent of the Class A and D Motor Vehicle re- 
ceipts by the County Commissioners which the school tax rate 
is of the total tax rate. Figures in the last column in Table 117 
have been added to the total assessable basis in calculating school 
tax rates in Table 119 on page 161, but not in Tables 110, 116, 
117 and 118 on pages 151, 158, 159 and 160, respectively. 



158 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 116 



Assessable Basis Taxable at Full Rate for County Purposes in Thousands of Dollars 

{Data Furnished by State Tax Commission) 



County 


*1923 


*1928 


1938 


*1944 


*1945 


*1946 


*1947 


Total Counties.— 


$661,725 


$883,508 


$1,025,573 


$1,431,211 


$1,463,781 


$1,501,532 


$1,557,124 


Allegany 


69,886 


80,715 


*83,160 


95,483 


95,812 


100,608 


113.055 


Anne Arundel 


30,692 


47,544 


*55,750 


69,567 


J72,244 


176,840 


r78,010 


Baltimore 


104,232 


157,654 


199,908 


359,748 


t362,204 


1358,721 


1°362,096 


Calvert 


4,427 


5,305 


6,181 


7,316 


7,476 


7,730 


8,117 


Caroline 


14,027 


15,283 


*14,813 


16,244 


16,625 


17,019 


18,060 


Carroll 


33,382 


39,875 


38,633 


43,419 


46,612 


47,412 


50,894 


Cecil 


23,189 


30,408 


40,402 


53,694 


154,621 


154,609 


154,690 


Charles 


8,394 


9,938 


10,145 


12,937 


U4,109 


114,594 


115,518 


Dorchester 


18,987 


21,918 


26,403 


25,424 


27,541 


29,464 


°28,562 


Frederick 


51,248 


65,234 


66,548 


72,154 


73,607 


75,931 


°76,501 


Garrett 


16,303 


21,653 


*19,661 


19,390 


19,755 


20,575 


°20,821 


Harford 


28,580 


39,763 


53,192 


66,056 


174,637 


176,259 


1°77,190 


Howard 


15,670 


18,063 


18,386 


21,299 


21,684 


22,972 


22,991 


Kent 


14,519 


16,162 


*17,062 


18,559 


18,600 


18,993 


19,147 


Montgomery 


45,503 


77,889 


109,635 


181,243 


1181,733 


1189,012 


1206,541 


Prince George's .. 
Queen Anne's 


33,651 


59,312 


77,260 


tl41,652 


1147,564 


1152,540 


1155.398 


14,793 


16,692 


16,778 


18,831 


18,013 


19,596 


20 135 


St. Mary's 


7,163 


8,289 


*9,084 


10,077 


111,253 


111,338 


112,746 


Somerset 


10,609 


12,392 


11,920 


12,992 


13,194 


13,931 


14.516 


Talbot 


16,927 


20,478 


21,682 


23,332 


23,607 


24,231 


25,545 


Washington 


62,570 


72,908 


76,348 


101,577 


100,783 


103,171 


103,712 


Wicomico 


20,394 


25,092 


*3 1,538 


37,169 


38,480 


40,412 


45,011 


Worcester 


16,579 


20,941 


21,084 


23,048 


23,627 


25,574 


27,868 


Baltimore City. .. 


902,208 


1,255,978 


1,231,046 


1,341,061 


11,408,412 


11,455,301 


1°1.469.983 


Entire State 


$1,563,933 


$2,139,486 


$2,256,619 


$2,772,272 


$2,872,193 


$2,956,833 


$3,027,107 



* Includes reassessment figures. 

° Assessments by the county commissioners made in the year 1946 supporting the 1947 levy and by the State 
Tax Commission for the year 1947 are included here. These calendar year figures are not comparable with those of 
preceding years as explained on page 157. 

t Includes $6,784,761 for Greenbelt, Calvert, Carry Houses and Maryhurst. 

1 Includes assessments on Federal housing projects for which lump sum payments are made in lieu of taxes. 



Assessable Basis by Year and Source 159 



§ 1 



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' X cxT o* ■^* in oc to* o c--* eg* 01 «c* in o eg • 
rHinu2rHcgt^cgc^cgrHoineg'-Hi 

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160 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 118 



Assessable Wealth Back of Each Public School Pupil Belonging: 1946-47 





1947 Basis Assessable 


Number of 




County 


at Full Rate for 


Pupils 


Wealth per Pupil 




County Purposes 


Belonging 


Total Counties 


$1,557,123,242 


178,884 


$8,705 


Baltimore 


362,096,058 


29,150 


12,422 


Montgomery 


206,540,710 


17,160 


12,037 


Cecil 


54,689,771 


4,712 


11,606 


Harford 


77,189,798 


6,986 


11,049 


Kent 


19,147,035 


2,204 


8,687 


Talbot 


25,544,980 


2,973 


8,592 


Wicomico.... 


45,011,220 


5,242 


8,587 


Frederick 


76,500,614 


8,963 


8,535 


Queen Anne's 


20,135,362 


2,360 


8,532 


Washington 


103,712,054 


12,559 


8,258 


Carroll 


50,893,819 


6,338 


8,030 


Worcester 


27,867,810 


3,599 


7,743 


Allegany 


113,054,962 


14,657 


7,713 


Prince George's 


155,397,877 


21,024 


7,391 


Dorchester 


28,562,460 


4,288 


6,661 


Howard 


22,990,562 


3,521 


6,529 


Caroline 


18,060,175 


3,041 


5,939 


Anne Arundel 


78,009,998 


13,665 


5,709 


St. Mary's 


12,746,135 


2,373 


5,371 


Garrett 


20,821,072 


4,398 


4,734 


Somerset 


14,515,934 


3,297 


4,403 


Charles. 


15,518,294 


3,995 


3,884 


Calvert 


8,116,542 


2,379 


3,412 


Baltimore City 


1,469,983,320 


104,828 


14.023 


Total State 


$3,027,106,562 


283,712 


$10,670 



Wealth Back of Each Pupil; Calculated and Published Tax Rates 161 



TABLE 119 

Calculated County School Tax Rates and Published County Tax Rates, 1947-48 



County 



Total Counties. - 

Allegany 

Anne Arundelf -. 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchestert 

Frederickt 

Garrettt 

Harfordt 

Howardt 

Kentt 

Montgomerj' 

Prince George's 

Queen Anne's .... 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washingtont 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Balto. Co.ta 

Baltimore Cityt 

Total State 



1947-48 Calculated County Rate* 



Current 
Expenses 



$.789 

.721 
.833 
1.074 



.687 
°.638 
.751 
.763 
.754 

.662 
.827 
.893 
1.111 
.867 

C.649 
°.605 

.697 
C.644 

.957 

.759 
C.636 

.631 

.850 
.818 



For School 



Debt 
Serviced 



Capital 
Outlay 



$.125 

J. 294 
.139 
t337 
J. 051 
.092 

t.053 
J. 089 
X . 194 
J. 129 
.008 

J. 031 
tl49 



J. 215 
t205 

.067 

.007 
J . 050 
J. 062 
M07 

J. 084 
t015 

.062 

M49 

.137 



.043 
.047 
.044 
.048 

.076 
Oil 

.017 
.003 
.136 

.116 
.041 
.034 

.071 

.046 

.042 
.131 i 
.046 I 
.098 

.006 
.136 

.028 

.008 

.026 



Total? 



$.042 , $.956 



1.015 
1.015 

1.458 
.751 
.927 



.816 

.738 
.962 
.895 
.898 

.809 
1.017 

.927 
1.326 
1.143 

.762 
°.654 
.878 
.752 
1.162 

.849 
.787 

.721 

1.007 

.981 



For 
Libraries 



Total 
Published 

County 
Tax Rate 

1947-48 



il Additional 
' Rates in 
Districts 
and 
In- 
corporated 
i Places 



$.012 
".018 



.018 

.003 
.001 
.020 

.021 
.020 

A:.014 
.019 

.019 

.006 
.019 
.014 

.007 



,012 
068 
039 



$1 


72 


1 50-$l 


25 


1 


55 


59- 4 


30 


2 


17 


60- 1 


10 


1 


30 


25- 1 


15 


1 


45 


40- 1 


00 


1 


14 


40- 1 


33 


1 


35 


.50- 


80 


1 


85 


.65- 1 


35 


1 


34 


.10- 1 


30 


2 


10 


.15- 


85 


1 


30 


.95- 1 


00 


1 


75 


.07 




1 


25 


.40- 1 


35 


1 


88 


.18- 1 


83 


1 


95 


6.25- 3 


07 


1 


00 


.25- 1 


10 


1 


50 


.90 




1 


60 


.75- 1 


50 


1 


40 


85- 1 


25 


1 


50 


37- 1 


00 


1 


25 


.18- 2 


01 


1 


35 


25- 1 


40 


1 


80 


.03 




2 


96 







* County le\ies for school and librar>' purposes divided by total assessed valuations taxable at full 
rate for county purposes. Estimated assessments of A & D motor vehicles have been included in 
obtaining tax rates for schools; but they have been e.xcluded from the calculation of rates for libraries. 

t For calendar year 1947. 

X Includes tax for debt service payments made directly by county commissioners. 
° Excludes funds received from Federal Government for schools at Indian Head and Patuxent 
River. 

a Baltimore County is a non-equalization fund county. 

b The upper limit of this bracket, $3.07, represents a tax rate calculated for ser\ices rendered by 
Federal Government to Greenbelt. 

c Excludes supplementary rates as follows: Queen Anne's, $.007 appropriation; Talbot, $.003 
appropriation and $.002 oyster licenses; Worcester, $.113 appropriation. 

k See footnote k. Table 114, page 154. 



162 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



CHART 28 

State Individual Income Tax per Capita in Maryland Counties: 1946-47 



County- 
County Average 

Montgomery 

Baltimore 

Talbot 

Queen Anne' s 
Washington 
Wicomico 
Howard 

Prince George's 

Harford • 

Anne Arundel 

Cecil 

Allegany 

Worcester 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Caroline 

Kent 

Carroll 

Charles 

Somerset 

Calvert 

Garrett 

St. Mary's 

Baltimore City 

Svate Average 



Sources: Report of the Comptroller of the Treasury of Maryland, Fiscal Year 1947, pages 90, 91; 
population estimates from Bureau of Vital Statistics, Maryland State Department of Health. 



Per Capita State Individual Income Tax and Income Payments 163 



CHARTS 29 and 30 
Per Capita Income Payments in 13 States, 1946-47; and in Maryland, 1929-1947 



Per capita income payments (in hundreds of dollars) 

2 h 6 8 10 12 lU 16 



1 Nevada 

2 New Tork 

3 North Dakota 
h Connecticut 

5 Delaware 

6 California 

7 Montana 

8 Illinois 

9 New Jersey 

10 Rhode Island 

11 Colorado 

12 Wyoming 

13 Maryland 





13 

o 
u 

° 11 

o 

^ 10 

T3 9 

^1 

I « 

o 

7 

a 
*> 

S 6 
I 

* 5 

o 

I 

a ^ 

5 3 
o 

" 2 

o 
O. 

1 

. 



U. S. Dcpa-ment of C jmnierc?, Sourc^: Survey of Current Bjsin*'ss, August, 194S. 



164 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

TABLE 120 — Net Receipts and Expenditures from Sources Other than County 
Public Funds for County White and Colored Schools, 1946-47 



County 



Gross 
Receipts 



Net 
Receipts 



Expenditures 
from Net 
Receipts 



Balance 
June 30, 1947 



Total 

Allegany* 

Anne Arundel*... 

Baltimoref 

Calvert 

Carolinet* 

Carrollt 

Cecil* 

Charles 

Dorchestert 

Frederick* 

Garrettt 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent* 

Montgomen,' 

Prince George's* 
Queen Anne's*... 

St. Mary's* 

Somersett 

Talbott 

Washington* 

Wicomico* 

Worcester 



$1,012,106.24 



582,488.11 



11,255.17 
195,916.14 



109,092.65 



62,226.77 
51,127.40 



$947,817.42 

1348,480.64 
25,525.72 
2p5,572.10 

"3,85i;78 
66,479.02 
383.36 

347132795 
565.60 
1,169.38 



1,008.84 

9,617;i2 
2,034.15 
86.87 
32,617.83 
30,433.57 
tl81,736.02 
4,122.47 



$797,766.02 

348,480.64 
25,525.72 
104,364.22 

"'3,'50b.l7 
45,439.07 
383.36 

21,666.96 
565.60 
846.05 



1,008.84 

'9,617.12 
2,034.15 
86.87 
21,914.38 
26,474.38 
181,736.02 
4,122.47 



$150,051.40 



101,207.88 



351.61 
21,039.95 



12,465.99 
323;33 



10,703.45 
3,959.19 



* Receipts and expenditures which were removed from the fiaancial report, 
t Receipts and expenditures reported separately by the county. 

t Includes estimated payments by school cafeteria patro.as for lunches as follows: Allegany, 
$339,843.38; Washington, $180,386.86. 

TABLE 121 — Parent-Teacher Associations in County White and Colored Schools 



County 



Total and 

County Average 

Anne Arundel 

Charles 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Montgomery 

Baltimore 

Kent 

Worcester 

Caroline 

Prince George's .... 

Calvert 

Washington 

Howard 

Carroll 

Allegany 

Harford 

Cecil 

Wicomico 

Queen Anne's 

Frederick 

Dorchester 

Garrett 

St. Mary's 



White Schools 



Number 



1946 



445 

32 
7 
12 
9 
42 
43 
12 
9 
8 
45 



1947 



439 

32 
9 
13 
11 
41 
43 
11 
9 
8 
46 
6 
37 
9 
16 
30 
23 
16 
12 
11 
17 
13 
20 
6 



Percent 



1946 



77.7 

100.0 
87.5 
92.3 
81.8 
97.7 
95.6 
92.3 
90.0 
88.9 
83.3 
85.7 
81.4 
90.9 
52.4 
70.7 
84.4 
63.6 
100.0 
100.0 
61.3 
57.1 
42.9 
20.0 



1947 



78.3 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
97.6 
93.5 
91.7 
90.0 
88.9 
88.5 
85.7 
84.1 
81.8 
80.0 
76.9 
76.7 
76.2 
75.0 
68.8 
54.8 
48.1 
41.7 
40.0 



County 



Total and 
County Average 

Baltimore 

Cecil 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 

Washington 

Worcester 

Anne Arundel ... 

Charles 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Howard.. 

St. Mary's 

Talbot 

Harford 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Dorchester 

Allegany 



Colored Schools 



Number 



1946 



245 

16 

5 
6 
19 
37 
13 

9 
37 
18 
10 
7 
7 
13 
9 
10 
11 
3 
4 
4 



1947 



237 

16 

5 
6 
20 
37 
13 
1 
9 
34 
19 
10 
8 
7 
12 
7 
8 
12 
2 
2 
4 
5 




Percent 



1946 



89.1 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
95.0 
100.0 
100.0 
0.0 
100.0 
100.0 
94.7 
90.9 
77.8 
87.5 
92.9 
90.0 
83.3 
64.7 
75.0 
80.0 
50.0 
50.0 
50.0 



1947 



87.5 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
97.1 
95.0 
90.9 
88.9 
87.5 
85.7 
77.8 
72.7 
70.6 
50.0 
50.0 
50.0 
41.7 
0.0 



The parent (s) of the following number and percent of county pupils visited the schools during 
1946-47: 

Pupils Whose Parent (s) Visited School 
School Number Percent 

White Elementary 53,547 53 

Colored Elementary 10,354 47 

White High 13.423 24 

Colored High 2,223 29 

Teachers visited the homes of the following county pupils during 1946-47: 

Pupils Whose Homes Were Visited by Teachers 
School Number Percent 

White Elementary 11,811 12 

Colored Elementary 10,106 46 

White High 3,907 7 

Colored High 2.000 26 



STATE AND COUNTY ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION 
Conferences of the State Department Staff 

Regular staff conferences were held September 9 and No- 
vember 1, 1946, January 3, March 7, and May 2, 1947. 

At the September conference, Dr. Pullen presented infor- 
mation on changes in procedure and members of the staff gave 
an account of new or changed assignments. 

At the November conference, Dr. Pullen presented legisla- 
tive and budget items under consideration and Department re- 
sponsibilities and assignments. ]vlr. Seidel and ^Mrs. Bowie dis- 
cussed the new school-lunch program. In the afternoon the staff 
met at the Pratt Library to see a film showing the work done 
by a bookmobile in a rural area and heard Miss Clark in her 
Pratt Library quarters explain the work of the Division of Li- 
brary Extension. 

In January, discussion centered around *'The Sherbow Re- 
port and Its Implications for the State Education Program," 
legislative plans for 1947, and 'Trinciples Underlying a Sound 
Guidance Program" presented by Dr. Cromwell. 

In March, Dr. Pullen brought the staff up to date on the 
legislative program and other developments after which Dr. 
Hawkins and Sir. Spitznas discussed current and proposed de- 
velopments in the over-all curriculum program, including work- 
shop plans for the summer of 1947. 

Salary Revision for State Department of Education Professional Staff 
Because of the difficulty the State was experiencing in fill- 
ing vacancies in the professional staff', the State Board of Edu- 
cation in October 1946 authorized the President and Vice-Pres- 
ident to appear before the Salary Standards Board to request 
a revision of the salary schedules for the professional staff. The 
Salary Standards Board approved the following salary sched- / 
ules as of January 1, 1947: ; 

Minimum ^laximum 



Assistant State Superintendent S6320 S7900 

Director of Division 5320 6650 

Supervisor 4S20 6025 

Assistant Supervisor 3S20 4775 

Rehabilitation Counselor 3320 4150 



In February 1947 the State Board of Education requested 
the Governor to fix the salary of the State Superintendent of 
Schools, at a minimum of 812,000 and a maximum of 815,000 
with five annual increments of 8600. Since the State Superin- 
tendent in ]\Iarch 1947 had served five years, the salary was 
fixed at 815,000 to take effect May 1, 1947. 

County Administration 
Salaries of and Changes in Superintendents 

Required minimum salaries of Maryland school superin- 
tendents as established in 1945 vary with years of experience 
as a superintendent and size of teaching staff. Salaries in 1946- 
47 ranged from 84000 in the county paying the lowest salary 
to 88.500 in the three counties paying the highest salary, with 
the salary in Baltimore City 812,000. In the counties the aver- 



165 



166 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

age salary was $5,786, an increase of $218 over the previous 
year while the median salary of $5,400 was $400 above 1945-46. 
In two counties with newly appointed superintendents with 
fewer years of experience than the retiring superintendent, the 
salary was lower in 1946-47 than in 1945-46; in five counties 
and Baltimore City, there was no change in salary, while in six- 
teen counties increases ranged from $110 to $1500. 

The only changes in superintendents which occurred at the 
end of the year 1946-47 resulted from the replacement of Mr. 
B. C. Willis, who became superintendent of schools in Yonkers, 
New York, by Mr. William Brish who left Kent County for 
Washington County. Mr. Reade Corr who was a high school 
principal at Catonsville in Baltimore County was appointed 
Superintendent in Kent County. 

Conferences of the County Superintendents with the State Department Staff 

Meetings of the Superintendents held in October, December, 
January, February and May dealt with the problems discussed 
by the Department Staff, viz., the recommendations for legis- 
lation presented to the Legislative Council by Dr. Pullen on 
July 17, 1946, the requests in the State School Budget, the rec- 
ommendations of the Sherbow Report on the Redistribution of 
State Revenues as they affect the educational program, new 
responsibilities faced by the State and County educational 
officials. 

''Proposals for Improving Public Education in Maryland'* 
were prepared by Dr. Pullen in January 1947 for Hon. William 
Preston Lane, who took office as Governor of Maryland Janu- 
ary 3, 1947. As it summarizes the philosophy underlying the 
Maryland educational program, the 1949 legislative proposals 
and budget requests for 1950 and 1951, much of it is included 
bere. 

PROPOSALS FOR IMPROVING PUBLIC EDUCATION IN MARYLAND 

Thomas G. Pullen, Jr. 

Introduction 

It was no mere coincidence that England, in the midst of a terrible 
war and at a time when taxes had skyrocketed beyond the dreams of 
mortal man, should suddenly decide to double her appropriation for public 
education. In the past England has had a somewhat selective scheme of 
education wheieby the majority of the masses were given free education 
only up to the ages of about 12 to 14, and then only the wealthy and those 
youths who could pass a difficult examination were permitted to go on to 
the higher schools, colleges, and universities. The great mass of children 
either dropped out of school at early ages or were permitted to pursue 
the limited opportunities offered in the vocational or other specialized 
schools. The English are a levelheaded, farsighted people, however, and 
they undoubtedly realize now that universal education is the greatest 
stabilizing force in a democracy — that the greatest safeguard against 
foreign political and social ideologies antagonistic to the democratic prin- 
ciple is a high degree of universal enlightenment. In their minds, the cost 
of this new program was secondary to the need, and the issue was met 
unequivocally. 



County School Administration; Improving Education in Maryland 167 



In our country, undoubtedly the g'reatest exponent of public education 
as a necessity in a democracy was Thomas Jefferson. He had an abiding 
faith in the right thinking and ultimate wisdom of the great mass of 
people if they were enlightened. He foresaw the time when under this new 
form of government every man and woman would have the right of 
franchise — that they would have the responsibility of making choices of 
one kind or another. He, therefore, believed it necessary to have universal 
enlightenment. So firmly did he believe in this principle that he devised 
a scheme of state-wide education so far-reaching in its implications and 
ramifications that its ideal has not been realized in any State in the union 
as yet. He saw also the danger that would arise if the people were not 
enlightened, and in this connection made the striking statement: "The safe- 
ty of a democracy rests upon an enlightened citizenry." He said further: 
"I know of no safe depository of the ultimate powers of society but 
the people themselves; and if we think them not enlightened enough 
to exercise their control with a wholesome discretion, the remedy is 
not to take it from them, but to inform their discretion by education. 
No government can continue good but under the control of people." 
Ignorance, or indifference to enlightenment among a people, is the 
greatest danger that faces a state or nation. It is the cesspool in which 
are bred demagoguery, hate, prejudice, division, war, and the major ills of 
a people. Within man lies the instrumentality of his own salvation, his 
mind. Unless his mind is free, man is "stolid and stunned, a brother to the 
ox." There must be no tyranny over the mind of man — even the lack of 
opportunity to free one's mind is tyrannical. Let us quote Jefferson again: 
"I have sworn on the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of 
tyranny over the mind of man." 

There is another aspect to the matter of education, the economic. The 
United States Chamber of Commerce, in a highly interesting and provoca- 
tive study, has clearly sho\\'n that universal education brings economic 
well-being and a high standard of living. The study shows that several 
countries without natural resources of any consequence, but with universal 
education, have achieved an exceedingly high standard of living; it shows 
equally as clearly that several of the world's countries vdth the richest 
of natural resources and a very limited program of education have the 
lowest living standards. Education is important not only for the individual 
but for the whole people as well. It is probably no coincidence that in our 
own country the best schools are found in the most economically favored 
sections. 

In planning any program of improvement for public education, it is 
essential that the problem be looked at in its broadest aspects. The great- 
est progress is made when there is a well-defined and accepted philosophy 
concerning the whole program. 

The Maryland school system has made considerable progress during 
the past few years, despite the trying conditions brought on by the war. 
The shortage of qualified teachers, inability to construct needed buildings, 
and the willing performance of an enormous amount of war work by 
teachers and school officials all tended to make teaching a most difficult 
task and to interfere with the normal progress of instruction. The splendid 
spirit of our pupils and teachers, all bound together by a common purpose, 
enabled the schools to operate with an effectiveness that was little short 
of amazing. The people of Maryland should be proud of their teachers and 
their children. 

Fortunately, as Emerson points out, all things have their compensation. 
The trials of the school system, the manner in which it operated under 
these unusual conditions, the war services it rendered, the calm and de- 
termined way in which it went about its business, the stabilizing influence 
the schools exerted upon children and parents alike, brought out in bold 
relief the importance of public education. More than ever before the people 



168 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

became aware of the program of public education, its responsibilities, 
its deficiencies, and its possibilities in a democracy. Then, too, service 
men and women, suddenly thrown into a strange world in which 
training and knowledge frequently meant the difference between life and 
death, realized as never before the value of education. Knowledge meant 
preferment, also, and the lack of knowledge the reverse. The net result of 
these two factors was that the public became aware of the importance of 
public education and sincerely desire to see that the children of Maryland 
are given the best educational opportunities possible. 

The 1945 General Assembly, the Administration, and the Legislative 
Council were of one mind with the people, and wrote into the statute books 
much progressive legislation relating to public education. This legislation 
included provision for a twelve-year system for all the children of the 
State, higher salaries for teachers, smaller classes in the elementary 
school, exemptions from the payment of tuition in the State Teachers 
Colleges, the equalization of salaries of white and colored supervisors, the 
establishment of a county public library system, the extension of adult 
education, the improvement and development of visual and auditory educa- 
tion, including radio education, the extension of vocational education and 
of vocational rehabilitation, and the giving of more State aid for public 
education in general. 

The proposals for further progress in education should in no sense 
be construed as a criticism of present or past conditions; rather, the pro- 
posals should be recognized as the result of increased public interest in the 
educational opportunities offered Maryland children. The public gives many 
evidences of desiring an improved school system and of being willing to 
pay for it. The various proposals for improvement and expansion, indeed, 
are not the brain child of the State Department of Education; they are 
the composite of all the suggestions and recommendations of parents, 
teachers, school officials, and the general public. 

A. This discussion does not mention several very important parts of 
public education, mainly because they require neither legislation nor addi- 
tional funds, except the amounts included in the budget just presented for 
1947-48 and 1948-49. Special reports on these segments of the complete 
program — adult education; the four State Teachers Colleges; audio-visual 
education, including radio education; vocational education; and vocational 
rehabilitation — will be made later. 

B. In the discussion of certain parts of the program, the approxi- 
mate cost is given. The figures are based on present enrollments and 
present salaries, and do not take into consideration the fact that soma 
counties and Baltimore City may be furnishing, in part at least, the par- 
ticular mentioned service. To illustrate with a simple example: in a few 
instances, clerks are furnished by the county or City and their cost is in- 
cluded in the estimate given. The reason for this procedure is that when 
a new service becomes a part of the State Minimum Program of Educa- 
tion, its total cost has to be considered in the formula for distributing 
State funds. Whether the actual cost to the State will be different from 
the estimate depends upon the method of financing. 

Smaller Elementary School Classes 

In trying for many years to operate elementary classes at "40 in 
average daily attendance," Maryland was practicing a form of economy 
far beyond that attempted in most states. Classes of 40 can be taught 
with a fair degree of success if all conditions are favorable — if pupils do 
not vary too much, if teachers are competent and resourceful (and tireless, 
as well), and if all physical conditions are favorable. But even in the 
best of situations, the strain and responsibility on a teacher are great. 
Furthermore, it is physically and humanly impossible to give the indi- 
vidual attention that is often necessary, particularly for very young 
children. 



Improving Education in Maryland; Smaller Elementary School Classes 169 

The General Assembly of 1945 passed unanimously the recommenda- 
tions of the State Department of Education to lower class size from 40 
to 35 in average daily attendance. At the time the average enrollment per 
teacher in the Maryland schools was the second highest among the states 
of the union. At that time the recommendations of the Maryland Congress 
of Parents and Teachers was that class size be reduced to 30, but lack of 
building facilities and teachers resulted in the adherence to the more 
conservative figure of 35. The acceptance of 35 was a matter of expedi- 
ency, in view of existing conditions. It was generally agreed that classes 
of 30 would be more satisfactory than 35, and a size of 25 would be still 
better. It is an interesting fact that the U. S. Government, in a treaty with 
the Navajo Indians in 1806, agreed to furnish schools with a teacher for 
every 30 pupils. 

When the law of diminishing returns sets in, it is difficult to state. 
Many private schools maintain a class size of 12 to 15 — 18 at the most. 
While for years to come public schools will probably not approach these 
figures, it is certainly not extreme to consider a maximum size of 30. 

The finest kind of teaching comes from teachers who really enjoy 
their work. It is difficult for teachers to work day after day with classes 
that are so large that individual work is almost impossible, that paper 
work becomes a drudgery, and that the entire experience becomes to the 
teacher a pressure rather than a challenge. In such cases it is not the 
teacher alone who is at a disadvantage. The pupils suffer from lack of the 
best attention and sometimes from lack of a good teacher, because un- 
satisfactory working conditions as much as salary inadequacies have, in 
recent months and years, taken capable people from the teaching pro- 
fession. 

It is definitely recommended, therefore, that the law be changed to 
provide for classes in the elementary school not to exceed 30 "in num- 
ber belonging." (In the high school, teachers are allotted on a different 
basis, and class size is reasonably satisfactory.) 

The reason for the change from "in average daily attendance" to "in 
number belonging" is a practical one. The matter of State aid is involved. 
When the term of "in average daily attendance" is used, a school must 
make exactly the attendance specified, or lose State aid for the entire year. 
In many instances, therefore, this plan works a hardship upon the counties. 
The problem occurs most frequently in classes of younger children, whose 
attendance is more often interfered with because of epidemics. It is true 
also that this change in the basis tends to lower still further the class 
size. The proposed plan is more flexible. 

While it is realized that because of a continued shortage of buildings 
and teachers class size cannot be reduced immediately everywhere in the 
State, the goal can be reached in some communities and approximated in 
others. The movement toward smaller classes should be continued now and 
completed when possible. 

The cost of this part of the program would be slightly over $1,000,000. 
if Baltimore County and Baltimore City are not eligible to share in the 
Equalization Fund. If they become eligible, the cost would be slightly over 
$2,000,000. 

Teachers' Salaries 

In June, 1946, hundreds of Maryland children completed the sixth ele- 
mentary school grade without ever having had a qualified teacher. There 
is a strong possibility that these same children may complete the junior 
and senior high school without ever having come under the guidance of a 
teacher with the qualifications that the State long ago decided were 
essential. 



170 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The reason for this situation is not difficult to see. The qualified 
teacher is also qualified by native intelligence and training for other kinds 
of work that are far more remunerative. No thinking young person ever 
prepares for teaching and enters the profession with the thought that he 
will be economically equal to those who enter professions requiring equal or 
less training. Furthermore, he knows that individual competence as a 
teacher is not likely to bring him financial returns greater than those re- 
ceived by his less competent fellows. He enters the profession because 
he wants to teach. He hopes that the public will realize he must live 
fairly well and that to do so he must receive a reasonably large salary. 

The teaching profession has never been adequately compensated. In 
normal times the economic scale of the teacher is so delicately set that 
the slightest jar can disturb the balance. As the profession of public 
school teaching is in a sense a socialized profession, depending upon action 
by legislative bodies with their slow moving processes for remedy, there 
are long periods during which the teacher is often in dire straits. His 
faith that the public will appreciate his worth and bring speedy relief is 
not always justified. Disillusionment comes quickly and he leaves to enter 
other employment, where he is eagerly welcomed. The \vithdrawal of 
teachers from the profession for the practical reason of securing the where- 
withal of life should dispel from the minds of some so-called practical 
persons that all teachers are impractical. If they were not practical, they 
could not live on the salaries they are paid! 

Two observations should be made at this point. The first is that the 
greatest exodus of teachers from the profession takes place during a great 
upheaval of one kind or another — the very time when we need most to have 
excellent teachers. The impact of war alone upon youth is fraught with 
danger to young minds; to expose them then to incompetent teachers is 
certainly not the action of enlightened self-interest. Incidentally, the 
period of the aftermath of war is equally critical for youth, and yet the 
situation continues. The second observation is that the teachers who leave 
the profession are for the most part the young, the vital, and the most 
highly competent — the very ones we should retain as the mentors of our 
lildren. In every walk of life, there is no substitute for intelligence, 
oreeding, and training. 

The statements in the foregoing paragraph lead to another observa- 
tion. The economic situation by its very nature must have a bearing upon 
the supply and also upon the quality of teachers. In the early days most 
of the teachers were men. As the industrial revolution began to have its 
effects and more business and industrial opportunities became available, the 
number of men in the profession began to decline rapidly, until many 
critics condemned the over-feminization of our schools, and not without 
some cause. Only recently, in a meeting of the Legislative Council, one of 
the Senators asked what could be done to induce more men with families 
to remain in the profession, as he believed that they exerted a vvholesome 
influence upon youth. Of course, the answer to this question is simple. 
When men left the profession in large numbers, women were induced to 
take their places, and many superior persons became teachers. This situ- 
ation continued for a time, but when business began to offer lucrative, 
pleasant, and less exacting positions to young women without the higher 
qualifications then demanded for teaching, again there was an exodus of 
the more competent teachers. 

Possibly it would be more nearly correct to say that fewer of the more 
promising young women (and men) began to prepare for teaching. Why 
should one spend four years in college preparing for teaching at a lower 
salary than that currently offered by a Baltimore store to typists, who can 
qualify with less than a high school education? Even a messianic com- 
plex must have its moments of doubt in the face of such facts! 



Proposals Re Salaries of Teachers 



171 



To continue in this vain. For years, even shortly before the beginning 
of World War II, there was a decided dropping off in number of students 
in our teachers colleges. During the war period, the enrollment was less 
than half that of normal times, and at a time when we needed double the 
number of graduates. The enrollment has increased somewhat, undoubtedly 
because of higher salaries and the elimination of tuition fees at the col- 
leges, but is nowhere near what it ought to be. Moreover, the beneficial 
effects of the slightly increased enrollment will not be apparent for several 
years, when the larger classes begin to graduate four years after entrance. 

A rather interesting fact, however, has been evident to a degree dur- 
ing this period. The enrollment in the teachers college for colored stu- 
dents has not suffered to the same extent as in the colleges for whites. 
Furthermore, the State Teachers College at Bowie has been able to secure 
the "cream of the crop" academically and intellectually from the colored 
high schools. The reason for this condition is simple. When the salaries 
of white and colored teachers were equalized in 1942, for the colored, 
teaching became a favored profession because of its prestige and its com- 
pensation — again a relative matter. There is no question in the minds of 
school authorities that the quality of instruction in the colored schools has 
improved remarkably since the equalization of salaries, despite the war, 
which took its toll of men teachers. 

In brief, compensation does make a difference in the supply and the 
quality of teachers. We are going to get just what we pay for. 

In the matter of teacher salaries the General Assembly and the ad- 
ministration took a definite and unanimous stand by providing what was 
considered at that time (Session of 1945) a satisfactory salary schedule. 
Since the passage of the new schedule, Baltimore City and every county 
have supplemented the State-established scale. Notwithstanding these ef- 
forts, it has not been possible to attract enough teachers to care for our 
children adequately. The peak of teacher loss prior to the present year oc- 
curred in 1942-43 in the county white high schools, and in 1945-46 in the 
county white elementary schools. See Table 59, page 93. Several 
factors are responsible. Wage rises in other professions and business, the 
higher cost of living, the moving away of many teachers who resided in 
the State while their husbands were in the service or worked in industry 
or business, and the low enrollment in the Teachers Colleges for the past 
several years (the increased enrollment during the past two years will not 
affect the elementary schools for several years) have all been responsible 
for the present situation. In general, more high school teachers are avail- 
able now than in the past few years; the reverse is true with respect to 
elementary school teachers. The most serious situation in the State exists 
in St. Mary's County, which in 1946-47 had a turnover of 64 and 679c in 
its white and colored high school teaching force, respectively, and 47 in 
its white elementary school teaching staff. (See Tables 62, 63 and 66, pages 
96, 97 and 99.) 

Nothing is more distasteful to school officials and teachers than the 
need to request higher teachers' salaries. Undoubtedly this public "airing" 
of the salary problem is a factor in many people's avoiding teaching. The 
thoughtful and conscientious school administrator, however, accepts this re- 
sponsibility, unpleasant though it be, because he knows that teachers can- 
not be secured without adequate salaries. The laborer is worthy of his 
hire, and the sooner the real value of teaching is realized and the problem 
of satisfactory salaries is resolved in a realistic and not in a temporizing 
way, the sooner this perennial spectre will be relegated to the limbo of 
the forgotten past. 

While strong arguments can be made for higher salaries on the basis 
of services rendered, there is a still stronger and more effective argument. 
It is simply this: if teachers cannot be secured at the present salaries, our 
children will not be taught. In the final analysis, the child is the most im- 



172 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

portant consideration in any school system and eventually in any society. 
The school exists for him and for society. If he is not taught and taught 
well, both he and society suffer. The bald fact is that we are not going 
to get enough qualified teachers until they are paid a higher wage. 

The problem of teachers' salaries has never been faced squarely and 
realistically. School officials have constantly called attention to the neces- 
sity of higher salaries. They realize that the teacher is an educated per- 
son with tastes and desires that cannot be realized on meagre salaries. 
Not until teaching is made sufficiently attractive for parents to urge their 
children to engage in it as a profession with opportunities will our children 
have the quality and quantity of instruction to which they are entitled. 

In facing this perennial problem, let us ask two simple questions: 
(1) what must we pay teachers to secure an adequate supply for our 
children, and (2) what is fair compensation for teachers who have devoted 
long years of study to preparation for their work? 

What are the practical aspects of this problem in Maryland? The 
State minimum salary schedule starts at $1,500 annually for a teacher with 
a Bachelor's degree and goes to $2,250 after sixteen years of service. 
Teachers without a degree (those older teachers who came in during for- 
mer days when the standards for teaching were lower and certain "war 
emergency" teachers) receive $200 less. Principals, vice-principals, and 
supervisors, but not attendance officers, have relatively higher schedules. 
Every county and Baltimore City have found it necessary to pay above 
the State minimum to secure teachers. In a number of cases, counties 
have revised their scales more than once since the State minimum schedule 
was set by the legislature in 1945. The additional salaries have been 
borne entirely at local expense and this has created for the counties and 
the City an unusual burden. In one county, the additional tax rate neces- 
sary to give an increase amounts to 24 cents. This situation, particularly 
in the smaller and poorer counties, violates in a measure the equalizing 
principle. But we are concerned at this point with teachers' salaries. The 
average beginning salary in the State as a whole (and in counties unable 
to meet the average this means nothing except that it is more difficult to 
secure teachers because of the competition in nearby, better-paying coun- 
ties) is about $1,900, just $50 more than the beginning salary of a senior 
stenographer in the State service. (This statement is not intended to 
criticize the beginning salary of a senior stenographer; the salary is a 
fair one, and was set by businessmen who had the responsibility of de- 
termining what the job is worth.) For salaries in 1946-47, see pages 106 
to 113. 

At the present salaries, which the counties and Baltimore City are 
straining themselves to pay, the classrooms are merely being provided 
with teachers; as a matter of fact, not all classrooms are being staffed, 
particularly in the specialized fields such as business education, industrial 
arts, home economics, music, physical education, agriculture, art, and the 
like. One thousand, six hundred thirty-nine (1,639) teachers in the Mary- 
land schools during 1945-46 held War Emergency Certificates, with the 
widest variation in qualifications and training. To put it bluntly, our 
children should not be exposed to instruction offered by ill-qualified teach- 
ers. And the worst is yet to come. It is the consensus of the school 
superintendents that next year it will be more difficult than ever to secure 
teachers — not qualified teachers, but just teachers. The generation to come 
will suffer. And unless our Teachers Colleges are filled with greater num- 
bers than at present, the problem will continue for years. (See Tables on 
Certification, pages 88 to 90.) 



Proposals Re Teachers' Salaries and Junior Colleges 



173 



The above statements are certainly not meant as a reflection upon 
the work and the fine spirit of many excellent teachers who have remained 
in the schools and who are doing their very best to teach our children. 
They are not responsible for the situation. It is our responsibility and we 
should meet it squarely and fairly. 

What should the teachers of the State be paid? Of course, the ques- 
tion is debatable. In all probability, they will never be paid their real 
worth. Suppose we examine some trends and opinions. 

There is a nation-wide movement to pay teachers with a Bachelor's 
degree a beginning salary of $2,400, with a schedule calling for annual 
increments for a period of from twelve to eighteen years. The legislature 
of California has just approved a beginning scale of $2,400 and the State 
is aiding each local community to the extent of $120 annually per pupil, 
to help pay this cost along with other expenses. The school authorities 
and teachers in Pennsylvania, New York, Delaware, and other nearby 
States are asking for a minimum of $2,400, with annual increments of $100 
for a period of twelve or more years. In every State, of course, the local 
communities are permitted to go beyond these schedules at their own ex- 
pense. 

The public interest in raising salaries in Maryland is very great. The 
County Commissioners in every County and the Baltimore City fiscal au- 
thorities are to be congratulated upon the action they have taken to this 
end. The Parent-Teacher Associations are supporting higher salaries. The 
Maryland Congress of Parents and Teachers has endorsed the establish- 
ment of a higher State salary schedule. The State Teachers' Association 
and a Steering Committee composed of representatives of the Maryland 
Congress of Parents and Teachers and of the school oflncials have advocated 
the following schedule: 

a beginning minimum salary of $2,200 

An annual instead of the present biennial increase of SlOO 
A schedule running for sixteen years to a minimum salary of $3,800 
New salary schedules for principals, vice-principals, supervisors, 
attendance workers 

The cost of such a program would be about $15,000,000 annually. 

If there ever were a time in the history of the State when necessity 
and the public welfare demanded that the fiscal and school authorities of 
the State face this problem realistically, it is now. There can be no ques- 
tion that fair salaries must be paid if we want to have qualified teachers. 
If we fail to do this, the ill effects of our failure will fall upon our 
"children's children." 

Extension of Educational Opportunities 

No satisfactory estimate has been made of the number of veterans 
who would like to go to college but cannot be admitted because of lack of 
space. A tentative estimate, however, of between 4,000 and 6,000 has been 
given the Department by the Veterans Administration. 

A — The Junior College 

After each major war in which the United States has engaged, it has 
witnessed a striking growth in some part of its educational system. Fol- 
lowing the Civil War came the expansion of the common school, the acade- 
my, and the land-grant colleges. After the first World War came the 
phenomenal growth of the high school and the development of vocational 
work through the Smith-Hughes Act. 

The present era sees not only the continued expansion of the secondary 
school, but an unprecedented rise in the enrollment at colleges all over the 
land. The picture is a universal one. Newspapers, magazines, and other 
channels have emphasized again and again in the last several months the 
fact that colleges and universities are literally "bursting at the seams" 
from enrollment undreamed of a few years ago — and the end is not yet. 



174 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

There are at least three reasons for the sudden increase. First and 
foremost is the decision of the people and the government, expressed in 
Public Law 346, to give to each returning service man, at public expense, 
education to match the time he gave his country as a member of its armed 
forces. Allied with this is the fact that all the branches of the armed 
services carried on an extensive and diversified educational program. Many- 
men were made sharply aware of the educational advancement that could 
be theirs. And finally, many men were impressed with the gains, monetary 
and otherwise, that could be made by men who had prepared themselves 
for advancement through the pursuit of various forms of higher education. 

As a result, colleges everywhere are besieged by literally hordes of 
men and women seeking admission. Many colleges have long ago filled 
their freshman quota for next year. Many colleges are not even accepting 
applications from persons outside their own states. Many veterans, as 
well as recent high school graduates, are applying to college after college, 
in the hope that perhaps somewhere along the line they may be admitted. 
Colleges are running on double shifts, are using every square foot of space 
for classrooms, are putting three or four persons in dormitory rooms de- 
signed for two, are housing men in gymnasiums, barracks, and drill halls, 
and are hastily erecting Quonsit Huts and other types of temporary hous- 
ing for both single and married veterans. Several colleges have taken over 
whole army camps as adjunct facilities. At least one university has rented 
a complete hotel for married veterans. 

The national picture holds good for Maryland. All colleges and uni- 
versities are running at peak capacity and beyond, and they should be 
congratulated upon the efforts they have made to provide facilities. When 
it became apparent last spring that this fall it would be difficult to enter 
colleges, the State Department of Education investigated the probable 
needs. Questionnaires sent to all high schools showed that dozens of 
pupils who wished to go to college had not yet been admitted. At the 
same time, hundreds of veterans were clamoring for admission. 

One solution seemed to be to offer junior college opportunities in a 
few carefully chosen communities. Two of the State Teachers Colleges 
(Frostburg and Salisbury) had been for several years operating their pro- 
gram in such a way as to permit students to take junior college work the 
first two years and their professional courses the last two years. This fall, 
the other two Teachers Colleges (at Towson and at Bowie) also are of- 
fering junior college work. 

Two new junior colleges were opened this fall — one at Hagerstown, 
Washington County, and one at Bethesda, in Montgomery County. Each of 
these schools is an afternoon and evening venture, operating after school 
hours in the respective high school buildings. Each is offering general 
academic work for those who hope to transfer to four-year colleges after 
completing the junior college course, and one of the two is offering also 
various types of terminal and vocational courses. 

Both these colleges are financed largely by tuition payments, sup- 
plemented by a State grant of $10,000 per institution. Of course, many 
students attending are veterans, who can draw on their Government al- 
lotment for their tuition. By utilizing existing facilities, the colleges have 
been able to operate with a low overhead and with relatively low tuition. 
At the present time nearly 600 students are enrolled in the public junior 
colleges of the State, and more will register in February. Baltimore City 
is laying plans to open two junior colleges the first of February — one for 
white and one for colored students. 

The present emergency in college enrollment serves to bring to the 
forefront the possibility that this State may wish, at some future date, to 
offer free junior college education to some or all of its youth who qualify 
for such training and desire it. 



Proposals Re Junior Colleges and Kindergartens 



175 



It may well be that more junior college centres should be operated. 
Maryland has never ranked particularly high among the States in the 
percentage of her high school graduates who go on to college. The inter- 
esting thing about the enrollment at the new junior colleges this year is 
that many of the students are those who would ordinarily not have been 
able to go to college. There is little evidence to show that the junior col- 
leges will in any way affect the enrollment at existing higher institutions. 
The plain fact is that unless the State accepts its responsibility, some 
other agency — possibly of a profit-making nature — will step into the 
breach. Already there are indications that private interests wish to start 
junior colleges. There is nothing inherently wrong with this, it is merely 
mentioned here to indicate that real need for junior college education 
exists and that in this field the State has a responsibility to its citizens. 

Furthermore, persons close to the college field tell us that, bad as con- 
ditions are, they will grow worse! Some authorities estimate that the peak 
of college enrollment will not be reached until 1950, or later. Why is this ? 

First, veterans are not dropping out of school as typical college fresh- 
men and sophomores do. Ordinarily the picture is something like this: of 
1,000 who enter as freshmen, 700 may return as sophomores, 600 as jun- 
iors, and still fewer will graduate. But the veterans are staying! Colleges 
are anticipating that in two years their junior class will be as large as 
their freshman class this fall, and by that time more and more freshmen 
will wish to enter. 

Second, as employment opportunities may decrease, veterans will de- 
cide, in larger numbers, to take advantage of their educational allotment 
and return to school. 

Third, the pattern has been set. Never before have thousands and 
thousands of young men and young women been offered college at public 
expense. True, they are veterans, but many of them will wish to see their 
sons and daughters have college opportunities — veterans or not — and the 
parents who cannot afford to send their children to college, will look to the 
public for aid. It is too early to make definite predictions, but the die has 
probably been cast. 

For the present, it is recommended that the State continue to en- 
courage, by means of a substantial subsidy, the establishment of junior 
colleges in situations where facilities can be provided economically and 
where investigation shows that a demand for such services exists. The 
colleges will be operated by the local school units with the cooperation and 
approval of the State Department of Education, and approval will, of 
course, be given only when the colleges meet the standards set up by the 
State Department with regard to equipment, staff, curriculum, and facili- 
ties, and administrative policies. 

A final observation. Except in the case of the junior college divisions 
at the State Teachers Colleges, most of the students in the junior colleges 
will probably register for "terminal" courses, and will prepare for work 
rather than for transfer to the upper years of a college or university. 
"Transfer" courses leading to advanced work will be offered, however. 

6 — Kindergartens 

The Department recommends also that the Legislative Council con- 
sider the advisability of providing some State aid toward the establishment 
of kindergartens wherever they can be operated easily and economically. 

Extension of educational opportunities can, of course, go in either 
direction — upward toward the post-high-school years, or downward to the 
pre-elementary school years. At the present time, the greatest pressure 
and the greatest amount of public interest is probably on the post-high- 
school years — the college level. But there is an increasing demand in 



176 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

many parts of the State for kindergartens as an integral part of the 
public school system. In many parts of the country forward-looking school 
systems have operated kindergartens for many years. Baltimore has a 
system of public kindergartens, as practically all large cities have. But, 
except for two counties in each of which one school has a kindergarten, 
only one county in Maryland has established public kindergartens, and 
this has been done entirely at county expense. 

It is recommended that consideration be given the feasibility of pro- 
viding some State aid to kindergartens wherever they can be readily and 
economically operated, and where the citizens of the county are willing to 
finance their operation with the help of State funds. 

School Buildings 

During the past 25 years the counties and Baltimore City have spent 
on the average about $3,000,000 annually for school buildings. A recent 
survey of the building needs for the next five or ten years (there is really 
a backlog of approximately five years of building, as no building of any 
consequence could be done during the war) indicates that more than 
$123,000,000 should be spent for school construction in the counties and 
Baltimore City. (This figure should probably be revised upward.) The en- 
tire burden of construction costs now falls on the local political subdi- 
visions. Since the assessable value of property behind each child varies 
in the counties from slightly over $3,000 per child in the poorest county 
(Calvert) to nearly $14,000 in the wealthiest (Baltimore) (Baltimore 
City's ratio is slightly higher), it is obvious that under the present ar- 
rangement equality of educational opportunity does not and cannot exist 
in respect to school buildings. The answer is State aid for this purpose, 
with funds distributed in an equitable manner to all counties and to the 
City. (See page 160.) 

It would be entirely incorrect to assume that the building needs are 
due solely to the addition of the twelfth year in the school systems. Bal- 
timore City, Montgomery, Allegany, and Washington Counties have had a 
twelve-year system, and until the past two years, have borne the addi- 
tional cost at their own expense. (Recent newspaper articles have clearly 
demonstrated that many of the children in Baltimore City are improperly 
and possibly dangerously housed in antiquated school buildings.) The build- 
ing program necessary in these political subdivisions is just as great, 
comparatively, as in the other counties. The plain truth of the matter is 
that one of the weakest spots in the Maryland school system is the in- 
adequacy and quality of its school buildings. This is true not only for 
the colored pupils, but for the whites as well. While there is no doubt that 
the teacher is the most important factor in any good school system, the 
physical facilities also play an important part. 

For various reasons, including increased enrollment and replacement 
of old buildings, there will always be an annual need for construction. We 
are faced, then, with two problems: one, seeing to it that all children are 
properly housed as soon as possible in educationally adequate buildings, 
and, secondly, that building construction is currently kept up to date. To 
carry either of these programs locally would mean a burden for the 
counties and Baltimore. The advisability, therefore, of the State's provid- 
ing (1) a large capital fund for initial construction, and (2) annual appro- 
priations, such as are recommended in the Sherbow Report, should be con- 
sidered. Figures concerning the overall and annual costs are given in the 
first paragraph under "School Buildings." Any State aid should be com- 
mensurate with the need and the varying financial abilities of the political 
subdivisions. 



Proposals Re Kindergartens, Buildings, Administration and 177 
Supervision 



Provision for Adequate Administrative, Supervisory, 
and Clerical Positions in the Local School Systems 

Maryland is indeed fortunate in having the county unit of organization 
for schools. Under this system there are only 24 school units, the 23 
counties and Baltimore City, each of which has only one board of educa- 
tion, a single superintendent and professional staff, and a single tax rate. 
Among the resulting advantages are simplicity, efficiency, and economy 
in operation and the equalizing of educational opportunity within every 
county of the State, just as there is equalized educational opportunity in 
a city school system. 

It is reasonable to say that probably in no other State in the country 
are there as few administrative, supervisory, and clerical officers for the 
total number of school children as in the twenty-three counties of Mary- 
land. For example, Baltimore County, with its nearly 200,000 population, 
has more pupils than the City of Wilmington, Del., Prince George's County 
has a larger population than Hartford Conn., and Montgomery County 
surpasses Atlantic City in population. But in none of these counties is 
there an administrative staff typical of a city with the same population. 
Truth to tell, the counties have been very conservative in adding personnel 
to their administrative staffs. 

The duties and responsibilities of the schools have increased enormous- 
ly during the past 25 years. The expansion in the administrative, super- 
visory, and clerical positions in the local school systems has not kept pace 
with the duties and responsibilities imposed upon the school system. The 
law should recognize the need for expansion in these services, in order to 
increase the efficiency of public education. In brief, the local school sys- 
tems are understaffed in administrative, supervisory, and clerical posi- 
tions. In some states there would be as many as five or six separate or- 
ganizations in a county, where in Maryland a single superintendent and 
professional staff operate. The situation calls clearly for the following 
recommendations : 

1. Adequate administrative and supervisory assistance in the offices of 
the county and City boards of education. It is not possible at this time to 
specify exactly what these positions would be; the needs would vary frori 
county to county. But there would not be a single county where a careful 
study of needs would not add some services which would be of real benefit 
to the children of the county. 

The cost would be approximately $250,000 annually. 

2. Nonteaching principals in the large elementary and high schools. 
The term "principal" dates back to the time when one teacher was the 
"head" or "principal" teacher, and his function was largely to keep the 
school running smoothly and discipline unruly pupils. Today, we expect 
the principal to be the responsible leader of his school. In our certification 
requirements, we insist that he study curriculum construction, principles 
of supervising, child and adolescent psychology, pupil guidance, and school 
administration. But we often neglect the possibilities of his exercising 
leadership because we compel him as a teacher to spend so much time in 
one classroom that he lacks time to be a good administrator and supervisor. 

State and county supervisors have an important function to play in 
keeping a school up to its highest pitch. But they need to work with and 
through a school principal who has, first, ability; second, training; and, 
third, time to exercise his leadership. Too many small high schools have 
a principal who is literally "worked to death" teaching half-time or more, 
administering the school, and sometimes coaching all the athletic teams! 
Such unwise use of the principal's time is not wise economy. 



178 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



In most elementary schools, regardless of their size, the principal 
teaches full-time. It is true that elementary schools do not have as many 
intricacies in operation as do high schools, where pupils move from 
teacher to teacher. But a real job of leadership is essential in every school 
and requires adequate time. 

The annual cost of this program would be approximately $335,000. 

3. Clerks in larger elementary and high schools. No other profession 
except teaching expects college-trained and qualified professional people 
to do all their own clerical work. The doctor, the lawyer, the dentist — 
all, even in small situations, have clerical help. But there are in this 
State schools with ten, twenty, thirty, forty, or more teachers, with not 
a single paid clerical assistant! It is not sound economy to expect a com- 
petent professional person to spend many hours in clerical tasks which 
are distasteful and time-consuming, and ^vhich could be done better and 
more quickly by a competent clerk. 

This is just one of the several apparently insignificant points which 
make skilled teachers restless and which tend to prevent alert and able 
young people from choosing teaching as a profession, because they hear 
from older teachers, who are friends and relatives, about the long hours 
of clerical work. And, in the end it is the children who suffer, because 
a teacher has only so many hours in the day to give. The more that are 
taken up in clerical duties, the fewer there are to give to children. 

State aid for clerical help would go far toward solving the problem. 

This cost would be about $550,000 annually. 

4. Adequate staff of visiting teachers in each large county. The term 
"truant officer" has passed from the picture and even the term "attendance 
officer" is on the way out. It is being replaced by the title "supervisor of 
pupil personnel", because the work has become more and more a matter 
of guiding and directing problem youth, and less and less one of mere 
law enforcement. 

Maryland took a forward step when in 1922 it passed a law requiring 
an attendance officer for each county of the State. But the pupil popula- 
tion in the State has increased enormously since that time, particularly in 
the high school field, at the same time that the problem has become more 
complex. In the larger counties, therefore, a single person cannot begin 
to do the work, yet the law still provides State aid for just one such 
person. 

There should be one or more visiting teachers in each of the larger 
counties, the number varying according to the population of the county. 
There is little doubt that a well-organized service of visiting teachers 
would go far toward anticipating and preventing juvenile delinquency. 
Several States, notably Michigan, have developed excellent plans for 
visiting teachers. 

The annual .cost of this program would be approximately $210,000. 

5. High school supervision in the courities. The law requires county 
supervision of elementary schools and provides State aid for the purpose. 
When this law was passed about thirty years ago, there were relatively 
few high schools in the State, and they were supervised by representa- 
tives of the State Department. During the past thirty years, high school 
enrollment in the counties has increased from approximately 5,000 to more 
than 60,000. Furthermore, the new 12-grade system provides for a 6-year 
elementary school and 6-year high school, as contrasted with the former 
7-year elementary school and the 4-year high school. The problems in- 
volved in developing and putting into effect the new 6-year high school 
make it imperative to provide high school supervision on the county level. 
When it is realized that approximately 40 per cent of the youth of high 
school age in Maryland are not in high school, the point becomes obvious 



Proposals Re Clerks, Visiting Teachers, High School 179 
Supervisors, Health, Guidance and Libraries 



that more local leadership on the high school level is needed. More than 
a third of the counties have added high school supervisors to their staff 
entirely at county expense. State legislation and State aid would enable 
the rest of the counties to follow suit. 

The cost of this program would be approximately $188,000 annually. 

Health, Guidance, and Libraries 

Health. Maryland has been making progress in the field of child health 
and health education. One of the most promising developments is the 
carrying on of experimental programs in five counties under the joint 
sponsorship of the State Department of Education, the State Department 
of Health, and the local school and health departments. Out of these ex- 
periments and the accompanying studies should come some definite recom- 
mendations for improvement on a State-wide basis. 

As the study proceeds, it is obvious that there is much to be done. 
Maryland has not had, on the whole, the well-rounded health progam that 
is to be found in some other states. In some places, for example, a full- 
time school nurse is to be found on the staff of every school of considerable 
size. That is not the case in Maryland. Final recommendations, how- 
ever, will emerge from the completion of the study under way. No definite 
recommendations are being made at the present time. 

Guidance. The term "guidance" is used to designate an organized 
sei*vice to give counseling aid to school pupils. Begun originally as a 
service to help pupils choose the best vocation in the light of their apti- 
tudes and abilities, it has expanded to include educational, social, and 
personal guidance. 

Guidance has been defined as a service designed to help pupils make 
wise choices. As the world grows more complex and the school itself pro- 
vides a wider choice of curricula and pupil activities, the need for an ade- 
quate guidance service becomes more obvious. 

Maryland was fortunate to be one of the first states to employ a State 
Supervisor of Guidance, nearly ten years ago. In recent years, provision 
has been made to have guidance service included in every school, no matter 
how small, and rapid progress is being made toward the condition where 
fewer and fewer pupils will become "lost" in the maze of the modern 
school and modern life, because there will be competent and trained 
counsellors to whom they can turn for aid. (Incidentally, industry is fast 
providing a similar service for employees, through personnel departments, 
and some industrial and business personnel workers have come to mem- 
bers of our Department for training and advice.) 

Libraries. Following a comprehensive State-wide survey of public li- 
braries under the aegis of the State Planning Commission, the General 
Assembly of 1945 passed a library law, providing State aid to encourage 
counties to establish county libraries, and authorizing a Division of Li- 
brary Extension in the State Department of Education to coordinate and 
advise in the establishment and development of libraries. Already five 
counties — Harford, Howard, Garrett, Prince George's, and Cecil — as well 
as Baltimore City, have qualified for State aid, and several other counties 
are considering the advantages of qualifying. The law will probably need 
some revision as time goes on, but for the present the main objective is 
to continue along the lines begun in 1945 and to encourage more counties 
to participate. For further information on the county library program 
see pages 249 to 251. 

School libraries also are developing, and each year sees trained 
librarians or teacher-librarians in more schools. As in Guidance, provision 
has been made for State aid for some library service, even in the smallest 
schools. Possibly more State aid should be provided for library books 
and materials, but for the present we shall continue to progress under 
existing provisions. For school libraries see table on page 252. 



180 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Transportation 

During the war period it was indeed difficult to operate a satisfactory 
transportation system. More than 1,000 buses transport thousands of school 
children daily to and from school. Increased safety measures have been 
put into effect and close attention will continue to be given to the matter. 
With the resumed manufacturing of school buses, within a reasonable time 
modern and up-to-date equipment should be purchased for all schools. In 
the meantime, exceedingly close supervision and inspection of all facilities 
are given to insure the safety of the children. 

A financial problem is connected with transportation of pupils. The 
law requires that "the necessary costs of transporting pupils to public 
elementary schools and not less than one-half of the cost of transportation 
of pupils to public high schools" be included in the cost of the State mini- 
mum program. This does not mean that the State actually bears 100 9f of 
the cost of elementary school transportation. It merely means that in an 
Equalization Fund county, the cost of these items is included in calculating 
the county's need for funds to carry the total cost of the State minimum 
program. Actually the State bears the same percentage of the cost of 
transportation that it bears of the total cost of education in the county. 
The percentage naturally varies considerably. 

The amount for high school transportation included in the cost of the 
minimum program has varied anywhere from 50 9r to 100% of the cost, 
depending upon the State school funds available. The proportion of State 
school funds provided for this purpose varies from year to year, accord- 
ing to the rise and fall of the assessable basis in the several counties. The 
State has frequently been able to distribute 100 ''/r of the cost of high 
school transportation, and never less than 507c. The County Boards of 
Education are unable to know in advance if they will receive the full 
amount or less, and more than once it has happened that a County Board 
of Education which has received less than 100 '/r has faced the necessity 
of going back to the County Commissioners at the end of the year to ask 
for a special appropriation for this purpose, or has incurred a deficit. It 
can be readily seen that this situation is most disturbing. 

The provision of only at least half the cost of high school transporta- 
tion in the 1933 amendment of the law was possibly justified. First, the 
State had fewer funds because the sources of State funds were less di- 
versified and, second, because the cost of transporting high school students 
was not so burdensome. Between 1932 and 1946, however, high school en- 
rollment in the counties increased by 26,000 and a larger number and pro- 
portion of these pupils were transported. In 1945-46, over 54 per cent of 
the county high school pupils were transported. The burden has become 
considerably heavier and it is naturally more upsetting to the counties 
when there is a variation in the amount distributed by the State for the 
purpose. The counties, during the past few years, have had to increase 
their tax rates, mainly because of salary increases, building needs, and 
the general rise in the cost of every item and facility. If they were re- 
quired at this time, as is possible, to carry 50 per cent of the cost of high 
school transportation, the range in the additional tax rate necessary 
would be from 1.6 cents to 13.3 cents. It is obvious that if this necessity 
is forced upon the counties at the end of a school year, it is very embar- 
rassing indeed. If 100 per cent of the cost of elementary school transpor- 
tation is included in calculating the cost of the State minimum program, 
there is no sound reason why the same policy should not be followed for 
high school transportation; otherwise, many pupils will be denied the 
advantages of high school education. 

The annual cost of this program would be approximately $365,000. 



Proposals Re Transportation and State Department of Education 181 



state Department of Education 

During the past several years a great many extra duties have been 
placed upon the State Department of Education. These duties and re- 
sponsibilities rightly belong in the Department but they call, in most in- 
stances, for additional personnel. In several instances additional responsi- 
bilities have come in the middle of a budget biennium, with no financial 
provision, and in some of these emergencies, the Governor has allocated 
money for personnel to accomplish the tasks. In other cases, added re- 
sponsibilities have been assigned to present staff members. 

Some of these additional responsibilities are as follows: 

1. Offering of examination leading to the Certificate of High School 
Equivalence. This service, begun in 1941, has experienced an enormous 
expansion through the applications of many service men and veterans. 
From a small responsibility, taking partial attention of one supervisor, it 
has expanded until it needs the full-time attention of one professional 
person, plus two clerical helpers, with other part-time assistance. Exam- 
inations are given in Baltimore and in any county seat where there are 
applicants, and the number taking the examination each month runs about 
250. Furthermore, it takes one person full-time to interview applicants 
who come to the State Department office in a steady stream. The budget 
includes a request for the necessary funds. (For the number examined and 
receiving certificates, see page 233.) 

2. Licensing of Trade Schools. Upon the initiative of the Better Bus- 
iness Bureau and other interested groups, the General Assembly of 1945 
passed a law authorizing the Departnient to license all trade schools. This 
was definitely a step in the right direction, but it has added many hours 
of work to the Accreditation Division. Flying schools, beauty culture 
schools, diesel schools, radio schools — all have to be visited, checked, and 
either approved or disapproved. Various members of the Department have 
assisted in the checking in whatever "spare time" they could find, but 
without doubt, one or two persons will be needed, full-time, to carry on this 
most important work. The budget includes a request for the necessary 
funds. 

3. Investigation and supervision of schools and business or industrial 
establishmeyits offering instruction and training to veterans. This responsi- 
bility has been the biggest and most complicated one added to the work of 
the Department in recent years. Under the provisions of Public Law 346 
(the so-called *'G.I. Bill of Rights"), the Veterans Administration can ap- 
prove tuition paj^nnents and maintenance only when a school or establish- 
ment has been certified by the State Department of Education. This means 
that the Department must furnish the Veterans Administration with a 
list of all approved schools in the State, and must constantly be investi- 
gating additional schools, studios, and private instructors as they apply 
for approval. In the last year and a half, the Department has investigated 
and approved 108 schools which were not previously on any approved list, 
and new applications come in nearly every day. 

But the task of investigating business and industrial establishments 
which wish to take veterans for "on-the-job" training is almost an over- 
whelming one. For a time there was only volunteer help available and the 
task became more and more impossible. Then the Governor, realizing the 
seriousness of the situation, made available, by budget transfer, funds 
with which to employ full-time, trained investigators. Finally, the Con- 
gress approved the appropriation of Federal funds for the work. But the 
responsibility is still an enormous one. From time to time the Veterans 
Administration has issued directives which have occasioned sweeping 
changes in policy, and there are many "ugly" situations which arise and 
call for tactful handling. 



182 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The enormity of the job may be realized when it is stated that in the 
last year and a half 6,292 establishments have been investigated — most of 
them in the past nine months. For additional detail, see pages 234 to 235. 

Now supervision of the training which is shared by the Veterans Ad- 
ministration must be undertaken. 

The budget includes a request for a small sum for this purpose. 

4. Increased opportunities in Vocational Rehabilitation. This Division 
affects a relatively small segment of the population, but performs a sig- 
nificantly important service, because it enables the physically (and mental- 
ly) handicapped to become economically self-supporting. The Division now 
operates through four regional offices, located at Baltimore, Hagerstown, 
Hyattsville, and Salisbury. Its ''case load" has expanded considerably, not 
only because there are more disabled people as a result of the war, and 
expanded industry, etc., but also because more types of handicapped are 
being aided. The blind, the deaf, the deformed, the crippled — all are being 
made vocationally employable. See pages 2 and 3 for staff and pages 119 
and 120 for a summary of the work performed. 

The total cost of administration, personnel, and travel expenses for 
this service is borne by the Federal Government. One-half the money spent 
on clients is furnished by the State, and one-half by the Federal Govern- 
ment. 

The budget includes a request for the necessary funds for this service. 

5. Development of a program of transition from the 11- to the 12- 
grade system. The plan for putting into complete effect the 12-grade sys- 
tem calls for a gradual change, extending over five or six years. Two 
State-wide conferences have been held with persons in attendance from 
every county in the State. At the State Teachers Colleges at Towson ana 
at Bowie curriculum centers have been established, and one of the State 
High School Supervisors has been made Supervisor of Curriculum. He is 
going to need one or two assistants for this most important work. The 
State Department is accepting the responsibility of leadership in this field, 
at the same time leaving as much initiative as possible to the local units. 

The budget includes a request for the necessary funds. 

School Lunch Program 

The most recent addition to the Department's responsibilities is the 
supervision of the School Lunch Program, subsidized in part by the Fed- 
eral Government. The amount spent for this program is between two and 
three million dollars annually. The Federal subsidy is $500,000 annually, 
with an additional annual subsidy of about $100,000 for equipment. In 
order to provide properly directed supervision by the State, it was neces- 
sary to employ additional staff in the State Department of Education. 
Funds for this purpose were made available by the Governor through 
budget transfer. Under the present arrangement, the counties are attempt- 
ing to develop county-wide school lunch programs, and they will deal 
directly with the State Department of Education rather than with a Fed- 
eral agency. For further detail on the school lunch program, see pages 
252 to 254. 

In this connection, attention should be called to the fact that the Federal 
Government supports several educational programs, although it spends 
comparatively little in Maryland — about 1% of all the money spent on 
schools in the State. Supervision of veterans' training and education, the 
school lunch program, vocational rehabilitation and vocational education are 
all supported in part by the Federal Government. If the State does not 
make funds available to the Department to supervise and direct all of 
these programs, the control and direction will go by default to the Federal 
Government. It is essential that this not occur. 



Rehabilitation; 12 Grade System; School Lunches; Special 183 
Programs; Pensions 

Special Programs Completed 

A. Training of workers for war industry 

During the war period, under the pressure of time and most difficult 
conditions, the State Department of Education and local schools success- 
fully trained or retrained some 200,000 or more workers for war industry. 
This responsibility ended with the conclusion of the war, but it is il- 
lustrative of the special functions that have been assigned to the 
partment. 

B. Child Care Program 

The Child Care Program is another responsibility assigned to the 
State Department of Education. During the war period and until official 
child care centers were established many mothers were leaving young 
children in deplorable situations. The centers had to be inspected and 
constantly supervised. Here, as in the war industries program, some 
Federal aid was available for personnel and equipment, but the responsi- 
bility of direction was performed by staff members of the State Depart- 
ment of Education. 

General 

Three matters of a more or less general nature should receive at- 
tention ; 

1. Legal provision for reciprocity between the retirement systems of 
the State and Baltimore City. As it is now, a teacher leaving the counties 
to go to the City loses all prior service credit and vice versa. When a 
teacher leaves the Counties to go to one of the State operated colleges or 
the University, retirement credit goes with her, but this is not true when 
a teacher leaves Baltimore City to take a position in one of these institu- 
tions, and vice versa. This is an anomalous situation and should be cor- 
rected. Such a move has the support of the State Teachers' Retirement 
System, the State Board of Education, the Baltimore City Board of Edu- 
cation, and the teachers' associations. 

2. Approval of all schools, colleges, professional schools, kinder- 
gartens, nursery schools, and others (except those operated by religious 
organizations) by the State Department of Education. In the past the 
Legislative Council has recommended such a law. 

3. Consideration of the advisability of raising the compulsory school 
age. Two or three years ago the State and City Departments were asked 
by the Governor and Legislators to make a study of this problem, but at 
that time, because of war conditions, it was considered inadvisable to 
change the law. At present no definite position is being taken, although 
it is felt that the law should be tightened up considerably. 

Retired Teachers' Pension 

A fairly large number of teachers who retired while they were making 
very low salaries now find it very difficult to live on the meagre pensions 
they are receiving. The smaller the salary was, the smaller the pension 
is. The General Assembly of 1945 provided a fund of $30,000 to supplement 
the pensions of teachers who received less than $100. Those receiv- 
ing less than $50 were given a 20% increase, and those between $50 and 
$100 a 10% increase. The Board of Public Works later increased the 
amount to $40,000. The General Assembly should seriously consider con- 
tinuing to help these former teachers. 

Public Education a State Responsibility 

Amendment No. 10 to the Federal Constitution reads as follows: 

"The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited 
by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people." 

The power of directing and controlling education is not delegated to 
the United States by the Constitution, nor is it prohibited to the States 
by that instrumentality; therefore, the control and direction of education 
is a State and not a national function. It is a principle that we must re- 
member and protect. 



184 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The principle of education as a State function is very generally ac- 
cepted. If, therefore, education is a function and responsibility of the 
State, there is both a moral and a legal obligation that the State see to it 
that all its children have as nearly the same educational opportunities as 
possible. At least we may say the State is morally obligated to guarantee 
every child a sound and effective program of education "regardless of 
where the child lives, and regardless of where the wealth of the State may 
lie." Certainly the minimum program of education guaranteed every child 
must be high. Within a city or within a county, the unit of school opera- 
tion in Maryland, there is little difference in the educational opportunities 
offered children. Theoretically, the same principle should obtain in the 
State, but actually there are inherent difficulties. 

It is not necessary to argue the principle that education is a State 
function, but it may be well to point out a fundamental reason why the 
safety of the State and enlightened self-interest demand that a practical 
and sound financial system be developed whereby a satisfactory State 
minimum program of education for every child shall be guaranteed. 

Prior to World War II, the American people were a nation 25% to 
to 30% mobile, i.e., 257c to 30% of the people lived in places other than 
where they were born and reared. The figures during the war were un- 
doubtedly higher and possibly will continue so. 

Only recently certain reliable sources stated that 50% of the boys 
and girls of our rural areas have left the farms to seek their fortunes in 
urban communities. Whether this figure is correct is of no great conse- 
quence; certainly we know that throughout our history the whole trend 
of population has been from rural to urban communities. The point with 
which we are concerned is that if our rural youth do not receive educa- 
tion comparable with that of urban children, the former, when they mi- 
grate to the city, will be greatly handicapped in competing for the work 
in which they must engage. We should not be unmindful of the fact that 
many rural youth with limited educational opportunities go into urban 
communities and make remarkable records. On the other hand, we should 
be mindful also of the fact that for every one who does achieve success, 
literally thousands are not able to maintain even the standards of living 
which they had in the rural sections, because they cannot compete suc- 
cessfully. This statement increases in significance when we know that 
rural sections of the country are furnishing a large percentage of the 
population of urban areas. Rural youth, therefore, going into urban com- 
munities, which very generally have good school systems, must not be 
handicapped in these urban areas because the State has provided inade- 
quate educational opportunities outside these areas. 

The other side of this problem is that enlightened communities suffer 
when a large number of unenlightened citizens come into their midst. 
"Outlanders" with lower levels of enlightenment than those of the people 
of the community to which they go, constitute a constant menace and 
danger. There is only one answer to the problem — a decent level of edu- 
cation must be maintained in every part of the State. The first approach 
should be on the State level. 

The State System of Education 

An adequate system of education can be offered in Maryland. The 
State has the wealth, and the citizens desire to educate all of the children 
in the State. The basic problem is largely one of financing. For more 
than 25 years, Maryland has subscribed to this principle of a sound State- 
wide system of education. Probably during these years no other State 
has made greater progress in public education and in the direction of a 
sound scheme of school financing. The credit for this is due mainly to the 
splendid leadership of Dr. Albert S. Cook, the State Superintendent from 



Public Education A State Responsibility 



185 



1920 to 1942, and to the sympathetic interest of the Governors and the 
Legislators. In the meanwhile, however, other States also have progressed 
and we are now in the position where we must examine carefully the 
whole financial structure as it affects the support of public education and 
must attempt to resolve the problems in a realistic manner. First, we 
should consider certain basic facts and principles before making recom- 
mendations on State and local financing of schools. 

In the first place, as education has been considered a State function, 
the State, through its General Assembly, has determined in a measure the 
standards of education offered every child in the State, regardless of 
where he lives. These legal standards constitute what is commonly known 
as the State Minimum Program of Education, and they include the fol- 
lowing: 

1. Well-qualified teachers, and with a legal provision that no Board 
of Education may appoint an unqualified teacher if one qualified is avail- 
able. Since 1918 the standards for teaching in Maryland have been gradu- 
ally raised, until, since 1935, graduation from a standard four-year col- 
lege has been required of a fully qualified elementary school teacher. This 
requirement applies to both elementary and high school teachers, white 
and colored. With the exception of a few States which require five years 
of training, notably California, Maryland's standard ranks with the high- 
est in the nation. 

2. Free textbooks and supplies. As early as 1896, Maryland offered 
its children free textbooks and supplies. This was one of the progres- 
sive steps in which Marylanders led. When we consider the disparity in 
the wealth of individuals and the mobility of the population, the wisdom 
of such a provision is obvious. Throughout the nation now, free textbooks 
and supplies are generally considered a necessity. 

3. A minimum school year. Maryland has always required a mini- 
mum school year of 180 days for its white children, but it was not until 
1937 that 180 days was written into the law as the required session for 
the colored children of the State. It was in 1939 that the length of the 
school year was equalized for both white and colored pupils. This require- 
ment is gradually being adopted by other States. 

4. A minimum salary schedule. Maryland has adoped minimum 
salary schedules for teachers holding various types of certificates and 
having varying years of experience. These schedules have been increased 
over the years. The 1922 schedule was in effect until 1939. In the latter 
year a so-called single salary schedule based on preparation and experience 
was adopted. Salaries of white and colored teachers were equalized by 
1941 legislation, which took effect in January 1942. The present State 
minimum schedule was adopted in 1945. Twenty-nine of the States have 
some form of minimum salary schedule. 

5. Compulsory school attendance. The compulsory school attendance 
law was enacted in 1916, with provision for the enforcement of the law. 

6. The establishment, maintenance, and operation of institutions for 
the preparation of teachers. The State Teachers Colleges, which prepare 
teachers for the elementary schools, are maintained and operated by the 
State. 

7. The employment of qualified administrators and supervisors. The 
law sets up specific qualifications for both State and local administrators 
and supervisors and requires a system of local and State supervision of 
elementary schools and of State supervision of high schools. The quality 
of instruction, which is of paramount importance in any school system, is 
largely determined by the leadership in administration and supervision. 

8. Sufficient funds to take adequate care of costs other than teachers* 
salaries — such as heating, cleaning, and repairing buildings, library 
books, and other necessities. 



186 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



9. Transportation for children living too far to walk to school. 
10. Since 1922, a provision that no local community should have to tax 
itself beyond a reasonable amount to carry the program. Where necessary, 
the State through the Equalization Fund renders financial assistance to 
equalize the burden. 

The earlier part of this report has dealt mainly with proposed ex- 
tensions of this minimum program. These are essential if our schools are 
to be adequate and if they are to continue to improve. 

Local Control and Support of Schools 

In Maryland, coincident with the principle of education as a State 
function, is the one that the control of school systems shall be at a local 
level. Since the State has determined basic standards, it must see that 
they are maintained. Individual counties and the City, however, have the 
right to set higher standards. State financial aid, if properly distributed, 
enhances rather than hinders the principle of local control of education. 

All counties, without State aid, cannot afford to offer the same kind 
and amount of education to their children. In 1920 it was pointed out in 
a campaign for improved schools that the counties of Maryland varied al- 
most as much as the States in their ability to pay for functions of govern- 
ment. That situation is probably true today. The assessable basis of 
property per public school child in each county and in the City of Balti- 
more is included in Table 118, page 160. 

Practically all funds levied locally for education are raised through tax- 
ation on real estate. The figures on page 118 show that the wealthiest county 
is financially more than three times as able to provide educational oppor- 
tunities for its children as the financially poorest county. Obviously there 
could be no parity or even a near approach to parity of educational oppor- 
tunities if the counties were required to pay the entire cost of education. 

Sources other than the tax on real estate may be used for the support 
of schools, but generally they are not used for this purpose. 

The assessable basis taxable at the full rate for county purposes is 
shown for 1947 in thousands of dollars in the last column of Table 116 
on page 158. These figures show the amount which a tax of ten cents on 
each $100 of assessable basis would raise in each county and Baltimore 
City. By eliminating the last right hand digit, the amount that a one- 
cent tax on each $100 would raise would appear. This variation is from 
$787 in Calvert to $36,000 in Baltimore County. In Baltimore City a one- 
cent tax raises over $145,000. 

The per capita individual income taxes collected by the State from the 
counties and Baltimore City for the year 1946-47 are shown in Chart 28, 
page 162. Twenty-five percent of these taxes are returned to the counties, 
the City of Baltimore and the incorporated towns. The wide differences 
in the returns from this source are obvious. 

The counties differ greatly in the number of public school children, 
which is evident in Table 12 on page 42. 

The current cost per pupil belonging in the counties excluding general 
control, fixed charges and debt service, is shown in Table 88 on page 129. 
The differences are accounted for chiefly by variation in size of class 
shown on Table 68, page 101, and in average salary per teacher shown in 
Table 71, page 107. Expenditures on transportation of pupils, vary with 
the number and percent of pupils transported. These figures appear in 
Table 107, page 148. 

The sets of figures presented clearly demonstrate that if public educa- 
tion were entirely a local responsibility, the educational opportunities of- 
fered the children of the State would vary greatly because of the wide 
variation in the wealth of the communities in which they live. The cur- 
rent cost of education in Maryland is a joint responsibility of the local 
political subdivisions and the State. Evidently the extent to which the 
State aids public education locally determines, in part, the difference in 
educational opportunities offered. 



Financial Support of Schools 



187 



In addition to bearing part of the current cost of public education, 
the counties and the City of Baltimore have the entire responsibility of 
paying for school buildings. This matter has been discussed elsewhere 
in the report and here we are concerned only with the financial aspects. 
Over a period of twenty-some years, there has been an average annual ex- 
penditure of about $3,000,000 on school buildings. The burden of furnish- 
ing school buildings would be exceedingly heavy if the local units alone 
had to continue meeting this obligation. 

To summarize: The counties and the City vary greatly among them- 
selves in their ability to furnish an adequate program of education for 
their children. Education is a State responsibility; it is therefore neces- 
sary for the State to assume the obligation in such a way as to guarantee 
that every child in the State shall have a decent minimum program of 
education and that no local subdivision shall be taxed beyond a reasonable 
amount to furnish the program. A corollary is that any county or the 
City should be permitted to furnish a program of education superior to 
the minimum program required by the State, if the local unit is so in- 
clined and has the ability. The school laws of the State very generally, 
therefore, permit local communities to go beyond the State Minimum Pro- 
gram, provided they do so at their own expense. To a degree, this is an 
excellent plan. If the wealthier counties wish and are able to make 
greater progress in education and thereby set up desirable standards for 
the others to follow, naturally, in the course of time, the desirable stand- 
ards of wealthier local units become the State minimum. Fortunately, 
within the State of Maryland several counties and the City of Baltimore 
are able to go considerably beyond the minimum, and every county tries 
to do so. Two fundamental principles are involved here. First, the greater 
the State aid, the greater are the ability and freedom for local units to 
improve their school systems. This local initiative and expansion are en- 
couraged. Without generous aid, however, the poor counties can do little 
to improve their schools, no matter how great the effort, because the 
necessary wealth is lacking. The second point, which is of equal impor- 
tance, is that there should not be extreme disparity between the programs 
offered in the poorest and in the richest county. The State must make it 
possible, through its various school funds, particularly its Equalization 
Fund, for each county to carry the type of program considered necessary 
and desirable by the State. 

Financial Support of Public Education in the Individual States 

The States of the Union vary greatly in their ability to support edu- 
cation and other functions of government; they vary also in the relative 
effort they make to support education and in the amount they spend on 
each child, and in the percentage the State Government bears of the total 
school costs. It is not necessary to go into a lengthy discussion of the 
three points mentioned; to a degree the reasons are obvious. Let us content 
ourselves with examining a few facts. 

Maryland's relative position among the States in respect to ability to 
pay for education and other goveramental functions is shown in Charts 
29 and 30 on page 163. Only twelve states had higher per capita income 
payments than Maryland in 1947. 

Maryland with 29.8 percent ranks 27th among the States in 1945-46 
in percent of school revenue receipts from State funds. The average for 
the States is 33.9 with a range from 1.1 to 85.8. All except four States 
have increased the per cent of aid from the State from 1929-30 to 1945-46. 
Whereas the average State increased its percent of aid by 17.2 in the six- 
teen year period, Maryland's increase was only 12.5. The table indicates 
that Maryland can well afford to give a greater amount of State funds to 
the support of public education. 



188 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Per cent of School Revenue Receipts from State Fundg and Change from 1929-30 to 1945-46 



Rank 


State 


al929-30 


al939-40 


al943-44 


al945-46 


Change 














1930 to 46 




United States 


16.7 


30.6 


33.6 


33.9 


17.2 


1 


Delaware 


88.1 


92.7 


89.4 


85.8 


-2.3 


2 


New Mexico 


3.5 


69.3 


81.9 


70.2 


66.7 


3 


North Carolina 


1.4 


71.2 


76.8 


69.3 


67.9 


4 


Alabama.. - 


43.7 


58.6 


66.5 


67.0 


23.3 


5 


West Virginia . .. 


7.7 


52.4 


56.3 


59.3 


51.6 


6 


South Carolina 


26.9 


49.9 


65.4 


58.1 


31.2 


7 


Louisiana 


25.2 


56.9 


66.2 


58.0 


32.8 


8 


Arkansas 


33 . 6 


46 . 


56 . 7 


56 . 8 


23 . 2 


9 


Washington 


26.2 


61.3 


69.2 


54.9 


28.7 


10 


Georgia 


36.5 


58.2 


61.8 


50.9 


14.4 


11 


Oklahoma . 


5.9 


40.2 


42.1 


49.6 


43.7 


12 


Mississippi 


32.9 


38.6 


47.9 


46.7 


13.8 


13 


Michigan 


19.9 


46.0 


42.9 


46.5 


26.6 


14 


Kentucky 


26.3 


41.8 


47.0 


45.7 


19.4 


15 


Virginia 


28.5 


34.7 


41.3 


44.1 


15.6 


16 


Arizona.. 


17.4 


21.2 


62.4 


43.5 


26.1 


17 


Florida 


21.6 


51.8 


41.9 


43.4 


21.8 


18 


Utah 


32.1 


41.3 


48.1 


42.2 


10.1 


19 


California 


25.1 


47.8 


41.6 


42.1 


17.0 


20 


Texas 


35.9 


41.3 


46.1 


40.0 


4.1 


21 


Indiana 


1.7 


33.2 


34.5 


38.1 


36.4 


22 


Missouri 


10.7 


35.8 


36.0 


38.1 


27.4 


23 


Ohio 


3.6 


37.7 


36.5 


37.2 


33.6 


24 


Tennessee... 


23.7 


34.3 


36.0 


36.4 


12.7 


25 


New York 


28.6 


33.9 


32.5 


34.0 


5.4 


26 


Pennsylvania 


14.0 


21.2 


28.4 


29.9 


15.9 


27 


MARYLAND 


17.3 


21.9 


30.6 


29.8 


12.5 


28 


Oregon 





.4 


31.5 


29.3 


29.3 


29 


Minnesota 


17.3 


35.2 


29.3 


27.9 


10.6 


30 


Maine 


29.0 


15.9 


16.8 


25.0 


-4.0 


31 


Vermont 


12.4 


17.1 


13.7 


23.1 


10.7 


32 


Wisconsin.... 


16.2 


18.7 


24.5 


19.3 


3.1 


33 


Nevada 


13.2 


20.3 


7.5 


18.7 


5.5 


34 


New Jersey 


21.0 


5.7 


12.4 


15.3 


-5.7 


35 


Illinois 


4.5 


10.2 


11.9 


15.2 


10.7 


36 


Connecticut 


7.5 


8.8 


10.8 


14.7 


7.2 


37 


North Dakota 


2.8 


14.4 


11.8 


14.3 


11.5 


38 


Idaho 


.6 


12.0 


22.8 


13.1 


12.5 


39 


Massachusetts 


9.0 


10.2 


13.1 


12.7 


3.7 


40 


Montana 


3.7 


8.4 


13.5 


11.2 


7.5 


41 


Wyoming 


1.3 


5.9 


6.5 


8.6 


7.3 


42 


Rhode Island 


8.3 


10.7 


8.9 


8.5 


.2 


43 


New Hampshire 


8.8 


5.5 


6.6 


7.1 


-1.7 


44 


Colorado 


.1 


7.9 


10.7 


6.4 


6.3 


45 


Kansas. 


.1 


11.7 


6.8 


5.3 


5.2 


46 


South Dakota 


.5 


8.5 


5.2 


3.6 


3.1 


47 


Iowa 


3.3 


1.1 


2.7 


3.6 


.3 


48 


Nebraska 


.7 


1.1 


.7 


1.1 


.4 



a U. S. Office of Education— Statistics of State School Systems. 



Financial Support and Cost Per Pupil by States 



189 



Thirty states spent more on the current expenses per pupil in average 
daily attendance in 1945-46 than did Maryland with $126 per pupil. The 
corresponding average expenditure for the United States was $135.15. 
Maryland's efficient plan of organization for administration and super- 
vision makes it possible to give children a good education at lower expense 
than in States less well organized, but the low cost for Maryland reflects 
its large classes and its low salaries compared with other states which 
recognize the advantages of smaller classes and higher salaries. The com- 
parisons by states are shown in the table which follows. 



Current Expense Less Interest per Pupil in Average Daily Attendance, 1945-46 



State 



Cost per 
Pupil in 
A.D.A. 



Rank 



State 



United States.. 

Montana 

New Jersey 

New York 

Washington.... 
Massachusetts 

Wyoming 

Connecticut.... 

California 

Nevada 

Illinois 

Rhode Island.. 

Minnesota 

Oregon 

South Dakota. 

Delaware 

Wisconsin 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Pennsylvania- 
Michigan 

Iowa 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

North Dakota. 



$135.15 

215.44 
210.81 
208.70 
183.33 
179.71 
171.38 
168.65 
168.19 
162.32 
161.48 
160.85 
155.19 
154.74 
153.93 
152.01 
146.72 
146.62 
144.54 
144.38 
144.13 
143.89 
141.38 
141.25 
138.02 



Missouri 

Arizona 

Colorado 

New Hampshire 

New Mexico 

Utah 

MARYLAND... 

Vermont 

Texas 

Idaho. 

Oklahoma 

Maine 

Florida 

Louisiana 

West Virginia 

Virginia 

Kentucky 

North Carolina.. 

Tennessee 

South Carolina . 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

Georgia 

Mississippi 



U. S. Office of Education — Statistics of State School Systems. 



THE STAND OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE STATE 
BOARD OF EDUCATION 

The following statement was given the newspapers on Feb. 
15, 1947 by Dr. Tasker G. Lowndes, President of the Maryland 
State Board of Education. 



190 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The task of educating our children in Maryland is the joint responsi- 
bility of the State, the counties, and the City of Baltimore. The State 
Board of Education is required under the law of Maryland "to consider 
the educational needs of the State, and on the advice of the State Super- 
intendent of Schools, to recommend to the Governor and to the General 
Assembly, such . . . legislation ... as may be deemed desirable." 

Throughout the war, and the period of readjustment which we are 
now in, the State Board of Education has kept in close touch with school 
conditions through direct contact with the general public as well as school 
administrators, teachers, and parents. In the opinion of the Board, the 
plight into which our children's education has been forced needs drastic 
and immediate action. This action must be cooperative in nature and a 
shared responsibility of the citizens, Administration of the State, legis- 
lators, and those specifically interested in Education, such as parent- 
teacher organizations, Maryland State Teachers Association, civic groups, 
school administrators, and the public at large. 

In broad outline, we find that the following conditions exist: 

(1) There is a critical shortage of qualified teachers in the State of 
Maryland. 

As of today we find one out of every five teachers in the classrooms 
cannot meet the qualifications as set up by law. In addition to this there 
was a turn-over of more than 2,000 out of the 9,000 teachers during the 
past school year. Of the new teachers employed, more than one quarter 
had no previous teaching experience. This, added to the statement above, 
creates a catastrophic situation. This lack of qualified teachers, the 
enormous turn-over, and over-crowded classes have brought about a drastic 
lowering of the level of instruction. In fact, increasingly large numbers 
of children are either failing or passing through their school experience 
without ever having had a fair opportunity to succeed in their studies on 
a standard level of achievement under qualified teachers. 

This situation is brought about primarily by the inadequate recogni- 
tion of the service rendered by teachers through a low salary schedule. 
There is only one way to correct this situation and that is to provide a 
salary schedule which will keep the qualified teachers now in service in the 
classroom, as well as attract the proper type of young people to our 
teachers' colleges. 

The absolute minimum which can be considered in this salary scale 
for beginners is $2,200 and an annual increment of at least $100 should be 
provided over a long period of years. 

(2) No business organization or industrial plant would consider 
operating with the minimum supervision and clerical assistance with 
.which our schools are now forced to operate. Although elementary school 
supervision is provided in the present law, the enormous growth in enroll- 
ment in the secondary schools, and the increased importance of this phase 
of education make it imperative that consideration be given to supervisory 
services in this area. 

We find in the schools today as in other phases of our social order, 
that the unnecessary absence of children from school is both wasteful ahd 
costly. This lack of attendance is due to several causes, but studies have 
convinced the State Board of Education that many of these causes can be 
eliminated by the proper adjustment of the children to the school Situation 
before the child has developed undesirable social attitudes that bring about 
delinquency and adult economic dependence on society. 

(3) We find that very few of the school buildings in Maryland now 
meet adequate educational standards. This situation has developed because 
of the lack of opportunity for replacement, maintenance, and expansion of 
all physical equipment which was in use during the 1930-1940 period. 



State Board of Education Supports School Needs 



191 



The conception of physical requirements of the modern program of 
education, to which this generation is certainly entitled, requires a school 
plant which includes more than just classrooms. They must be sup- 
plemented by libraries, adequate eating facilities, laboratories, shops, 
health rooms, auditoriums, g>Tnnasiums. 

Public school property in the State of Maryland represents an invest- 
ment to the counties and Baltimore City of $303 per public school child — 
property of which our citizens should be proud. To retain its value, how- 
ever, it must be maintained and kept up-to-date with respect to its 
usability and preservation. Inability to carry on these changes has 
produced a blacklog of building needs amounting to $120,000,000 to 
$150,000,000 — an expenditure far beyond the reach of the local communi- 
ties. This situation can be remedied only with the aid of the broader tax 
resources of the State of Maryland and* the State Board of Education is 
proposing that this school building improvement program become a shared 
responsibility of the counties, Baltimore City, and the State. 

(4) Although the law defining class size was revised in 1945, we find 
that over-crowded conditions are still generally prevalent. This is due to 
the lack of classroom facilities and the teacher shortage, but the latter 
depends in large measure upon working conditions resulting from the size 
of the class. Parents, likewise, have demanded that we re-define this law 
in terms of 30 pupils enrolled, to give their children a larger share of the 
teacher's time so that the children may have a fair opportunity, to which 
they are certainly entitled, in the successful realization of their school 
endeavors. It is the considered opinion of the State Board of Education 
that the public is most conscious of the need for smaller classes and, at 
the same time, these smaller classes, will attract a larger number of our 
young people to the teaching profession. 

Fully cognizant of all of the above mentioned facts, the State Board 
of Education is faced with a serious responsibility and it proposes to 
meet this responsibility without temporizing and by direct action. This 
direct action involves a rather comprehensive legislative program, which 
we have instructed the State Superintendent of Schools to prepare and 
to propose to the Administration and to the General Assembly. 

As presented by Dr. Pullen, the State Board of Education enthusi- 
astically and unanimously approved the legislative program for a new 
minimum salary scale for teachers, principals, supervisors and superin- 
tendents; for provision for supervisors of pupil personnel and visiting 
teachers; for State aid for buildings; and for smaller classes. 

We realize that the sums involved, at first glance, may appear large, 
but it is the considered opinion of the Board of Education and myself 
that anything less would amount to temporizing with the situation. 

I am a banker, a business man, and a lawyer and I am interested in 
good and economical government. On the other hand, I am interested in 
the children of this State and the welfare of our future generation. This 
is not a matter of dollars and cents; this is a necessity vital to the very 
life of our State and in my opinion, no money could be better spent. 

Our whole system of democracy and free enterprise is dependent upon 
a high and universal enlightenment of our people. I assure you with all 
the sincerity at my command that this program is a necessity and one that 
the Legislature should meet courageously and aggressively. It is true 
that the problem is a national as well as a State problem, and I am con- 
fident that it will eventually be met on a national level. There is no 
reason, however why Maryland, with its wealth and with its intelligent 
citizens who have benefited from the public school system, should not help 
to lead the way in this matter. 



192 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Already, within the past few weeks, one of our Southern States, 
Tennessee, faced with the identical problem, has doubled its State appro- 
priation of $17,000,000 for public education. Certainly Maryland can do 
no less. I call upon the citizens and the several organizations of the State 
to support the State Board of Education and the various other groups in- 
terested in these measures. 

The fact that this program is called for is no reflection upon the 
splendid teachers, school officials, and children of this State, nor the fine 
system of education that we have enjoyed. 

I have been a member of the State Board of Education since 1924, 
and its President since 1935. I am. well aware of the achievements of our 
public school system and am duly proud of them. We have made tre- 
mendous progress in Maryland over the past thirty years. We are now at 
the point that we must continue or else retrogress. 

My Maryland traditions and heritage go deep into the past. I am 
proud of my State and of its citizens. With that heritage I can do no less 
than to stand foursquare and forthright for the education and welfare of 
its future citizens. 

Dr. Pullen on February 20, presented the following method 
of financing the proposed educational program taking into con- 
sideration the recommendations of the Sherbow Commission's 
Report on the Distribution of State Revenues: 

SHERBOW RECOMMENDATIONS 
The State Board of Education has approved the recommendations of 
the Sherbow Report, with certain modifications stated herein, concerning 
public education and has proposed that they be written into the law: 

1. Revision of basic-aid formulas — all funds now used in the distribu- 
tion of state monies to the counties and the City of Baltimore are to be 
abolished, with the exception of the fund for part-payment of salaries of 
school officials (superintendents, supervisors, and attendance workers). 

In the place of the seven existing State-aid funds there should be two 
forms of basic aid. 

(1) $400 for each teacher in the 23 counties and the City of Baltimore 

(2) $20 per pupil enrolled in each of the 23 counties and the City of Baltimore 

This method of distribution of basic aid insures, insofar as is possible, 
a uniform and fair treatment to every unit in the State. The proposed 
change will not affect the present equalization fund counties nor bring 
them any additional school funds. There is an additional cost to the State, 
however, all of which goes to Baltimore City and Baltimore County to 
remove existing present inequities (including $1,250,000 to Baltimore City 
in lieu of the tax reduction fund given the counties) $2,311,144 

2. Retention of the present equalization fund — all additional State- 
aid, with the exception of the Incentive Fund as proposed below, will be 
distributed through this system of school aid. If this entire proposed pro- 
gram is adopted, all 23 counties and the City of Baltimore will share in 
the equalization fund because of the extension of the minimum program 
of education, 

3. Establishment of the Incentive Fund for School Buildings — It is 
proposed that the suggested plan be adopted with the modification that d 
maximum local tax levy of lO*;* be provided and that the State's contribu- 
tion for each 1(' levied be limited to $20 per pupil enrolled, doubling both 
the State's and the local unit's contribution for this purpose. It is pro- 
posed that this increased sum for school buildings be provided in lieu of 
the two incentive funds for buildings and salaries as recommended by 
the Sherbow Report. This change would not require a greater contribution 
from the State than that recommended in the Sherbow Report. $2,982,400 

Total cost of Sherbow Recommendations for Schools $5,293,544 

(It is recommended that this plan go into effect January 15, 1948, thereby reducing 
for the first year only the total contribution by $1,519,395.) 



Recommendations of Sherbow Commission Approved 



193 



ADDITIONAL SCHOOL IMPROVEMENTS 



1. New Salary Schedule — The following new State minimum salary 
schedule is recommended: 

(1) Teachers— 

with bachelor's degree certificates — $2,200 to $3,800 
with non-degree certificates — $2,000 to $3, GOO 

The maximum salaries to be reached after 16 years of experience with annual 
increments of $100. 

The scale to be placed into effect up to the 12th year of experience ($3,300 and 
$3,100, respectively), in September, 1947. Beginning in September, 1948, each 
teacher shall receive the increments until the maximums are reached in Sep- 
tember, 1952. 



(2) Principals — 

without graduate credit shall receive the basic teacher salary, 
plus $200 for 2-teacher school 
$300 for 3-5 assistants 
$400 for 6-9 assistants 
$600 for 10 or more assistants 
with one year of graduate credit, the basic teacher-salary, 
plus $400 for a 2-teacher school 
$500 for 3-5 assistants 
$700 for 6-9 assistants 
$900 for 10-14 assistants 
$1000 for 15-19 assistants 
$1100 for 20-29 assistants 
$1200 for 30 or more assistants 

(3) Supervisors — 

without degrees, non-degree scale plus $500 
with bachelor degree, degree scale plus $900 
with 1 year graduate study plus $1100 

(4) Superintendents — minimum scale adjusted to $5,000 to $7,500 



The increased cost, of this new salary schedule, to the State for the 



The adoption of this scale will cause Baltimore County and Baltimore 
City to share in the equalization fund. This fact, plus the establishment 
of salary increments, plus the increase in the number of teachers already 
estimated for these units, will mean an addition to the budget for the 



There will be an increase of approximately $600,000 annually for 
each of the four years thereafter until the maximum salaries are reached. 

The figures given above include 2/3 of the salaries of all superin- 
tendents and elementary school supervisors in accordance with the present 
law but adjusted to the new scale. It has been recommended that this 
basic aid be retained, but it must be listed as new money since it no 
longer is included in basic State-aid proposed ($400 per teacher and $20 
per pupil). This recommendation is made as a guarantee of the continu- 
ation of assistance for these necessary services to all units regardless 
of whether or not they share in the equalization fund. 

2. High School Supervision — To be provided on the same basis as 
elementary school supervision is now given; only 2/3 of the salary, as 
stated above, to be paid by the State at a cost of $182,699 

3. Supervisors of Pupil Personnel and Visiting Teachers — it is recom- 
mended that a supervisor be provided for the first 5,000 children, or frac- 
tion thereof, at the regular supervisor's salary stated above. A visiting 
teacher is to be provided for each additional 5,000 children, or fraction 
thereof, at the basic salary scale for teachers with degrees described 
above. This is an extension and revision of the present law, providing 
attendance w^orkers; 2/3 of the cost to be born by the State $151,553 

4. Smaller classes — it is recommended that the size of elementary 
school classes be lowered from 35 in average daily attendance to 30 in 
average enrollment. Based on the present enrollment, the additional cost 
of this change at present is estimated to be less than $1,000,000 

When teachers and classrooms are available (possibly not for several 
years), the annual cost would be $3,324,000 



year 1947-48, is 



$8,983,977 



year, 1948-49, of 



$1,390,712 



194 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



RECAPITULATION OF COSTS 
(Beyond the present budget) 

1947-48 

Sherbow Report Recommendations 

Basic Aid $ 2,311,144 

Incentive Fund for Buildings 

(Effective Jan. 15, 1948) 1,463,005 

Salaries 

Teachers, Principals, Elementary Supervisors, 

and Superintendents 8,983,977 

High School Supervisors 182,699 

Supervisors of Pupil Personnel 151,553 

Smaller Elementary School Classes 1,000,000 



Total $14,092,378 

(1) For the year 1948-49, the remainder of the total annual cost of 
the incentive fund for building ($2,982,400) added to the budget 
will amount to $1,519,395 



(2) The increased cost for salaries for all school personnel in 
1948-49 will be $1,399,815. To put the entire scale into effect 
will take four more years, at an average annual cost of 
$600,000. It is estimated, however, that the annual increase in 
the assessable basis will decrease this by $300,000. 

(3) The cost of the smaller class program will eventually be 
$2,234,000 additional, but it will be several years before the 
necessary teachers and classrooms are available. 

CONCLUSIONS 

1. The salary schedule recommendation is based upon the assumption 
that it should provide the poorest county with qualified teachers. 

2. The figures submitted are based upon the latest assessable basis 
in the counties and Baltimore City. It is reasonable to suppose that a two 
percent rise in assessable basis will occur annually for the next several 
years because of new building construction, increased industrialization, 
and the plan of continuous reassessment. Should this occur, the estimates 
of the State's contribution could be decreased in 1948-49 by approximate- 
ly $300,000. Although this increase is highly probable, it was not con- 
sidered fair to take advantage of the probability in making the estimates. 
Should this increase in assessable basis occur after the first year, it would 
take care of half of the continued increase in the cost of the salary 
schedule for the next four years to place it in effect. 

3. All figures are based upon eni'ollments of the present year and 
the anticipated enrollment for 1948-49. Any increase thereafter in en- 
rollment would of course, automatically increase the amount necessary. 

4. The recommendations are also based upon the assumption that 
the State should bear between 50 and 60 percent of the over-all cost of 
the educational program. At present it shares to the extent of about 32 
percent. In 1945-46 twenty-six states provided a higher proportion of 
State aid than Maryland. 

5. The fact is also recognized that the average local tax rate in the 
State for current school expense and debt service is $1.01. 

6. The recommendations also consider the fact that even though the 
State's contribution in the matter of school buildings will be substantial, 
the counties and the City at their own expense, in addition to the amounts 
they contribute toward the incentive fund, will have to provide a building 
program greater than that shared in by the proposed incentive fund. 

7. It is also assumed that Baltimore City and certain of the larger 
counties will have to maintain at their own expense a salary schedule 
in excess of the one herein recommended. 



Cost of School Improvements Needed 



195 



8. The recommendations should be, but are not, based upon the as- 
sumption that the equalization point should be sufficiently low to permit 
every county to tax itself for a program in excess of the minimum pro- 
gram. Unfortunately, however, this will not be true because of the higher 
cost of other services. 

9. Finally, the recommendations mean that the equalization fund 
point is raised to 66 cents, in that the building program, which requires a 
10 cent levy, will in effect, become mandatory on every county and the City 
of Baltimore. 



ADDITIONAL COST OF INCREASING SALARIES, DECREASING 
SIZE OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL "CLASSES, PROVIDING FOR 
HIGH SCHOOL SUPERVISION AND ATTENDANCE SERVICE 
AND GIVING STATE AID TO BUILDINGS IN 1947-48 
AND 1948-49 

Additional Cost 
1947-48 1948-49 

Increase due to Sherbow Report 

Baltimore County $ 339,137 

Baltimore City 1,972,007 

Total $ 2,311,144 

State Aid for Incentive Fund for Buildings — Sherbow Report 

Present Equalization Fund Counties $ 998,466 $ 1,032,335 

Baltimore County 131,313 138,763 

Baltimore City 333,226 348,297 



$1,463,005 $ 1,519,395 

Increased Cost of New Salary Schedule and Increments 

for Teachers, Principals, Elementary School 

Supervisors and Superintendents 

Present Equalization Fund Counties $ 7,111,077 $ 591,084 

Baltimore County 395,987 259,778 

Baltimore City 1,476,913 539,850 

Total $ 8,983,977 $ 1,390,712 

State Aid for Part Payment of Salaries of High 
School Supervisors and Attendance Workers 

Present Equalization Fund Counties $ 201,685 $ 5,503 

Baltimore County 30,367 800 

Baltimore City 102,200 2,800 

Total $ 334,252 $ 9,103 

Smaller Elementary School Classes (Estimated) 

Present Equalization Fund Counties *$ 496,000 

Baltimore County * 163,000 

Baltimore City * 341,000 

Total *$ 1,000,000 

Grand Total Including Sherbow Report 

Present Equalization Fund Counties $ 8,807,228 $ 1,628,922 

Baltimore County 1,059,804 399,341 

Baltimore City 4,225,346 890,947 

TOTAL $14,092,378 $ 2,919,210 



* When sufficient teachers and classrooms become available, the additional 
cost will be $2,234,000. This cannot be effected for several years. 



196 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Financial Provision as Adopted by the Administration and Legislature 

The outcome in the budget adopted is shown on pages 30 
to 32. Early in March the Superintendents were notified of the 
following modifications in the program: 

1. The incentive fund for school buildings is to be provided on the 
basis of the Sherbow recommendations instead of double that 
amount, as was requested. 

The bill reducing the class size to 30 pupils enrolled will not be- 
come effective until September 1, 1951. 

Raising the equalization point from 56 cents to 65 cents does not 
distribute as much State money to each county and the City of 
Baltimore as was recommended. Under this provision, Baltimore 
City and Baltimore County will remain non-equalization units 
during 1947-48. As the whole program becomes effective, they 
will probably share in the equalization fund, perhaps during the 
year 1948-49. 

Administrative Matters In Reference to State Finances Discussed with 
Superintendents in May 1947 

1. Certificates will need to be classified at end of first year as well as 
the second year since the new 1947 salary schedule has annual increments. 
Section 91 reads: ''The certificates of all the teachers employed shall be 
classified by the county superintendent, not less than once in two years." 
There is, therefore, nothing to prevent classification during the first year. 

2. Teachers whose certificates have been rated second class and later 
made first class shall be considered for increments on the new schedule 
only for the period during which their certificates have been rated first 
class since the new schedules were adopted in 1941 and 1945. A teacher 
can be held at any point on the schedule by rating her second class. No 
further increments shall be allowed as long as the certificate is rated 
second class. 

3. Great care should be taken in employing out-of-State teachers to 
let them know that they are on probation for two years. We must not fill 
up our schools with out-of-State teachers unless they are very good 
teachers or we shall not have positions open for graduates of our own 
teachers colleges. 

4. Persons who entered military service before accepting a teaching 
position are not eligible to receive credit for their experience in military 
service unless it was teaching experience. 

5. Since the county administrative and supei'visory staff are no 
longer considered in the Equalization Fund calculation and salaries paid 
above the minimum are to be carried entirely at county expense and not 
shared by the State, it will be necessary for the counties to levy above the 
minimum 65 cents to carry such excess salaries if they are paid. In the 
past these positions have been considered key positions which could be 
paid out of the 20 per cent. This is no longer possible. It will be neces- 
sary to levy above the minimum 65 cents for all excess salaries of teachers, 
principals, administrative and supervisory staff, for all positions carried 
in excess of the minimum number required by law, and for all transporta- 
tion expenditures not approved by the State Superintendent. 

6. Salaries fixed for supervisors of pupil personnel are $200 lower 
than was intended. This will have to be corrected. 

7. The salary for a non-degree teacher in the sixteenth year appears 
as $3,600 when it should be $3,500. It will not affect State aid in the 
next two years since it is above the twelfth year. This will have to be 
corrected. 



Effects of New Financial Provisions; Certificate Regulations 197 



8. Since the increased salaries divided by .80 make available in the 
minimum program amounts required to be spent for purposes other than 
salaries of teachers and principals, it would be desirable to use these funds 
to provide for certain purposes for which it was considered unwise to se- 
cure legislation at this session, viz. clerical service. It may be possible 
to have the State Board of Education adopt a by-law which will make 
permissive the provision of clerical service to be paid for out of the 20 
per cent for the following ratio of pupils and clerks: 



The provision of more adequate library books, visual and auditory 
aids, textbooks, and instructional supplies, tests, more adequate clerical 
service and labor saving devices in the county office, sufficient janitorial 
service, better maintenance are added services for which these funds may 
be used. 

9. Various report forms will have to be revised. The budget blanks 
are out of print and should be changed because of the new legislation, 
especially with respect to State aid. 

The financial reports for 1947-48 will have to be revised, not only be- 
cause they are out of print, but also chiefly because of State aid. 

The books the principal uses for summarizing the principals' and 
teachers' annual enrollment, attendance and promotion reports are also 
nut of print. 

Suggestions for changes will be welcomed. 

New Certificate Regulations 

Upon recommendation of the State Superintendent, the fol- 
lowing new certificate regulations were passed unanimously by 
the State Board of Education at the meeting held on May 28, 
1947, the regulations having been previously carefully con- 
sidered by the Certificate Committee, by the presidents of the 
State Teachers Colleges, by the heads of the Education Depart- 
ments of the Maryland liberal arts colleges, and by representa- 
tives of the State Department of Education. 

The regulations will go into effect on July 1, 1947. For the 
next school year, however, applicants who have met the present 
requirements for High School Teachers' Certificates may be 
fully certificated, since they will virtually have completed their 
preparation before publication of the new requirements. 

I The list of elective courses in Secondary Education acceptable to- 
ward the requirements for a High School Teacher's Certificate shall 
be increased by the addition of the following courses: 

A Audio-Visual Education 
B Guidance 

II Revised requirement in Observation and Practice Teaching, in place 
of paragraph 13, page 58, of the State School Laws, 1944 edition: 

The course in Observation and Practice Teaching shall cover three semester 
hours of work. Not fewer than twenty-five clock hours of the course shall be de- 
voted to responsible teaching, supplemented by conferences. It is recommended that 
this experience be given over a five-week period with one high school or junior high 
school class. 

The Practice Teaching should preferably be done in connection with Special 
Methods during the last year of college or later and must be in a subject in which 
the applicant will qualify for certification. 



No. of Pupils 



No. of Clerks 



1000 or more 



250 
500 
750 



.5 
1.0 
1.5 
2.0 



198 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



III Requirement for certification in guidance 

Counselors who are to spend less than half their time in guidance services must 
have met the regular requirements for High School Teachers' Certificates, shall have 
had at least six semester hours in guidance courses, including principles and prac- 
tices in guidance, techniques of counseling, and occupational information. These 
courses shall preferably be given on a graduate level. 

Counselors who are to spend half or more of their time in guidance services 
must have met the regular requirements for High School Teachers' Certificates, 
shall have had at least three years of teaching experience, and must present credit 
for at least twelve semester hours in guidance courses, including the areas neces- 
sary for part-time certification in guidance, and, in addition, analysis of the indi- 
vidual (with utilization of test results), mental hygiene in the classroom, and occu- 
pational adjustment to business and industry. 

IV Content requirement for certification in high school science 

Six semester hours each of chemistry, physics, and biology ; at least twelve se- 
mester hours in one of these three sciences ; and three semester hours in other 
sciences, such as the following : 

Geology Astronomy 
Meteorology Radio 
Physiology Conservation 
Agriculture 

V Content requirement for certification in social studies 

Semester Hours 

Social studies 24 

' Distributed as follows : 

History, including American History 18 

Economics, sociology, political science, or 

geography ; Consumer Education 6 

It is recommended that more than six semester hours in these allied fields be 
presented. 

VJ Certificate in elementary school supervision 

A certificate in elementary school supervision, valid throughout the State for 
three years, renewable on evidence of successful experience and professional spirit, 
rquired of county supervisors of elementary schools, may be granted to persons who 
have had a year of graduate work, chiefly in Elementary Methods and Supervision, 
and who have had four years of satisfactory teaching experience. 

Upon special request of a county superintendent, the State Superintendent may 
issue such a certificate on a minimum of twelve semester hours of graduate work, 
chiefly in Elementary Methods and Supervision, with the provision that eighteen 
semester hours of additional graduate work, approved by the State Superintendent, 
shall be completed within five years. 

VII Certificate in high school supervisioon 

A certificate in high school supervision, valid throughout the State for three 
years, renewable on evidence of successful experience and professional spirit, re- 
quired of county supervisors of high schools, may be granted to persons who have 
had a year of graduate work, chiefly in appropriate Methods of Supervision, and 
who have had four years of satisfactory teaching experience. 

Upon special request of a county superintendent, the State Superintendent may 
issue such a certificate on a minimum of twelve semester hours of graduate work, 
chiefly in appropriate Methods and Supervision, with the provision that eighteen se- 
mester hours of additional graduate work, approved by the State Superintendent, 
shall be completed within five years. 

VIII Credits for the renewal of certificates 

For the full renewal of a teacher's or a principal's certificate the summer school 
or other credits which are to be accepted as evidence of the professional growth 
necessary for the full renewal of a certificate must total at least six semester 
hours. "The credits may be earned in summer school or in a winter session. This 
requirement shall be effective for credits earned subsequent to the summer of 1946. 

IX Definition of "year of credit" 

For certificate purposes, a "year of credit" shall be considered thirty semester 
hours. This definition shall be used in determining the qualifications for certificates 
in 1948-49 and subsequently. 

X Standards for workshops 

Beginning with the school year 1947-48, workshops which are to be accepted 
as satisfactory evidence of professional growth for the full renewal of certificates 
must extend over a period of at least thirty days. The individual concerned must 
be certified by the superintendent or by the appropriate college official to have ac- 
complished work worth six semester hours of college credit. 

Acceptable workshops extending over from two to five weeks may be used for 
proportional satisfaction of the requirement for renewal. 

XI Child study work 

Three years of participation in a child study group may be accepted as evidence 
of professional growth for the full renewal of a certificate, provided the applicant 
is certified by the superintendent to have done satisfactory work throughout the 
period. 



New Certificate Regulations 



199 



XII Certification for junior high school teaching 

Both High School Teachers' Certificates and Elementary School Teachers' Cer- 
tificates shall be accepted for the time being for teaching in the junior high school. 

A junior high school teacher's certificate, valid throughout the State for three 
years, renewable on evidence of successful experience and professional spirit and 
six weeks' additional preparation in a standard institution, and valid in a State- 
aided junior high school, may be granted to an applicant who has graduated at a 
standard college, has had twelve semester hours of work in each of the three fields, 
English, social studies, and science, and has had sixteen semester hours in educa- 
tion, including Adolescent Psychology and Principles and Methods of Teaching in 
the Junior High School, and at least twenty-five clock hours of practice teaching 
in the core curriculum. 

For certification in any one subject the applicant must present credit for eighteen 
semester hours of college work in that field. 

XIII Supervisor of Pupil Personnel I 

A certificate for the position of Supervisor of Pupil Personnel I, valid through- 
out the State for three years, renewable on evidence of successful experience and 
professional spirit and required of any person holding a position as Supervisor of 
Pupil Personnel I, may be issued to an applicant who has graduated at a standard 
college, who has had three years of successful teaching experience, and who has had 
a year of graduate work, chiefly in courses in Pupil Personnel, including the fol- 
lowing : 

Personal Growth and Development 
Counseling Techniques 

Social Case Work (with supervised field work) 
Educational Tests and Measurements 
Aptitudes and Aptitude Testing 

Mental Hygiene with Emphasis on the Psychiatric Approach 
Upon special request of a county superintendent, the State Superintendent may 
issue such a certificate on a minimum of twelve semester hours of graduate work, 
chiefly in pupil personnel studies, with the provision that eighteen semester hours' 
additional graduate work, approved by the State Superintendent, shall be completed 
within five years ; provided that any person serving as a county attendance officer 
in 1946-47 who does not meet the foregoing qualifications shall be issued a cer- 
tificate for the position of Supervisor of Pupil Personnel II. 

XIV Visiting teacher 

A certificate for the position of visiting teacher, valid throughout the State for 
three years, renewable on evidence of successful experience and professional spirit 
and required of visiting teachers may be issued to a person who qualifies for a Mary- 
land teacher's certificate, based on a degree, who has had three years of successful 
teaching experience and who has had courses in the following fields : 
Personal Growth and Development 
Counseling Techniques 

Social Case Work (with supervised field work) ; 
provided that the State Superintendent may, upon the recommendation of a county 
superintendent, issue a one-year certificate to an applicant who has not had the 
foregoing courses ; provided, further, that the certificate shall not be renewed until 
the full requirement is met. 

XV To tide over the next few years, the State Superintendent is au- 
thorized to issue Emergency Certificates corresponding to the War 
Emergency Certificates. The latter will be valid until the end of the 
school year when the war is declared officially closed. 

County superintendents shall appoint qualified applicants when- 
ever possible to replace teachers holding War Emergency or Emer- 
gency Certificates. 

Payment of Teachers Absent for Illness 

A tabulation of the data showing county practices in paying teachers 
who are absent for illness more than 10 days showed some variation 
among the counties and provision in six counties for cumulative leave in 
relation to years of experience. 

In returning his questionnaire, Mr. Boston, Superintendent of Schools, 
Dorchester County, sent the following data on days lost by teachers on ac- 
count of illness from September 1942 to June 1946: 

The first three years of 1942-3 to 1944-5 show absence from school 
under the Dorchester County Board regulation which permitted four 
days of absence for illness with no deductions plus sixteen days at one- 
half salary. In 1945-6 allowances for absence were regulated by the State 
Board by-law permitting ten days of absence with no deductions. 



200 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



provisions Regarding Leave of Absence for Sickness after Ten Days with Full Salary for 
Maryland County Teachers, November, 1946 



Daily Salary 
Deduction 



Annual 
Salary 
Divided 
by 



* See last 
column 



300 



300 



300 



300 



300 



300 



Salary 
of 

Substitute 



* See last 
column 



Days 
Taught 
Times 
Daily 
Salary, i.e 
Annual 
Salary 
Divided by 



tl80 



Sick Leave 
of Less 
Than 10 
Days May 
Be 
Cumu- 
lated 



No 



No 



No 



No 
No 



No 



Relation of Cumulated Leave to 
Years of Experience 



* For period up to 50 days, per diem 
rate paid obtained by subtracting 
difference of 1/300 and 1/188 of 
salary. 



180 



No 



300 



No 



300 



No 



No 



200 



No 



300 



No 



Yrs. of Service Days at 1 /300 
in County Deduction 
2-5 10 
6-10 20 
Over 10 30 
Thereafter, annual salary divided 
by 200. 



300 



No 



After first 
5 days, 
300 



Yes, for 
first 5 
days 



No 



300 



Yes 



Yrs. of County 
Service Retro- 
active to 
September 1941 
1-10 
11-15 

16 and over 



Maximum 
Cumu- 
lation 

J30 days 
t50 days 
jvo days 



300 



300 



No 



No 
Yes 



Additional leave of one day for each 
year of experience above 10, 
maximum 20 daysj. 



Yes 



300 



No 



No 



300 



No 



187 



300 
300 



Yes 



No 
No 



Year 

1946- 47 

1947- 48 

1948- 49 



Additional Leave 
10 days 
20 days 
30 days 



t If teacher has taught only a few days in any month. 

t The Board of Education provides for long illness in exceptional cases. 



Effect of Payments for Sick Leave; Payments to Substitutes 201 



Comparison of Days Lost Because of Illness of Dorchester Teachers 





Number of Days With 






Number of Days Absent for Illness 










Total 




















No. of 














Year 


No Salary 


y2 Salary 


Teachers 





1-3 


4-6 


7-10 


Over 


Total 




Deduction 


Deduction 












10 




1942-3 


*4 


*16 


153 


85 


31 


21 


4 


12 


373.5 


1943-4 


t*8 


*16 


147 


74 


46 


12 


7 


8 


332.0 


1944-5 


t*12 


*16 


144 


77 


37 


15 


3 


12 


365 . 5 


1945-6 


tio 




154 


81 


37 


19 


9 


8 


327.5 



* County Board of Education allowance. X State by-law. 

t Includes cumulation of days unused from preceding year, with a maximum of 12 in 1944-45. 



Prior to 1942 the by-law of the State Board providing for a deduction 
of one-half salary per day lost because of illness up to a maximum of 
twenty days was in effect. Under this arrangement the salary paid to a 
substitute just about balanced the deduction for the teacher's absence. 
Although there was not much increase in the number of days which 
teachers were absent from the school under the liberalized procedure, for 
the three years during which the Dorchester County Board allowed full 
pay for four days, there was increase in the cost of substitutes for the 
county, and in 1945-6 the cost to Dorchester County because of illness of 
teachers was approximately $1500 in excess of the cost of such absences 
prior to 1942. 

The superintendents wanted to know payments made for substitute 
service in individual counties. Tabulation of the data showed considerable 
variation. 



Per Diem Payments for Substitutes Planned for 1947-48 





Temporary Service 


Consecutive Service 


Consecutive Service 




Day to Day 


5 or more Days 


One Month or more 


County 




College 






College 






College 






Less 


At 




Less 


At 




Less 


At 






than 


least 2 


Degree 


than 


least 2 


Degree 


than 


least 2 


Degree 




2 yrs. 


years 




2 yrs. 


years 




2 yrs. 


years 




Alleganyt 








Anne Arundel 


$6 


$7 


$9 


$6 


$7 


$9 


Regular scale 


Baltimore 


7.50 


7.50 


8.50 


7.50 


7.50 


8.50 


Regular scale 


Calvert 


6 


8 


9 


6 


8 


9 


$130 


$160 


$180 


Caroline 


5 


6 


7 


6 


7 


8 


7 


8 


9 


Carroll 


5 


6 


7 


5 


5 


5.50 


5 


Sched. 


Sched. 


Cecil 


*8 


8 


8 


*8 


8 


8 


Schedule 




Charles 


5 


6 


7 


5 


6 


8 


6 


10 


11 


Dorchester 


6 


7 


8 


6 


7 


8 


6 


7 


8 


Frederickt 


3 


4 


5 


3 


4 


5 


4-5 


6.50 


RegxJar 


Garrett 


5-6 


7-8 


9-10 


7-9 


9-10 


10-12 


6-7 


8-10 


9-10 


Harford 


5 


5 


6 


5 


5 


6 


5 


Regular 


Regular 


Howard 


6 


5 


5 


Minimum salary scale 


Minimum salary scale 


Kent 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


Regular scale 


Montgomery 


8 


8 


8 


8.50 


8.50 


8.50 


Regular scale 


Prince George's.... 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


Regular scale 


Queen Anne's 


3 


4 


5 


3 


4 


5 


Regular scale 


St. Mary's 


5 


6 


8 


5 


6 


8 


6 


10 


11 


Somerset 


5 


5 


6 


5 


5 


6 


Regular scale 


Talbot 


*4 


6 


8 


*4 


6 


8 


5 


Regular scale 


Washingtont 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


Regular scale 


Wicomicot 


6.50 


6.50 


6.50 


al 


al 


al 


7 


7 


7 


Worcester 


5 


5 


6 


5 


6 


6 


6 


7 


7 



t Not reported 

* High School seniors $3.50. 



t 1946-47. 

a Ten or more days. 



202 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

1945-46 Juvenile Delinquency Cases in 21 Maryland Counties 



Number of Cases. 

Color: 

White 

Colored 

Sex: 

Boys 

Girls 

Age: 

6- 8 

9-11 

12-14 

15 + 

Grade: 

Special 

1-3... 

4-6 

7- 9.. 

10 + 

Age-Grade Class: 

Under age 

Normal 

Over age 

Referred Prior To 1945-1946: 

Yes 

No 

Teacher Helping: 

Much. . .... 

Little 

Change of School: 

Yes 

No 

Change of Teacher: 

Yes 

No 

Cause of Referral: 

Truant 

Irregular attendance 

Neglect 

Illegal absence 

Employment by parents 

111? 

Behavior problem 

Long distance 

Stealing 

Bad home conditions 

Mental incapacity.. 

Other . . 

Visits Made To: 

Teacher: 

Yes 

No MIL! 

Home: 

Yes . . .. 

No 

Others: 

Yes 

No : 

Suspension: 

Permanent 

Temporary 

Not suspended 

Lives With: 

Father and Mother 

Father 

Mother 

Step-Father and Mother 

Father and Step-Mother 

Relatives 

Guardian or Foster Parents.... 

Others 

Supervision: 

Adequate 

Inadequate 

Living Situation: 

Rural 

Urban 

Suburban 

Village 

Financial Situation: 

Secure 

Insecure 



All Cases 



Number 



a860 

724 
136 

578 
282 

89 
222 
452 

97 

13 
198 
400 
245 
4 

2 

361 
497 

574 
286 

624 
236 

48 
812 

51 
809 

312 
131 
114 

87 
*63 
39 
37 
30 
19 
16 
8 



847 
13 

842 
18 

389 
471 

12 
36 
812 

618 
34 
156 
12 
1 
33 
1 
5 

275 
585 

440 
220 
79 
121 

4 67 
393 



Percent 



100.0 

84.2 
15.8 

67.2 
32.8 

10.3 
25.8 
52.6 
11.3 

1.5 



0.2 
42.0 
57.8 



72.6 
27.4 



94.4 



5.9 
94.1 



36. 

15. 

13. 

10. 
7. 
4. 
4.3 
3.5 
2.2 
1.9 
0.9 
0.4 



98.5 
1.5 

97.9 
2.1 

45.2 
54.8 

1.4 
4.2 
94.4 

71.9 
4.0 

18.1 
1.4 



32.0 
68.0 

51.2 
25.6 
9.2 
14.0 



o4.3 
45.7 



Juvenile and Magis- 
trate Court Cases 



Number 



a490 

431 

59 

323 
167 

53 
108 
250 

79 

7 

116 
199 
166 
2 

1 

206 
283 

368 
122 

359 
131 

36 
454 

37 
453 

241 

88 
35 
50 



483 
7 



484 



291 
199 

4 
17 
469 

338 
25 
95 
7 

'22 

3 



84 
406 

210 
149 
51 
80 

238 
252 



203 



1945-46 Juvenile Delinquency Cases in 21 Maryland Counties 





All 


Cases 


Juvenile and Magis- 
trate Court Cases 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Help From Public Welfare: 

Yes 


80 


9.3 


52 


10.6 


No 


775 


90.1 


434 


88.6 


Partial 


5 


0.6 


4 


0.8 


Mental I. Q.: 

Under 70 


42 


4.9 


29 


5.9 


70-89 


141 


16.4 


111 


22.7 


90-109 


126 


14.7 


93 


19.0 


110 + 


13 


1.5 


4 


0.8 


Unstated 


538 


62.5 


253 


51.6 


Physical Handicap: 

Yes 


74 


8.6 


62 


12.7 


No 


786 


91.4 


428 


87.3 


Recommendation After Visit To 
Psychiatric Clinic: 

Commit to Training School 


6 


0.7 


1 


0.2 




5 


0.6 


1 


0.2 


Foster Home 


5 


0.6 


5 


1.0 


Withdraw from school 


4 


0.5 


1 


0.2 


Special class 


3 


0.4 


2 


0.4 


Change in environment 


2 


0.2 


1 


0.2 


Other 


t4 


0.4 


1 


0.2 


No visits 


831 


96.6 


478 


97.6 


School Aid In Securing Employment: 

Yes 


25 


2.9 


17 


3.5 


No 


835 


97.1 


473 


96.5 


Work Out of School: 

Home chores 


131 


15.2 


77 


15.7 


Farm labor 


123 


14.3 


38 


7.7 


Odd jobs 


61 


7.1 


40 


8.2 


Delivers papers 


19 


2.2 


14 


2.9 


Pin boy — bowling alley 


13 


1.5 


13 


2.6 


Clerical position. 


1 


0.1 






None 


512 


59.6 


308 


62.9 


Recreational Facilities: 

Yes 


300 


34.9 


77 


15.7 


No. 


560 


65.1 


413 


84.3 


Desirable... 


233 


27.1 


57 


11.6 


Undesirable 


627 


72.9 


433 


88.4 


Relations With: 
Peers: 

Good 


536 


62.3 


241 


49.2 


Fair 


74 


8.6 


55 


11.2 


Bad 


250 


29.1 


194 


39.6 


Adults: 

Good 


540 


62.8 


248 


50.6 


Fair 


117 


13.6 


86 


17.6 


Bad 


203 


23.6 


156 


31.8 


Area op Insecurity or Frustration: 
Home environment — parents 


495 


57.6 


254 


51.8 


Social environment 


131 


15.2 


90 


18.4 


Financial insecurity 


32 


3.7 


25 


5.1 


Mental incapacity 


29 


3.4 


9 


1.8 


Dislike for school 


26 


3.0 


2 


0.4 


School environment — teacher 


23 


2.7 


12 


2.5 


Personal inferiority 


10 


1.2 


6 


1.2 


Interest in other sex 


9 


1.0 


7 


1.4 


Health 


5 


0.6 


1 


0.2 


Not stated 


100 


11.6 


84 


17.2 


Source of Help: 
Public: 

Welfare 


27 


3.1 


14 


2.9 


Health Department •.. 


71 


8.3 


62 


12^7 


Non-Public: 

Children's Aid Society 


25 


2.9 


16 


3.3 


Catholic Charities 


3 


0.3 


2 


0.4 


Salvation Army 


28 


3.3 


27 


5.5 


Other 


5 


0.6 


4 


0.8 


Individuals: 

Teacher 


7 


0.8 


3 


0.6 




15 


1.8 


12 


2.4 


Physician 


2 


0.2 


1 


0.2 


Other 


12 


1.4 


7 


1.4 


Mental Hygiene Clinic 


3 


0.3 


3 


0.6 


None 


662 


77.0 


339 


69.2 





o Data from Allegany were too incomplete for tabulation, from Anne Arundel were not submitted, 
and from Calvert, Caroline, Cecil, Charles, Garrett, Somerset and Washington included only court 
cases. 

* All in one county. 

X Includes vandalism, health, desire to work, dislike for school. 

t Includes the following recommendation: Grade according to maturity, supervised recreational 
program, commit to an asylum, child guidance clinic. 



204 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Juvenile Delinquency Study 

For the purposes of the State-Wide Commission on Youth Services of 
which the State Superintendent was a member and Mr. Donald Minnegan 
was Acting Director, the county superintendents and attendance officers 
were asked in July 1946 to send to the State Department of Education 
rather complete information on difficult problem cases, including all cases 
taken to court, which have been reported to their offices during the 
school year 1945-46, with an indication of what has been done about them. 
Some of these children may be looked upon as potential future delinquents. 

In counties having fewer than 150 teachers data were requested on 
all problem cases reported to the office if the numbers did not exceed 25. 
In the larger counties having 150 or more teachers data were requested 
regarding all cases taken to court and sufficient other difficult cases to 
give a representative sampling. 

The assembling of this information should not only be helpful to the 
commission and the State Department, but also to the county school 
offices and to the legislature in securing the enactment of bills providing 
for an adequate staff of county workers for the larger counties and a 
satisfactory salary schedule for the workers in this field. 

Health, Physical Education and Recreation 

Health Results in 1947 

The Experimental Health Program described on pages 148 to 154 of 
the 1945-46 report was carried on in the schools of five counties in 1946-47. 
This program is set up by utilizing the efforts of teachers, nurses, physi- 
cians and resources of the county departments of health to develop best 
practices in identifying the health deviations of school children and in the 
correction of the deviations that interfere with their well-being. 

The teacher is the most important person in the observation of each 
pupil. The information is recorded on the teacher's observation card. The 
nurse discusses her observations with the teacher and both recommend 
the follow up. If a medical examination is necessary, the county health 
officer is called in. 

Teacher observation cards, medical cards, and dental cards have been 
furnished for each pupil in each county cooperating in the Experimental 
School Health Program. 

The State Joint School Health Council, composed of personnel from 
State and County Education and Health Departments and representatives 
from allied professional and lay agencies, has had meetings to evaluate 
progress and to establish basic principles, standards and procedure and 
scope of future operations, the latter to be outlined in a manual. 

A committee has developed sanitary standards for the school lunch 
program. 

Pupil surveys and special clinics' services in Montgomery and Prince 
George's Counties have been undertaken by the school health councils. 

There were three supervisors of health and physical education in Bal- 
timore, Montgomery and Prince George's Counties. 

Recreation 

Recreation institutes of a week's duration have been held in ten 
counties for white and colored recreational leaders. These include not 
only school personnel but also representatives from lay groups. These 
institutes have stimulated lay leadership for many agency programs. 
Mrs. Ruth Ehlers of the National Recreation Association has been the 
leader of these groups. These have been financed from the State adult 
education funds. 

Several counties have organized recreational programs utilizing school 
personnel and facilities. Several counties have year round recreation pro- 
grams under professional leaders. A successful learn-to-swim program 
in conjunction with the American Red Cross has been promoted for pupils 
in practically every county in the State. 

A recreational conference has been held involving State Governmental 
Agencies, to survey services, and possible service for people in State 
facilities. An extension of this conference is planned to include represent- 
atives of the counties and to result in vital recreational programs for 
all the people. 



Juvenile Delinquency Study; Health, Recreation, Physical 205 

Education 



Physical Education 

In the elementary schools, the daily physical education program is 
carried on by the teacher with supervision by the principal and elementary 
school supervisor. 

In grades 7 and 8, there may be special teachers. The intramural 
program is introduced and perhaps an extramural program. The emphasis 
is on eurhythmies, dancing including social dancing because of the children's 
growth at this time. 

In the senior high school there must be a good physical education 
program with every pupil participating in the intermural program. The 
interscholastic program is built on the intermural program. It brings 
problems of exploitation in the attempt to get all star teams to compete 
at tournaments for the pleasure of the spectators. There is very little good 
for the individual pupil. The travel and expenses are problems. 

The Maryland Association, American Association for Health, Physical 
Education, and Recreation, affiliated with the Maryland Teachers Associa- 
tion, held a meeting in Baltimore on Saturday, February 22, 1947. 

The morning program from 10 to 12 at Clifton Junior High School, 
Baltimore, included the following: 

1. A football clinic under the direction of Captain Tom Hamilton of the U, S. 
Naval Academy, and his staff. 

2. A health service demonstration, under the direction of Dr. Henry F. Buettner, 
Director, Bureau of School Hygiene, Department of Health, Baltimore City, and 
Dr. Edward Davens, Chief, Bureau of Child Hygiene, State Department of 
Health. The Massachusetts Vision Testing Kit was demonstrated. 

3. A dance program of national groups for folk dancing, country dancing, and 
social dancing. 

At a luncheon at the Sears Community Hall, Dr. T. G. PuUen, Jr., 
Dr. H. C. Byrd, and others talked to the group. Mr. Jim Tatum, Director 
of Athletics at the University of Maryland, gave information about the 
summer coaching schools. 

The afternoon program at 2:30 consisted of a discussion on "Should 
Teachers Receive Additional Pay for Extracurricular Activities?" with 
the following panel: 

Dr. Clifford L. Brownell, Director of Health and Physical Education, Teachers 

College, Columbia University 
Mr. Wilmer A. DeHuff, Principal, Baltimore Polytechnic Institute 
Dr. Earle T. Hawkins, Director of Instruction, State Department of Education 
Mr. Raymond S. Hyson, Superintendent, Baltimore County Public Schools 
Dr. William H. Lemmel, Superintendent of Schools, Baltimore City 

Promotion of High School Tournaments and Meets by Non-School Organizations 

As a result of efforts of members of the Board of Directors of 
the State Junior Chamber of Commerce to promote state-wide 
tournaments at the University of Maryland, the State Super- 
visor of Physical Education and Recreation discussed the fol- 
lowing questions with the county superintendents and asked that 
they be brought to the attention of teachers and lay groups: 
What is and shall be an adequate interschool program? 
Is there a need for a state-wide interscholastic tournament in various 
sports? 

Who shall determine such a program and who shall administer it? 
Are athletic programs to be promoted in the interest of the pupils 

themselves or for the purposes of abetting group and organization 

publicity? 

Shall these programs be organized to promote a wider and more 
equitable basis for competition between schools or should the 
program promote limited or all-star championships? 

Shall the schools surrender their obligations for developing and ad- 
ministering athletic programs to interests not fully aware of or 
indifferent to the educational outcomes of athletic programs? 



206 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Shall tournaments be permitted that can easily become a cancerous 

exploitation of school administered athletic programs? 
For what purposes shall athletics be ° part of the education program? 
What kinds of publicity do we desire? 

Accident Benefit Plan for Maryland Public School Pupils Presented 

The State Supervisor of Physical Education and Recreation brought 
to the attention of the county superintendents the question of an Accident 
Benefit Plan for Pupils of the Maryland Public County Schools. A com- 
mercial company is willing to sponsor a plan for such insurance for $3 
per pupil if at least 25 percent of the pupils enrolled participate. Children 
would be insured from the time they leave home until they return home 
with a maximum benefit of $250 to cover the expense of any accident 
which occurs. 

Federal Vocational Funds 

Because of the passage of the George-Barden Act, addi- 
tional Federal funds may become available for equipment and 
supplies for the vocational education program. At present 
Smith-Hughes and George-Deen funds are used only for sal- 
aries, travel of agricultural teachers and small amounts for 
travel of supervisors. A committee will be appointed to develop 
policies for use of the additional funds which become available. 

Purchase of Surplus Government Property 

Surplus property of the War Assets Administration is 
available to all educational institutions which are non-profit 
making and tax exempt. Some of this property, for example, 
business machines and cafeteria equipment, can be purchased 
at a 40% discount and other property is available at 95% dis- 
count. There are some limited items — machine equipment, ma- 
chine tools, small tools valued at $1,700,000 which are on a 
donable basis. 

A board of education or school may send a representative 
to any installation to find the materials desired and to fill in 
the necessary forms, and the State Department (Mr. Seidel in 
charge) will certify that the course requiring the equipment 
is being given. 

The Navy has a new program for disposing of surplus which 
requires that designated people representing the State must do 
the purchasing from central warehouses. Representatives from 
schools will not be recognized. Mr. James L. Reid will represent 
the State in doing this purchasing for counties which provide 
funds in advance and authorize him to use his judgment in 
making purchases. 

In May it was reported that the purchase of surplus prop- 
erty was changed since the last meeting. There are available 
for free distribution $300,000 worth of small hand tools. 

It was agreed that a pool of $3800 will be set up in a special 
fund with Mr. Brian Benson, the auditor, responsible, with $400 
from Baltimore City, $200 from each of the larger counties and 
$100 from each of the smaller counties to be used in the pur- 
chase of surplus property by State Department Staff. 



Accident Benefits; Vocational Funds; Surplus Property; School 207 

Buildings 



Report On Status of School Buildings Preliminary to State Aid 

In view of the recommendation of the Sherbovv Commission that the 
State give aid to school construction, Senator Funk, a member of the Com- 
mission, desired information on the status of county school buildings. Be- 
cause from the point of view of finances school buildings had been entirely 
a county responsibility, the State Department of Education has previously 
collected no information on them. The county superintendents were asked 
to report on the status of county school buildings as of January, 1947. A 



Status of Maryland County Elementary and High School Buildings, January, 1917 as Reported by 
County Superintendents of Schools 





Number 




Per 


Cent 






White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


Schools Reported: Elementary 


500 


260 


76 


7 


87 


.8 


High 


152 


36 


23 


3 


12 


.2 


Enrollment: Elementary 


97,626 


25,312 


64 





76 


.8 


High 


55,027 


7,640 


36 





23 


.2 


Regular Classrooms: Total number 


4,588 


801 










Substandard 


805 


349 


17 


5 


43 


6 


Additional Neededf .. 


tl,442 


t506 


t31 


4 


t63 


.2 


Group Rooms: Auditorium facilities 


316 


22 


48 


5 


7 


4 


No auditorium facilities .... 


336 


274 


51 


5 


92 


6 


Gym facilities 


254 


13 


39 





4 


4 


No g3'm facilities 


398 


283 


61 





95 


6 


Central library 


244 


22 


37 


4 


7 


4 


No central library 


408 


274 


62 


6 


92 


6 


Plumbing: Toilets — inside 


484 


62 


74 


2 


20 


9 


— outside 


165 


234 


25 


3 


79 




—both 


3 







5 






Central Heating 


492 


58 


75 


5 


19 


6 


Cafeterias: No. of schools with 3 or more 
















476 


103 










having cafeterias 


242 


10 


50 


8 


9 




having adequate cafeterias 


62 


2 


13 





1 


9 


Science Laboratories*: Number 


180 


21 


100 





100 





Adequate 


66 


1 


36 


7 


4 


8 


Meager 


114 


20 


63 


3 


95 


2 



Facilities Peculiar to County High Schools 





Total 


White 


Colored 


Commercial Facilities: Number of rooms 


132 


131 


1 


Machines needed: Typewriters 


857 


780 


77 


Calculators 


157 


146 


11 


Others 


148 


138 


10 


Agriculture Facilities: Adequate 


14 


14 




Meager J: 


J56 


t40 


tl6 


Needed t 


X51 


J43 


J8 


Industrial Shop Facilities**: Adequate . 


50 


48 


2 


M eager t 


J109 


i84 


t25 


Needed t 


t51 


tS9 


X12 
6 


Home Economics Facilities**: Adequate 


70 


64 


MeagerJ 


J115 


t89 


t26 


Needed J 


J45 


t37 


:8 



t Additional classrooms needed, in general, include replacement of substandard classrooms. 

* In high schools only. t To obtain the total number for which provision should be made, the 
number "meager" should be added to the number "needed". ** The larger high schools need more 
than one shop and home economics room. 



208 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



summary of the data collected is included here. In additional facilities 
needed, there was included provision for the twelfth grade in twenty 
counties for which the pupils would be ready for the first time in 1949-50 
and 1950-51. Provision for this grade was required by State legislation 
in 1945. However, the full impact of the effect of the increasingly larger 
number of births during the nineteen forties was in general not reflected 
in the summary shown here. The conditions shown gave evidence of the 
lack of building during the nineteen forties due to the war and the short- 
age of labor and materials, and of the increase in enrollment resulting 
from migration to Maryland during the war. 

The State Superintendent reported at staff conferences and confer- 
ences with superintendents on the need for committees to set up standard 
building requirements for each subject. For example in some of our new 
buildings the cafeterias, kitchens and libraries are too small. The people 
and the press are more and more critical of old, inadequate, overcrowded 
buildings which do not meet the needs of a modern school program. They 
want good school buildings. The chief difficulty in getting them is due to 
the fact that the entire burden falls on the county, whether it is finan- 
cially rich or poor. State aid is included in the budget as recommended 
in the Sherbow report. 

State and County Supervision of Elementary Schools for White Pupils 
In 1946-47, there were over 50 white County supervisors 
for elementary schools on a full time basis. Cecil, Frederick, 
Allegany, Montgomery, and Baltimore Counties did not have the 
number of supervisors for elementary schools for which they 
were eligible to receive State aid. The larger counties employed 
special supervisors of music, art, health, and physical education, 
but in most counties the special supervisors worked in high 
as well as elementary schools. 



TABLE 122 

Number of Supervisors in Maryland Counties for Varying Numbers of White 
Elementary School Teachers: 1946-47 



Number of 


Number of 






White 


Supervisors 


Number 


Names of Counties 


Elementary- 


Allowed 


of 




Teachers 


by Law 


Counties 




Less than 30 


* 


1 


Calvert (.5), 


30-79 


1 


11 


Caroline, Charles, Dorchester, Howard, Kent, Queen 
Anne's, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, Wicomico, Wor- 














cester. 


80-119 


2 


4 


Carroll (2.15)t, Cecil (1.0), Garrett, Harford. 


120-185 


3 


2 


Anne Arundel, Frederick (2.5) 


186-235 


4 


1 


Washington °. 


236-285 


5 


1 


Allegany (4.5)t. 


286-335 


6 


2 


Montgomery (5.5) J, Prince George's (6.1)a 


336-385 


7 






386-435 


8 


1 


Baltimore (6.4)6. 



( ) The number of supervisors actually employed in October, 1946, is shown in parentheses for 
counties which employed other than the minimum number required by law. 

* Tf number of teachers is less than 30, the number of supervisors to which a county is entitled is 
determined by number of white elementary teachers divided by 30. 

t The part-time supervisor is in the field of music. 

X Includes part-time supervisors of music, art, health, and cafeteria. 

° Includes a supervisor of music. 

a Includes full-time supervisors of music and art, 1.6 supervisors of physical education and health, 
and .5 for assistant superintendent in charge of curriculum and instruction. 
6 Includes part-time supervisors of music, art, physical education. 



School Buildings; Supervision of Elementary Schools 209 



Testing 

The Lee-Clark Reading Readiness Tests financed by the 
State Department of Education were given all county first grade 
pupils in September 1946. Counties sent a brief summary of 
the test scores to the State office in November. Counties were 
asked to present rich and specific suggestions which will help 
teachers to adjust the reading program to the wide differences 
in the abilities and backgrounds of their first year pupils. 

Many of the counties financed at their own expense tests 
of mental ability and achievement in reading, arithmetic and 
work-study skills for fourth or fifth grade pupils. The State 
paid for these tests for seventh grade pupils. These tests were 
ordered through the State Department office. 

The Child Study Program 

Summer Workshop at University of Chicago 

Six of the Montgomery white elementary school staff, in- 
cluding the supervisor of guidance, an elementaiy school super- 
visor, three elementary school principals and an elementary 
school teacher, as w^ell as the State supervisor of elementary 
schools, county elementary school supervisors from Garrett 
and Worcester, and an instructor in psychology and education 
from the State Teachers College at Towson attended the Child 
Growth and Development Workshop at the University of Chicago 
in the summer of 1946. For white high school staff and colored 
county principals who were also there, see pages 215 and 226. 

Betterton Workshop 

The child study program, which was an important part of 
the pre-service and in-service training for teachers in 1945-46, 
started out with a workshop for second year leaders held at the 
Rigbie Hotel, Betterton, in Kent County, from September 30 
to October 12, 1946 under the leadership of the following con- 
sultants from the University of Chicago: 

tMr. Daniel H. Prescott — Head of Collaboration Center on Child Growth and 
Development 

tMiss Columbia Winn — Staff Member, Child Study Field Program 
tMr. Lynn Shufelt — Instructor, Department of Education 

Mrs. Verna Easter— Staff Member, Child Study Field Program 

George Hohl ) 

Gerthon Morgan > — Visitors — Staff Members from Child Study Field Program 
Madeline Mershor ) 

t Member of steering committee. 

The services of the consultants were paid for from State De- 
partment of Education funds. Every county and Baltimore City, 
each of the three State teachers colleges, and the staff of the 
State Department of Education were represented at the work- 
shop which included 76 individuals as well as 28 visitors, in ad- 
dition to the consultants from the University of Chicago. The 
distribution of the membership and visitors according to county 
and position held shows that over half were elementary school 
supervisors and the remainder included supervisors of junior 
high and high schools, special subjects, and curriculum; at- 



210 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Participants in Betterton Workshop — October 1946 



County 

- 


Supervisor 


Prin- 
cipal 


Teach- 
ers 


Super- 
inten- 
dent 


Visitors 

— — 


Eh 


High. 


Subj. 


Att. 


Col. 


Curr. 


Total Counties 


35.5 




9 


ti . O 






5 


8 


1 




Allegany 


3 


1 


















Anne Arundel 


2 






1 












Supt. 


Baltimore 


4 


tu 
















2 Asst. Supts.: 

Uurr. Inst.; Hil. tscnoois 


Calvert 


*.5 


*.5 


















Caroline 


1 












IH 


IH 




Supt. 


Pnrrnll 


2 














JIH 




Supt. 




1 


1 
















Supt., HS Prin. 


v^naries 


1 












IE 










1 


*.5J 




*.5 












Supt. 




**2 


**J 


















Garrett 


2 




















xlariora 


2 


1 












t2H 




Supt., Supv. JH 


Howard 


1 














IH 






Kent 


tl 












tlH 


IH 


tl 


Bd. member 


Montgomery 


1 


1 


1 


1 






IH 






Supt., Vis. Te. 


Prince George's 


2 




1 










JIJH 






Queen Anne's 


1 






*.5 


*.5 




IH 






Supt. 


St. Mary's 


1 




















Somerset.. 


1 


















Supt. 


Talbot 


1 














JIH 




Supt. 


Washington 


q 




















Wicomico 


1 


1 




1 














Worcester 


1 






*.5 


*.5 












Baltimore City ... . 


1 




1 






2 


lEJ 

2E 


JIJ 




Asst. Supts. El. & Hig 
Dir. of Kgn. Prin. 


Teachers College 


3 


















Pres. Towson, Dean 
Ed. W. Md. 


State Department 


tl 




tl 














Supt., Asst. Supt., Dir. 
Inst., t4 H. S. Supv. 


Total 


40.5 


7 


4 


4.5 


1 


2 


8 


9 


1 





t Indicates one member of steering Committee. E — Elementary 

* Indicates time divided between two fields. H — High 

X Indicates guidance counselor. J — Junior High 



Betterton Workshop 



211 



tendance workers, of whom two also supervised colored schools ; 
high and elementary school principals and teachers, of whom 
several were guidance counselors, and one county superin- 
tendent. The visitors to the workshop included ten county 
superintendents, four assistant superintendents, the State super- 
intendent and assistant State superintendent, seven supervisors 
from State, County and City staffs, a high school principal, a 
visiting teacher, a board member, a teachers college president 
and a college Dean of Education. See Table showing participa- 
tion in Betterton Work Shop on page 210. 

Each member of the workshop was asked to bring one case 
study, notebooks and pencils, books on hand recommended in 
1945-46, work and play clothes and blankets. 

The following is an excerpt from a bulletin on the Betterton 
Workshop prepared by a committee of its members: 

Along with several other school systems in the United States, the 
State of Maryland has been giving an opportunity to teachers of the 
State to grow professionally in their understanding of child develop- 
ment. The Maryland program is unique in that it is Statewide. Dr. 
Daniel Prescott with his staff from the University of Chicago has 
been directing the study for the past year and a half. 

The first year program emphasized the learning of techniques for 
proceeding scientifically in the study of child behavior. The second 
year program, now underway, includes a continuation of the first year 
program techniques with added attention to the variety and quality 
of sources of data, to better ways of observing and recording data 
about children, to interpreting data in a systematic way against a 
framework of scientific concepts which explain human behavior. 

In order that the second year program might be a reality in 
Maryland, educators from all the Counties, Baltimore City, and the 
Teachers' Colleges have been working together in Betterton, studying 
the nature of the continued program. These potential leaders of 
second year study groups have studied to increase and clarify their 
knowledge of principles evolved from the sciences which explain 
human growth and development, as well as the procedure of the 
second year child study program. The working together of the mem- 
bers has been one of the outstanding experiences of the workshop. 
State morale in education must be enriched when leaders know each 
other, understand each other, plan and purpose together for a better 
understanding of the development of the children of the State. 

The workshop proceeded with 

(1) daily lectures on scientific information by Dr. Prescott (l^-y hours) and wide 
assigned reading (2 hours) by the workshop members (builcfing a larger body 
of experiences and understanding in the various areas underlying the program) 

(2) seminars, led by staff members (clearing the thinking and evaluating the 
experiences) IV2 hours 

(3) laboratory periods (testing the experiences in processing actual case studies) 
l^-j hours 

The effectiveness of the workshop experiences can be seen best 
as the child study programs operate throughout the state and in the 
professional growth of teachers as they build greater understanding 
of children. The Betterton workshop has pointed the way. 



212 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Second Year of Child Study Program 

Miss Alder sent the following letter to the leaders of the 
Child Study Program on Oct. 30, 1946. 

By this time you have no doubt organized your Child Study 
groups and have had your first meetings. The follov^ing out- 
line, v^hich need not be followed exactly, may prove helpful in 
planning the complete year's work. 

steps in the Second Year of the Child Study Program 

Nov emb er- January 

1. Second-year leaders will organize study groups of persons who 
were in the first-year program last year. 

2. Each member of the group will select a child for study. (This 
may be the same child studied last year, or :i different child.) 

3. Short anecdotes of behavior of the child will be written on the 
average of four times each week. Information about the child may 
come from four sources: 

(a) The school record 

We need to stress the use of the school record. It is doubtful that we 
now interpret the records to the best advantage. 

(b) Other teachers 

Information from other teachers should be evaluated on the basis of 
whether it is teacher opinion or factual material. It is the latter that is 
needed. 

(c) Contact with parents and visits to the home 

It is by means of home visits that the teacher is able to sense the con- 
text in which the child finds himself and lives. 

(d) Direct observation and description of child's behavior under many cir- 
cumstances 

"Analysis of all sources of information will enable us to in- 
terpret the child's behavior with some depth. We arrive at our in- 
terpretation in a systematic way by use of an organizing frame- 
work based on analysis of the dynamics underlying behavior. This 
framework contains six areas which are thought of as six angles 
of vision of a single unity, since the child is an indivisible unity." 
These areas are: 

Physical processes Socialization processes 

Affectional processes Self-developmental processes 

Peer group processes Self-adjustive and defensive processes 

4. At the first or second meeting of the group the leader will give an 
overview of the nature of the six areas. The members of the 
groups will gain more understanding of the areas as they pro- 
cess their records. 

5. Later meetings will give practice in spotting into the six areas 
data in the record of each group member. This is called process- 
ing the record. 

(a) Use current record of same or different child from last year. 

(b) Have each member read his record. (At beginning of the year this can 
be done. Later, as the record becomes longer, only one record may be 
used at a meeting.) 

(c) Give the mechanics for marking a record. (Place in the margin of the 
record the number denoting the area under which the incident seems to 
fall, as : 1.01 Physical processes ; 2.01 Affectional processes ; 3.01 Peer 
group processes ; 4.01 Socialization processes ; 5.01 Self-developmental 
processes ; 6.01 Self-adjustive and defensive processes. As incidents in- 
crease in each area, the number increases accordingly, as 1.02, 1.03, etc.) 
Underline the specific part in the record which relates to the number. 

(d) It might be well to take one or more records and spot data as a group 
into areas, until each member of the group understands what to do. 

(e) Always give reason for placing data in a specific area. 

G. After the members of the group understand the procedure, they 
m.ay work in pairs in processing their records, as the records get 
longer. The leader is then available to give any group help as 
needed. 



Child Study Program 



213 



7. Continue emphasis upon the ethical principles involved in the study 
of individual children. That all case records be carefully guarded 
and that information be kept confidential is just as important in 
the second year of study as in the first. 

8. Group meetings will be about two hours in length and should be 
scheduled when most convenient for the majority of the members, 
preferably every two weeks. 

9. This year first-year groups as well as second-year groups should 
be organized in each county. In most cases the second-year leader 
can organize also a first-year group, thus leading tw^o groups. In 
most counties some persons attended the three leaders meetings 
last year, but did not lead groups. However, they did participate 
either as a co-chairman or as a member of a Child Study group. 
These people, if their schedule permits, have the training to start 
first-year groups. There were also in the groups last year teachers 
or principals who are good potential leaders. If they took a good 
deal of interest in the program, and can make arrangements to 
lead groups, they have enough background to start the program, 
with the help of the elementary supervisor or some other person 
who attended the meeting last year. All first-year leaders will be 
invited to the January meetings and will then receive help in 
carrying on the rest of the year's work. However, any new groups 



Participation of County WHITE Teaching Staflfin Child Study Program 1946-1947 







No. OF 


Groups 


No. OF Teachers in 


Teachers 


IN Child 




No. of 










Study 


County 


Leaders 














S.T.C. 




1st yr. 


2nd yr. 


1st yr. 


2nd yr. 


No. 


% 


County Total .... 


115 


94 


53 


998 


547 


1,545 


30 


Allegany 


5 


8 


4 


101 


51 


152 


32 


Anne Arundel 


12 


10 


2 


71 


20 


91 


28 


Baltimore 


6 


6 




85 




85 


12 


Calvert 


2 


1 





9 





9 


24 


Caroline 


4 


5 


2 


55 


18 


73 


83 


Carroll 


2 


4 


1 


30 


14 


44 


20 


Cecil 


8 


5 


1 


50 


10 


60 


40 


Charles 


3 


2 


2 


16 


20 


36 


44 


Dorchester 


6 


3 


1 


42 


16 


58 


50 


Frederick 


4 


4 


2 


42 


26 


68 


25 


Garrett 


2 


2 


3 


14 


17 


31 


20 


Harford 


5 




7 




85 


85 


40 


Howard 


2 


"3 


2 


44 


16 


60 


59 


Kent 


3 


3 


1 


47 


12 


59 


100 


Montgomery 


13 


7 


7 


59 


68 


127 


20 


Prince George's 


13 


15 


3 


163 


32 


195 


34 


Queen Anne's 


5 


4 


1 


35 


10 


45 


67 


St. Mary's 


3 


2 


2 


16 


15 


31 


51 


Somerset 


3 


2 


2 


21 


18 


39 


51 


Talbot 


2 


1 


1 


12 


15 


27 


36 


Washington 


5 


3 


3 


42 


20 


62 


14 


Wicomico 


3 


2 


4 


21 


44 


65 


50 


Worcester 


4 


2 


2 


23 


20 


43 


50 


Towson S.T.C 


3 




1 


14 


15 


29 




Salisbury S.T.C... 


2 


2 




24 




24 




Frostburg S.T.C. 


1 


1 


1 


16 


7 


23 




Grand Total .... 


121 


98 


55 


1,052 


569 


1.621 





Total number White Leaders and Participants. 



1,742 



214 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

should be organized now, and should be started on writing anec- 
dotal material. If specific directions are needed for first-year 
work, leaders of last year's groups should be able to supply the 
material; if not, it can be obtained from this office. 
January-March 

The second series of meetings for leaders will be held at the 
Teachers Colleges during the week of January 13, 1947. The meeting 
at each college will be approximately three days in length. Both first- 
and second-year leaders will be invited to these meetings. It is 
planned that all leaders will meet for over-all lectures. The group 
will then be divided into first-and second-year groups to evaluate work 
done and to plan for the next three months. During this period — 
January and March — the second-year study groups will be taking all 
the information they have about each child in each of the six areas 
and formulating hypotheses as to causes of behavior. The first-year 
groups will also be formulating tentative and alternative hypotheses 
based on anecdotes written. 

After the January meetings the consultants suggested that leaders 
need to do more reading and some need to have more materials for 
their groups to use. As a result Miss Alder prepared material to be 
distributed to each leader. 
March-May 

The third series of meetings for leaders will be held at the Teach- 
ers Colleges during the week of March 17, 1947. These meetings are 
to help the second-year leaders gain practice in interpretation of data 
collected. Using the information they have, they will attempt to 
discover what developmental tasks each child studied is facing. They 
will then take back to their study groups any directions they receive 
for the work during the last three months of the year. First-year 
leaders also will receive help on their program for the last part of 
the year. 

High School Supervision in Maryland Counties 
State Supervision 

In 1946-47 supervision of high schools was carried on by 
the following members of the State staff: Dr. Earle Hawkins 
who acted as director of instruction was responsible for super- 
vision of Baltimore, Harford and the three westernmost coun- 
ties — Garrett, Allegany and Washington ; Dr. Devilbiss had 
Frederick, Carroll and Montgomery and the five Southern Mary- 
land Counties — Prince George's, Anne Arundel, Calvert, Charles 
and St. Mary's ; while Dr. Fontaine continued to supervise the 
nine Eastern Shore counties. Mr. Spitznas continued to work 
at the curriculum laboratories centralized in rooms set aside at 
the State Teachers Colleges at Towson and Bowie. Mr. Paul 
E. Hufhngton gave part of his time to supervision of the high 
schools for colored pupils. The State supervisors of agriculture, 
home economics, industrial education and guidance continued 
to work with principals and teachers in their respective fields. 

County Supervision 

County supervision of high schools was provided full-time 
by two staff members in Baltimore and Harford who worked 
in the senior and junior high school fields respectively, and by 
one high school supervisor in Allegany, Carroll, Cecil, Mont- 



Child Study Program; High School Supervision 215 

gomery, Washington and Wicomico Counties, while part-time 
supervision of high schools was given in Anne Arundel, Calvert, 
Charles, Dorchester (junior), Frederick (junior), and Prince 
George's. 

In addition, some of the large counties employed special 
supervisors: Allegany in industrial work and music, the latter 
part-time; Anne Arundel in industrial work and agriculture, 
both part-time; Baltimore in music, art, health and physical 
education, all part-time and home economics full time; Carroll, 
music and home economics, both part-time; Frederick, music 
part-time; Montgomery, industrial, home arts, vocational, two 
in guidance; Prince George's health education, physical educa- 
tion, industrial education and home economics, all part-time; 
Washington, industrial education and music, both part-time. 

Eight counties in the summer of 1946 had local county 
workshops which made use of the ten resource units and the 
manual on the junior high school prepared at the June Towson 
Summer Workshop*, to build their own resource units or to 
instruct teachers in the skills and techniques necessary for de- 
riving successful teaching units from resource units. Several 
other counties had one-to three-day meetings to consider ways 
of using resource units and to demonstrate methods. 

Child Study in the High School 

Four Maryland high school principals and teachers attended 
the University of Chicago Child Development Workshop in the 
Summer of 1946. Ten of the county high school supervisors, 
three high school principals and eight high school teachers, a 
number of whom were guidance counselors, were members of 
the Betterton child-study workshop described on pages 209-11 of 
this report. This means that they had been leaders of child- 
study groups in 1945-46 and received training to prepare them 
to lead second-year groups in 1946-47. 

Testing in High Schools 

The State financed intelligence tests and achievement tests 
in reading, arithmetic and work study skills for seventh grade 
pupils early in 1946 for guidance purposes and in order that in- 
dividual and group remedial work when needed could be planned. 

The State also financed a program of tests of general educa- 
tional development in English, social studies, science, literature 
and mathematics for all seniors who expected to enter college 
in the Fall of 1947. It was thought that the test results would 
supplement information available in the school and be helpful 
to students, their parents, the guidance counselors, and other 
members of the faculty in planning the program of higher edu- 
cation best suited to meet the abilities and interests of indi- 
vidual students. 

The counties and individual schools gave other tests for 
guidance purposes at their own expense. No reports on these 
were made to the State Department office. 



* See 1945-46 Annual Report of State Department of Education, pages 207 to 209. 



216 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 
Fourth Annual State-wide High School Principals' Conference 

The fourth annual State-wide high school principals' con- 
ference was held May 1-3, 1947 in Baltimore on the theme, 
Maryland Looks Ahead in Education Towards the Senior High 
School. 

Suggested Guilding Principles for Secondary Education in Maryland 

1. Since all, or practically all, American youth will in a few years be- 
come wage earners, citizens, founders of families, consumers of goods, 
members of smaller or larger communities, and participants in the 
manifold areas of living in the twentieth century, the high school 
program must be redesigned to care for the ''imperative needs of 
youth." 

2. The secondary school should be thought of as a "youth school," a 

school for adolescents, a school for all American youth who have 
ceased to be children. It must then be prepared to accept, without 
quibbling and without avoiding the issue, all youths — even though for 
some of them six or more years of elementary school have not neces- 
sarily brought about the level of academic accomplishment commonly 
termed ''high school level." 

3. The six-year (or eight-year) secondary school should grow directly 
out of the six-year elementary school. It should seek to provide ade- 
quately : 

(1) a program of general education providing experiences designed to 
care for the common needs in American life; 

(2) a diversified program of vocational and avocational offerings on 
varied levels to meet the varied needs, abilities, and aptitudes of 
pupils ; 

(3) . a comprehensive guidance service which will assist in planning 

for each pupil the educational program which is best for him. 

4. The evolving high school curriculum will increasingly be based on 
"our way of life in America," on the nature of the individual youth, 
and on the way he learns. Parents, pupils, and teachers will cooper- 
ate in determining the program for a particular school and a partic- 
ular pupil. 

5. The curriculum is wider than courses of study, than classroom in- 
struction, than marks and credits. It includes all school experiences, 
formal and informal. The high school should be so organized and 
administered, therefore, that every activity or experience will con- 
tribute to the educational growth of the pupils who participate. 

6. Since there are many avenues of learning, the secondary school pro- 
gram should be more than "reading about things." It should provide 
for discussions, for conferences, for intelligent listening, for contaqts 
with the community — for participation in all types of constructive 
activities which are characteristic of life in America today. 

7. The secondary school should seek to provide a six — (or eight-) year 
sequence of experiences developed in terms of high school youth, more 
specifically, the youth attending a given school. It should be possible 
for all youth to make normal progress through the secondary school. 
This of course implies a fairly large school and an administration 
and staff with real vision. 

8. Since attitudes, skills, tastes, appreciations, ideals, and habits are all 
phases of educational development, it will be necessary to develop new 
methods of evaluation in order to recognize and measure, as far as 
possible, growth along all lines. 



High School Principals' Conference 



217 



9. A pupil's progress through the school must inevitably be gauged in 
terms of higher standards, but if such standards are inflexible or 
arbitrarily fixed they will lead to mediocrity on the one hand and 
frustration on the other. 

If failure comes, it should be a consequence of a pupil's not follow- 
ing through on tasks within his ability. Furthermore, the situation 
should be so set up that once failure is determined it is immediately 
possible to place the pupil in another situation or have him repeat at 
once the failing work without going on to the end of the semester or 
year. 

10. Schools should be permitted and encouraged to build a program or- 
ganized to some extent into large blocks of experience, flexibly sched- 
uled, rather than continue to operate a daily schedule divided into 
single, subject-matter periods. 

11. While it may be necessary for the present and perhaps for the im- 
mediate future to adjudge fitness for graduation in terais of the com- 
pletion of a set number of more or less specified "units," attempts 
should be made increasingly to evaluate progress and readiness for 
graduation in terms of such ''imperative needs" as the following: 

(1) Knowledge and habits of sound physical and mental health 

(2) Competence to the level of one's ability in reading, writing, 
speaking, listening, computing and thinking 

(3) A healthy attitude toward and use of good work habits 

(4) Reverence for and practice of sound ethical and moral 
principles 

(5) Ability to purchase and use goods and services intelligently 

(6) A respect for the worth of the individual and an awareness 
of the importance of the physical environment, resulting in 
a sound attitude toward the conservation of human and na- 
tural resources 

(7) Understanding the place of science in modern life and prac- 
tice in sound scientific thinking 

(8) Appreciation of the privileges and acceptance of the responsi- 
bilities of citizenship 

(9) Appreciation of and techniques for the democratic ivay of life 
as it is developing in America 

(10) Awareness of and training for the bases of wholesome family 
life 

(11) Realization of the importance of and practice in experiencing 
satisfying human relationships 

(12) A sound viewpoint toward the importance of the problem 
of international relations in war and peace 

(13) Development of appreciations and interests which will lead 
to wise and enjoyable use of leisure time 

(14) Growing appreciation of living through literature, art, and 
music 

(15) Knowledge of vocations and some training in vocational fit- 
ness 

The Program 

The principals were divided into discussion groups for each of which 
there was a chairman, a vice chairman, a secretary, an assistant secretary 
and a consultant, all chosen by the Planning Committee. Each member of 
these groups received a series of questions around which the discussion 
was to be focussed. Each group formulated their findings in writing after 
three three-hour sessions on the following topics: 



218 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



1. The Senior High School Curriculum 

a. General Education 

b. Special Interests 

c. Vocational Education 

2. The Place of the Ninth Grade in the Six-Year Program 

3. Pre-Service and In-Service Development of Teachers 

4. The Community and the Curriculum 

5. Administrative Factors and Problems 

The following were consultants: 

Group 1 

(a) Dr. Chandos Reid, Horace Mann, Lincoln Institute of School of Experi- 
mentation, Teachers College, Columbia University. 

(b) Mr. Harry Bard, Curriculum Specialist Baltimore City Schools 

(c) Dr. R. W. Gregory, Ass't. U. S. Commissioner for Vocational Education, 
U. S. Office of Education. 

Group 2 

Dr. Roosevelt Basler, Chief, Instructional Problems, Division of Secondary Edu- 
cation, U. S. Office of Education 

Group 3 

Dr. G. Franklin Stover, Dean, School of Education, Western Maryland College 
Group 4 

Dr. Harold Benjamin, Dean, College of Education, University of Maryland 
Group 5 

Dr. Galen Jones, Division of Secondary Education, U. S. Office of Education 

After the dinner on the first evening of the meeting, a symposium 
entitled, "Teachers Tell Their Story", had the following participants: 

Mrs. Margaret Powell Payne, Washington High School, Princess Anne 
Mrs. Gladys T. Hopkins, Tow^son High School 

Mrs. Elizabeth E. Gurney, Leland Junior High School, Chevy Chase 
Mrs. Estella Yingling, Taneytown High School 

Mrs. Aletta A. Schramm, Maryland Park High School, Seat Pleasant 
Mr. Clark C. Jones, Bel Air High School 

Dr. Harold Benjamin, Dean, College of Education, University of Mary- 
land, gave the address on ''The High School — How New and How Old" 
after the luncheon on the second day. 

On the last Saturday morning a summary panel, of which Dr. Pullen 
was chairman had as members representatives from each discussion group. 
This was followed by an address, "Problems Facing Secondary Education 
Today," by Dr. Galen Jones, Director, Division of Secondary Education, 
U. S. OfRce of Education, and President of the National Association of 
Secondary School Principals. 

A mimeographed bulletin of 41 pages was prepared containing "Pre- 
liminary Reports of Group Discussions of the Fourth Annual State Wide 
Conference for High School Principals," and is available at the office of 
the State Department of Education. 

The Work of the Curriculum Laboratory at Towson 

Two views have been in evidence regarding the purpose of 
the work of the curriculum laboratory: One — that there are 
immediate and urgent curricuhim needs on the junior and sen- 
ior high school level ; and two — that the curriculum develop- 
ment program must of necessity be a long-time program of 
teacher-training and can be effective only to the extent that it 
makes changes in the thinking and performing of these teachers. 
The first view determined the character of the workshop at 
Towson in 1945 and 1946 and resulted in the selection of a 
few most competent school people to prepare units and courses 
to be handed out to administrators and teachers. 



High School Principals' Conference; Curriculum Laboratory 219 

The second view, resulting in a plan to enlist a maximum 
number of teachers in the processes of curriculum development 
in accordance with the needs and capacities of each, was adopted 
by the curriculum laboratory for 1946-47. 

The ideas underlying the second view are that work on the 
course of study helps the teachers who participate. Teachers 
who use the material can become aware of the problems. We 
must insure that teachers apply the materials to their own situ- 
ation. 

The procedure for initiating and operating the program 
was approved by the administrative committee composed of Dr. 
Pullen, Dr. Truitt and Dr. Lemmel early in October. It was pre- 
sented to the steering Committee made up of nine of the state 
administrators and supervisors of high and elementary schools, 
four county high school supervisors and seven county superin- 
tendents late in October. The elementary and high school super- 
visors during November planned with participating teachers the 
initiation and development of units in consumer education, con- 
servation, recreation and safety. 

Teachers often do not understand the nature of the problem 
they are trying to work on. They must gather a great deal of 
data. Not all teachers are capable of writing a course of study. 

Curriculum making is a continuous process, a major aspect 
of in-service training of teachers. We must develop the cur- 
riculum laboratory as a place where answers are sought. It 
should be a vital place showing the way the curriculum should 
point. It should have the following materials organized and 
classified : 

All available textbooks 

Outstanding State and City courses of study 

Materials from experimental schools 

Exhibits of equipment for visual and auditory aids 

Catalogues 

Other materials which should be built up and stored for use 

The superintendents, supervisors, principals and teachers 
should develop a sense of being related to the curriculum labor- 
atory. These data can be assembled and prepared ; personnel 
can be trained in curriculum work; improved practices can be 
discovered; experiments can be initiated, tried out, evaluated 
and reviewed. Training in making a community survey can be 
given. 

Participating teachers should be interested in the field 
chosen as shown by past activities, should be willing to depart 
from present practices, have some ability to write, and be 
willing to attend a summer workshop in 1947. 

The question of college credit for participation should be 
considered. Also could workshop members move to different 
parts of the state, e.g., conservation groups at Solomons, Gar- 
rett County; recreation groups in the State recreation areas, 
proposed park sites, etc.? 



220 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Experimental Curriculum 



221 



The areas chosen do not comprehend the whole curriculum 
but because consumer education and recreation represent im- 
portant areas in which children and adults must operate and 
because conservation and safety represent desirable ways of 
operating in these and other areas. The school program may 
be vitalized by identifying school experiences with important 
community affairs and conditions. 

For the purposes of work in the four experimental pro- 
grams of the curriculum laboratory, it was suggested that Chart 
I included in the 1944-45 annual report facing page 188 be 
changed in the first column concerning the individual to bring 
out the following: 

1. That the unity or close interralatedness of the individual and the 
world in which he carries on the essential life processes be recog- 
nized. 

The individual grows up as a person in a world of people, of ideas, and of 
things. He constantly improves his means of production, transportation and 
communication and so broadens the area of interdependence and cooperation. 

2. That this statement of the unity of man and his environment be 
elaborated sufficiently to show something of 

a. The nature of the interdependencies involved and necessary consequences 

b. Resultant economic and social values 

c. Resultant changes in popu'.ation moNement and structvne 

d. Kinds of education implied 

3. That the general concepts defined in "2" be accented for develop- 
ment progressively and cumulatively by the Maryland schools 
through a continuous and unified body of experiences extending 
through the twelve grades. Specific changes in behavior and 
acquisition of knowledge and skill must also be set up as neces- 
sary and desirable goals. 

Distinguishing Characteristics of the Learning Situations Desired in the Experiments 

1. The children are engaged primarily in a "doing" program. The teacher 
and they have set for themselves some major enterprise which has 
genuine social value. 

2. The enterprise in which they are engaged is of continuing value to all 
members of the group. It promotes the general welfare and is there- 
for truly ethical. 

3. The children determine or recognize the social value of the enterprise 
by identifying it ivith matters outside tJie school ivhich vitally concern 
themselves and their parents. 

4. The children share in determining the means by which they will carry 
on and complete their major enterprise. They attach meaning and im- 
portance to the varied activities and resources used because they know 
their realtionship to the ends they desire to achieve. 

5. 'WTierever it is possible, the children use science as one of the most 
effective means of completing their enterprise successfully. Both as a 
method of solving problems and of determining best validated data, 
science is used functionally and instrumentally. It is a servant. 

6. The children improve in knowledge, skill, and understanding as they 
carry on their enterprise. Under the g-uidance of the teacher, they 
constantly increase their ability to do socially important things. 

7. In communicating their ideas, knowledge, and understandings in the 
course of the enterprise, the children make use of a variety of arts 
of expression and communication. They do not confine themselves to 
oral and written English. 

8. The children use various effective measures and devices for evaluating 
their mastery of the means selected for completing their enterprise 
and for determining their progress toward their objectives. 



222 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Dr. and Mrs. Jesse Ogden in December met with the Steering Com- 
mittee to discuss "The Community as the Source of the Curriculum". In 
January participating teachers reported progress to the Planning Com- 
mittee and pooled suggestions for revision and evaluation. Dr. and Mrs. 
Ogden met with the group which included State and county school and 
curriculum supervisors as well as representatives from the State teachers' 
and liberal arts colleges. In February, Dr. and Mrs. Ogden and cooperat- 
ing groups evaluated the work in effecting School-Community Programs. 

The Curriculum Advisory and Planning Committee and Representa- 
tive Teachers met at the State Teachers College at Towson March 10, 
1947 with the following program: 

9:30-10:30 a.m. General Meeting 

A. Our Place in the General Education Program 

B. Announcements and Assignments 
10:30-12:15 P.M. Group Meetings 

A. The Story of the Unit — My Most Significant Experiences in Planning 
and Teaching It. 

Each Teacher has five minutes to summarize his unit 

1 — Consumer Education — Dr. Fred T. Wilhelms 

2 — Conservation — Miss C. Mabel Smith 

3 — Recreation — Mr. Don Minnegan 

4— Safety— Mr. William S. Schmidt 
12:15- 1:30 Lunch 

1:30- 3:15 P.M. Group Meetings 

A. Discussion Period 

1 — What were your most difficult problems in directing the project? 

2 — What school-community relationships were furthered by the project? 

3 — What, in your judgment, were the most important things done by 
the pupils in carrying on the project? 

4 — What methods of evaluation were used by the pupils and you? 
3:15- 4:15 P.M. Dr. and Mrs. Jesse Ogden, SCHOOL-COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIPS, 

A TWO-WAY PROCESS 

In April, May and June, meetings were held to pool sug- 
gestions and to plan for the following summer workshops at 
Towson : 



The 1947 Summer Workshops 

1. A three-week workshop of classroom teachers who had been 
working in the Experimental program sponsored by the Curricu- 
lum Laboratory June 23 to July 11. 
A. General Purposes of the Workshop 

1. To consider the place of the units developed this year in 
relationship to the total range and kinds of experiences 
which constitute the curriculum 

2. To evaluate these units and revise them in the light of 
these relationships 

3. To consider the place of the community in the curriculum 
program 

4. To explore sources of information for pupils and teachers 

5. To prepare a tentative statement on the places of recrea- 
tion, conservatio-n, consumer education, and safety in Mary- 
land's educational program 

Opening session June 23 

10 A.M. Dr. Thomas G, Pullen, Jr., State Superintendent of 
Schools 

Dr. Fred T. Wilhelms, Associate Director of the 
Consumer Education Study of the National As- 
sociation of Secondary School Principals 



Experimental Curriculum; Summer Workshops 



223 



TEACHERS ELIGIBLE TO ATTEND THE TOWSON WORKSHOP, 
JUNE 23 to JULY 11* 



COUNTY 
Teacher 

ALLEGANY 

Nanie Livingstone, West Side EI. 
ANNE ARUNDEL 

G. Marie Biggs, Jessup EI. 
BALTIMORE 

John S. Bayley, Sparks High 

Alvin V. Burgess, Kenwood High 

Ivan G. Nolte, Dundalk El. 
CALVERT 

Mary Louise Gray, Prince Frederick EI. 
CAROLINE 

Dorthie C. Hall, Federalsburg Jr. 

CARROLL 

Mrs. Grace Cookson, West EI. 
Mary Jane Fogelsanger, New Windsor 
High 

Watson Algire, Hampstead High 
CECIL 

William C. Graham, Rising Sun High 

CHARLES 

Katherine Garner, Ja Plata EI. 

DORCHESTER 

Mrs. Marjorie W. Hastings, Cambridge Jr. 
High 

Harriet Tillman, Hurlock Jr. High 

FREDERICK 

Frances Shores, Frederick Jr. High 
Mrs. Charlotte G. Palmer, Middletown 
High 

Mrs. Mary J. Otto, New Germany El. 

GARRETT 

Mrs. Mary J. Otto, New Germany El. 
Mrs. Hildred B. Mulvey, Red House El. 



COUNTY 
Teacher 

HARFORD 

(To be designated by Supt. and Supvs.) 

HOWARD 

Emma Jean Gerwig, Ellicott City Jr. 
D. Vincent Provenza, Ellicott City High 
Max A. Smith, Clarksville High 

KENT 

Mrs. Naomi D. Russell, Chestertown El. 

Richard W. Hall, Chestertown High 
MONTGOMERY 

C. Mabel Smith, Parkside El. 
PRINCE GEORGE'S 

Mrs. Leo P. Gleaves, County Sup v. Health 
Ed. 

Paul Barnhart, Bladensburg High 
QUEEN ANNE'S 

Madeline Baxter, Church Hill EI. 

Ruth Stant, Church Hill El. 
ST. MARY'S 

Mrs. Virginia Bussler, Clements El. 
SOMERSET 

George F. Carrington, Crisfield High 

Mrs. Margaret Powell Payne, Washington 
Jr. High 

Lois Jackson, Princess Anne El. 
TALBOT 

Mrs. Virginia Shanahan, Easton High 

Mrs. Grace H. Lyons, Easton El. 

Earle H. Corkran, St. Michaels El. 
WASHINGTON 

(To be designated by Supt. and Supvs.) 
WICOMICO 

Helen C. Wootton, Wicomico High 

Lillian M. Parker, Pinehurst El. 
WORCESTER 

Mrs. Irma J. Jester, Buckingham El. 



* The superintendent may want to substitute or insert the name of a teacher not on the 
list but who is particularly well qualified to further the curriculum program. 

2. A ten-day workshop of about 30 representative high school princi- 
pals to plan the overall program for the senior high school June 
23 to July 3. 

A. General Purposes of the Workshop 

1. To set the direction for the new senior high school pro- 
gram 

2. To indicate the specific steps which may be taken in mov- 
ing in this direction 

3. To indicate the personal and material resources which may 
be used 

4. To prepare as a culminating activity a mimeographed 
manual or guide which may be used in the several counties. 

B. Selection of the Participants 

Since the preliminary ground work for the new senior high school 
program had been laid at the recent conference of High School Princi- 
pals, it has been deemed advisable to have a very selected group of prin- 
cipals meet for intensive thought and work, using the group reports of 
the high school principals' conference as a point of departure. 

The principals, supervisors, and State Department statf who worked 
on the senior high school manual are listed below: 



224 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



COUNTY 

H. S. Prin. or Supv. 

ALLEGANY 

Lewyn C. Davis, Prin. Central 
ANNE ARUNDEL 

Dr. Howard W. Kinhart, Prin. 
Annapolis 
BALTIMORE 

James O'Toole, Supv. Jr. High Schools 

W. Horace Wheeler, Prin. Tovi^son 
CALVERT 

Thomas V. Warthen, Prin. Calvert Co. 
CAROLINE 

Francis L. Holsinger, Prin. Federalsburg 
CARROLL 

Willard L. Haw^kins, Prin. Sykesville 
CECIL 

Ralph H. Beachley, Prin. Elkton 
CHARLES 

T. C. Martin, Prin. Hughesville Jr. 
DORCHESTER 

Otis M. Trice 
FREDERICK 

William B. Jones, Prin. Brunswick 
GARRETT 

F. D. Bittle, Prin. Oakland 
HARFORD 

R. Bowen Hardesty, Prin. Aberdeen 



COUNTY 

H. S. Prin. or Supv. 

HOWARD 

John E. Yingling, Prin., Ellicott City 
KENT 

W. Skirven Startt, Prin. Galena 
MONTGOMERY 

Daryl W. Shaw, Prin. Montgomery Blair 
PRINCE GEORGE'S 

John P. Speicher, Prin. Greenbelt 
SOMERSET 

George F. Carrington, Prin. Crisfield 
TALBOT 

M. V. Zimmerman, Prin. Easton 
WASHINGTON 

Douglass M. Bivens, Prin. Boonsboro 
WICOMICO 

W. E. Twilley, Prin. Mardela 
WORCESTER 

George H. Corddry, Prin. Buckingham 
STATE DEPT. OF EDUCATION 

E. Clarke Fontaine, Supv. 

R. Floyd Cromwell, Supv. 

Wilbur Devilbiss, Supv. 

John J. Seidel, Consultant 

Elisabeth Amery, Consultant 

Hershel James, Consultant 

Mrs. Gertrude Bowie, Consultant 



The Senior High School Manual has the following Table of Contents; 
Philosophy Underlying Maryland Educational Program 
What We Mean by a Philosophy 

The Kind of Philosophy of Education Needed for America 

Criteria for the Selection of Curriculum Content 

The Common Educational Needs of Youth 
Suggested Guiding Principles for Secondary Education in Maryland 
General Education in the Senior High School 

Meaning of General Education 

Imperative Needs of Youth 

Implementing an Improved General Education Program in the 

Senior High School 
Suggestions for Moving from a Traditional Program to a New 

Program 
Special Interest Areas 
Basic Issues 

Suggested Plan for Increasing the Number of Special Interest 
Offerings 
Special Services 

Guidance Services 
School Lunch 
Library 

Adult Education 

Health Program 

School as a Community Center 

Assemblies 

Social — Recreational 

Organizing the School for Implementing the Proposed Program 

School — Community Planning in the New Program Leading 
Teachers to Care for Personal Needs of Children as Well 
as Instruction Needs 

Duties and Responsibilities of the High School Principal 

The Principal as the Organizer of the School Program 
The Principal as the Administrator of the School Program 
The Principal as the Supervisor of the School Program 
The Principal as the Interpreter of the School Program 
Leadership in Terms of the Ends for Which We Educate 

Questions and Answers 

Bibliography 



Summer Workshops 



225 



3. A four-day conference on professional supervision for county 
elementary and high school supervisors (high school and ele- 
mentary principals also being invited) June 30 to July 3, 1947. 

A. General Purposes of the Workshop 

1. To reconsider the whole purpose of county school super- 
vision in the State 

2. To orient new supervisors to the types of programs they 
may carry on 

3. To acquaint all supervisors, old and new, elementary and 
high school, with some of the latest thinking in the field 
of supervision 

4. To attempt to build a philosophy of supervising in a con- 
tinuous program from the first grade through the twelfth 

5. To clarify responsibilities of the principals, the county 
staff, and the State Department members in the program 
of supervision 

B. Selection of the Participants 

Since the program is an intensive one of only four days, 
it is hoped that all county supervisors of the State will at- 
tend. It is particularly important that all high school super- 
visors be present. 

The introductory session will be a joint meeting of all 
supervisors. At other times, the entire group will be divided 
into smaller groups for discussion purposes. It is planned 
that on the morning of each day an outstanding consultant, of 
national reputation, will speak and there will follow small 
work sessions in which supervisors will have an opportunity 
to discuss implications for their own organization and work. 
We hope to have at the conference some of the ablest thinkers 
in the field of supervision from all over the country. 

PROGRAM 

Monday, June 30 

10:00 a.m. — The Essential Nature of Supervision 

Dr. Harold Spears, New Jersey State Teachers College, 
Montclair, New Jersey 
1:30 p.m. — Types of Supervisory Services 

Dr. W. Earl Armstrong, Dean, School of Education, 
University of Delaware 

Tuesday, July 1 

9:30 a.m. — The Supervisor as a Curriculum Worker 

Dr. L. Thomas Hopkins, Professor of Education, 
Teachers College, Columbia University 
1:00 p.m. — The Supervisor as a Leader in Group Planning 
Dr. L. Thomas Hopkins 

Wednesday, July 2 

9:30 a.m. — Supervision that Builds Local Leadership 

Dr. Ernest C. Melby, Dean, School of Education, 
New York University 
1:00 p.m. — Supervision that Builds Local Leadership In Maryland 

Report of the State Committee on Supervisory Practices 
2:30 p.m. — Utilizing the Group Conference Technique 

Dr. Charles E. Bish, Associate Professor of Education, 
George Washington University 
8:00 p.m. — Human Relations in Supervision 

Dr. Alice V. Keliher, Professor of Education, School of 
Education, New York University 



226 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Thursday, July 3 

9:30 a.m. — The Supervisor as a Person in the Community 

Dr. Chandos Reid, Horace Mann-Lincoln Institute of 
School Experimentation, Teachers College, Columbia 
University 

11:30 a.m. — Final Reports and Closing Session 
1 :00 p.m. — Adjournment 

Supervision of Schools for Colored Children 

Mr. Paul E. Huffington began his second year of state super- 
vision of schools for colored pupils in 1946-47. 

County supervision of schools for colored children in twenty 
counties was carried on by twenty-two individuals: two men 
in Prince George's; five men in Calvert, Charles, Harford, 
Montgomery and St. Mary's; two half-time men who also acted 
as principals of the high school for colored pupils in Frederick 
and Talbot, and three men who were also attendance workers 
in Cecil, Howard, and Somerset; two women in Anne Arundel; 
three women in Baltimore, Dorchester, and Wicomico ; one 
woman in Kent, who also taught in the Chestertown Elementary 
School, two women in Caroline and Carroll, who gave one day 
to supervision and the remainder of the time to principal- 
ship of an elementary school and to high school teaching, re- 
spectively; and two women attendance workers who also acted 
as supervisors of colored schools in Queen Anne's and Worcester. 
The two schools for colored pupils in Allegany and the one in 
Washington County were supervised by the regular county 
supervisory staffs. 

The Testing Program 

All first grade children were given a reading readiness test 
early in the school year, seventh grade pupils were given an in- 
telligence test and achievement tests in reading, arithmetic and 
work study-skills, and high school seniors were given a psycho- 
logical test, all financed by the State Department of Education. 
Many of the counties financed tests for fourth or fifth grade 
pupils in intelligence, reading, arithmetic and work-study skills, 
as well as others not ordered through the State Department of 
Education. 

The State supervisor worked with county supervisors and 
teachers to carry on programs which would take advantage of 
the findings revealed by the tests, to point the way for appro- 
priate follow-up and remedial programs for classes and indi- 
vidual pupils. 

The Child-Study Program 

Five colored high school principals from Dorchester, Har- 
ford, Kent, Montgomery and Wicomico attended the 1946 sum- 
mer workshop on Child Growth and Development at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. 

The State Department of Education financed the services 
of Miss Madeline Mershon, who led a two-week workshop for 
negro leaders of child-study groups at the Bowie State Teachers 



Supervision of Colored Sc^iools 



227 



College from September 30 to October 12, 1946. The members, 
limited to 25, chiefly those supervisors and principals who had 
been leaders of child-study groups in 1945-46, were oriented in- 
to the plans for the second year of the child study program. 
Since the program paralleled that at Betterton, described on 
pages 209 to 211, it is not repeated here. 

A series of three-day meetings were also held in January 
and March 1947 with Miss Mershon and Mr. Pat Shufelt as 
consultants for the group who met for the workshop in October 
and for additional leaders of first-year child-study groups. The 
plans for these meetings and for the work of the child-study 
groups for the year were similar to those reported on pages 212 
to 214. 



Participation of County COLORED Teaching Staff in Child Study Program 1946-47 



County 
S.T.C. 


No. of 
Leaders 


No. OF 


Groups 


No. OF Teachers in 


Teiachers in Child 

Study- 


1st yr. 


2nd yr. 


1st yr. 


2nd yr. 


No. 


% 


Total Counties.... 


*54 


41 


20 


402 


198 


600 


66 


Allegany. 
















Anne Arundel 


12 


"8 


1 


60 


12 


72 


63 


Baltimore . . 


1 


1 





17 




17 


22 


Calvert 


2 


2 




23 


ib 


33 


92 


Caroline 


3 


2 




15 


7 


22 


96 


Carroll 


1 


1 




5 


4 


9 


69 


Cecil 


1 










14 


14 


88 


Charles 


3 


2 




25 


13 


38 


72 


Dorchester 


5 


4 




28 


10 


38 


88 


Frederick. 


1 


1 




11 




11 


39 


Harford 


2 


2 




19 


5 


24 


69 


Howard.. 


1 


1 




10 


10 


20 


87 


Kent 


*2 


1 




13 


9 


22 


100 


Montgomery 


2 


2 




21 


23 


44 


72 


Prince George's .. 


4 


6 




56 


15 


71 


58 


Queen Anne's 


3 








24 


24 


100 


St. Mary's 


2 


i 




"8 


8 


16 


52 


Somerset 


1 


1 




13 




13 


31 


Talbot 


3 


2 




20 


11 


31 


89 


Washington 


1 


1 




9 





9 


100 


Wicomico 


2 






24 


15 


39 


85 


Worcester 


2 


2 




25 


8 


33 


87 


Bowie S.T.C 

Grand Total .... 


2 

*56 


42 


20 


9 

411 


198 


9 

609 





Total number Colored Leaders and Participants 665 

* There was an additional leader later in the year. 



Six hundred county colored teachers and principals, 66 per- 
cent of the teaching staff, were in child study groups during 
1946-47. Every county, except Allegany, had at least one child- 
study group. In three counties : — Queen Anne's, Kent, and 
Washington, every teacher was a member of a child study 
group, and in eight additional counties from 85 to 96 percent 
of the principals and teachers participated. 



228 1947 Annual Report' of Maryland State Department of Education 

Since the child-study program is an organized effort to 
have teachers become more aware of what children are like in 
general, as well as take greater interest in particular children 
in their own classes, it is inevitable that teachers develop 
greater understanding of and sympathy toward individual 
pupils. This should affect offerings, procedures and attitudes 
and help children in their adjustment and learning. 

During the 1947 summer workshop at Bowie State Teachers 
College June 23 to July 3 one of the purposes was intensive 
study of the Child Development bibliography. Everyone of the 
91 attendants devoted a half session each day to this work 
using the following organization and procedure. 
I Laboratory Work 

A. Techniques for writing anecdotes 

1. Observing the child's behavior 

2. Selecting behavior for recording 

3. Evaluating anecdotal data 

B. Processing records 

1. Inter-relating scientific information with data obtained from 
records 

2. Developing tentative hypotheses and conclusions 
II Discussion Groups and Lectures 

A. Physiological Development 

B. Influence of Social Pattern on Growth of Personality 

C. Influence of Peer Culture on Growth 

D. Affectional and Adjustment Processes 

E. Self-Developmental Processes 
III Reading and Research 

A. Group to select an area for intensive reading 

B. Areas of special or similar interests to be grouped 

C. Reports on and discussion of research done 

D. Written summaries to be duplicated for distribution 

Note: Time schedules will vary as interests develop, but it is planned to apportion the time 
among the three general areas above. 

Conference for High School Principals 

The annual State-wide conference of principals of County 
colored high schools was held at Bowie State Teachers College 
with the following program: 

Friday, May 9, 1947 
9:45-12:00 — Opening of the Conference — Paul E. Huffington, Supervisor 
of Colored Schools 
Welcome — Dr. William E. Henry, Jr, 

President, State Teachers College, Bowie 
Address — The Principal's Role in Curriculum Development 

Mr. James E. Spitznas, State Director of Curriculum 
Address — The Guidance Function in a Program of General Education 
Dr. R. Floyd Cromwell, State Supervisor of Educational 
and Vocational Guidance 

Announcements 

1:15-4:30 — Group Work Conferences on the 5 general topics described on 
page 218. 
Consultants : 

Dr. G. Franklin Stover, Dean, School of Education, 

Western Maryland College, Westminster 
Dr. William E. Henry, Jr., President, State Teachers 

College, Bowie 
Members of the Staff — State Department of Education 
6:30 P.M. — Address— Dr. Thomas G. Pullen, Jr. 
State Superintendent of Schools 



Child Study; High School Principals' Conference; Bowie 229 

Workshop 

Saturdaij, May 10, 1947 
9:00-10:00 — Reports from Chairmen of Group Work Conferences 
10:00-11:00 — Symposium "Teachers Tell Their Story" — Experiences in 
the Junior High School 
Participants : 

Mrs. Elizabeth D. Myers — Bates High School 
Mrs. Esther Crowder — Havre de Grace High School 
Mrs. Vio Newsome — Highland Park High School 
Miss Nina Meadows — Cooksville High School 
Miss Margaret Owings — Banneker High School 
Miss Kathleen Francis — Moton High School 
11:00 12:00 — Address — Consumer Education in the Program of General 
Education for Today's Youth 

Dr. Fred T. Wilhelms, Associate Director, 

Consumer Education Study of the National Associa- 
tion of Secondary School Prmcipals, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Work on Curriculum at 1947 Bowie Workshop 

For a half day at the Bowie Workshop on June 23 to July 
3, 1947, the 91 members were divided according to interest into 
groups dealing with elementary curriculum, secondary cur- 
riculum, and school community relationships. 

The Elementary Curriculum Workshop during the half day 
sessions the first week worked on and organized material on the 
following: 

1. Understanding of and techniques for pupil-teacher planning 

2. A tentative core for a half day of work in the elementary 
school including social studies, science, art, music, physical 
education and language arts. 

3. A suggested block plan of daily schedulixig: 

9:00- 9:15 Opening period 

9:15-10:15 Language Arts 
10:30-12 :00 Skills (Arithmetic, spelling, writing) 
12 :45- 2 :30 Social living core 

2:30- 3:30 Creative expression (folk dances, games, arts and crafts) 
Individual help periods. 

4. Themes for cores in various grades of the elementary school, 
as well as possible threads pertinent to these themes 

5. Titles for units in keeping with themes for cores; one to be 
developed for primary grades and the other for intermediate 
grades 

The teaching unit on "Fun at Home" places t;he emphasis on social 
living in the home for pupils at the first grade level. It is to be used as 
a guide by primary teachers to develop units to fit their own particular 
needs. 

The unit "Making our Community Safe and Healthy" is to be used 
as a guide to intermediate teachers. Poor attendance, communicable dis- 
eases, hazards to health and safety are of vital concern to the school. 
Pupils and parents need to know of new methods and practices of a 
modern health service in the prevention of disease. They must also be- 
come conscious of safety rules and regulations in order to make our world 
a safer place in which to live. 

The Junior High School group prepared a bulletin outlining 
principles underlying the philosophy of the junior high school, 
the use of the core, developmental characteristics of junior high 
school pupils, suggested grade offerings in grades 7, 8, and 9, 
suggested themes for the junior high school program for use 
in experience-centered units and subject-centered units. 



230 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



The junior high school teachers' group prepared a learning 
unit developed from the resource unit ''Our Shrinking World" 
which had been prepared by the summer workshops at Bowie 
and Towson in June 1946. 

Conference on Professional Supervision at Bowie Workshop 

There were 41 county supervisors, high and elementary 
school principals and 24 Baltimore City principals and teachers 
in attendance at the four-day conference on professional super- 
vision for supervisors and principals of colored schools held at 
the end of the school year 1947. 

The following general purposes of the conference were listed: 
A. General Purposes of the Workshop 

1. To study some techniques of supervision as a creative 
cooperative enterprise 

2. To consider some of the problems of teacher adjustment, 
especially those of new or inexperienced teachers 

3. To orient supervisors and principals to the types of pro- 
grams they may carry on 

4. To provide opportunity to become more familiar with the 
variety of resources and services available 

5. To clarify the responsibilities of principals, supervisors, 
and other county and state personnel 

FOUR-DAY CONFERENCE ON PROFESSIONAL SUPERVISION 
FOR SUPERVISORS AND PRINCIPALS OF COLORED SCHOOLS 
State Teachers College, Bowie, June 30-July 3, 1947 
Monday, June 30 

lOiOOa.m. — Purposes of and Plans for the Conference 

Paul E. Huffington, State Supervisor of Colored 
Schools 

11:00 a.m.— The High School— How New and How Old 

Dr. Harold Benjamin, Dean, College of Education, Uni- 
versity of Maryland, College Park 
1:30 p.m. — The Essential Nature of Supervision 

Dr. Harold Spears, Montclair State Teachers College, 
N.J. 

Tuesday, July 1 

9:30 a.m. — Group Work Conferences and Special Features 
1:30 p.m. — The Supervisor as a Curriculum Worker 

Miss Mary Adams, Assistant Superintendent of Schools, 
Baltimore City 
Wednesday, July 2 

9:30 a.m. — Demonstrations of Audio Visual Aids and Resources 
11:00 a.m. — Human Relations in Supervision 

Mr. Elmer A. Henderson, Assistant Superintendent, 
Colored Schools. Baltimore 
1:30 p.m. — Supervision that Builds Local Leadership 

Dr. Ernest O. Melby, Dean, School of Education, 
New York University 

Thursday, July 3 

9:30 a.m. — Group Work Conferences 

11:00 a.m. — Supervision that Builds Local Leadership in Maryland 
Mr. William M. Brish, Superintendent of Schools, 
Washington County 
1:30 p.m. — The Supervisor as a Person in the Community 

Dr. Chandos Reid, Horace Mann — Lincoln Institute of 
School Experimentation, Teachers College, Columbia 
University 
3:00-3:30— Closing Session 



Bowie Workshop; School Attendance Service 



231 



Enrollment at Bowie Workshop June 23-July 3, 1947 and/or Supervisors'- 
Principals' Conference June 30-July 3, 1947 



County 


Super- 
visor 


High 


OR Voc. School 


Elementary School 




Prin. 


Jr. H. 

Prin. 


Teachers 


Prin. 


Teacher 
in Charge 


Teachers 



Total* 


Total Counties 


15 


**21 


*4 


**30 


*6 


7 


*25 


101 


Allegany 


















Anne Arundel 








't2 


't2 


t2 


' i 


tt't9 


Baltimore 


"ti 


ii 




2 






tt4 


Calvert 


tl 












tl 


Caroline 


t*l 


ii 






t*l 






tt2 


Carroll 


t*l 


tl 




t*3 






tt6 


Cecil 


tl 










tl 


Charles 




tt2 




5 






i 




Dorchester 


tl 


tl 










1 


tt3 


Frederick 








1 


3 




Harford 


t*i 


tt2 




t*6 




1 




tttio 


Howard 








1 








1 


Kent 


t*r 


tl 










t*3 


tt4 


Montgomery . 


tl 


tl 




1 








tt3 


Pr. George's. .. 


u 


tt2 


t2 


2 


tl 




2 


tttttio 


Queen Anne's.. 


tl 


tl 




1 








tts 


St. Mary's 


tl 


tt2 








1 


5 


ttt9 


Somerset 


t*i 


t*l 




4 


2 




2 


t9 


Talbot 


1 


t*l 




2 






2 


t5 


Washington .... 




tl 




1 








t2 


Wicomico 


n 


tl 












tt2 


Worcester 


t*i 


tl 


t'*2 






"t2 




5 


Balto. City 


tl 




tl 


t3 


tl7 




t2 


t24 


Entire State.... 


16 


21 


5 


33 


23 


7 


27 


125 



There were 61 county attendants at the workshop, 30 county attendants at the workshop and con- 
ference, 10 county attendants at the conference only, and 24 Baltimore City attendants at the con- 
ference. 

* Indicates duplication for individual serving as supervisor and as principal or teacher included in 
total once. 

t Indicates attendance at supervisors'-principals' conference June 30 to July 3 only. 

t Indicates attendance at workshop and supervisors'-principals' conference June 23-July 3. 



THE SCHOOL ATTENDANCE SERVICE 

The only counties showing a change in the staff of attendance workers 
in 1946-47 were Anne Arundel, where a full-time woman worker replaced 
the part-time man; Baltimore, in which the staff of one woman was aug- 
mented by a man and a colored woman in January 1946, who served the en- 
tire year of 1946-47; Dorchester, in which the worker divided his time be- 
tween the attendance service and junior high school supervision ; and Prince 
George's, which added a second woman assistant worker, bringing the 
staff to three. The addition at county expense of assistant workers in 
Baltimore and Prince George's, and the presence of an assistant for some 
time in Washington County, showed the necessity for the 1947 legislation 
providing for a supervisor of pupil personnel in each county with addi- 
tional visiting teacher personnel for each 5000 children above the initial 
5000 children. For further discussion of this question, see pages 10, 178, 
and 190. 

In view of the fact that the larger counties made appointments of one 
or more visiting teachers before the close of the school year 1946-47, the 
following criteria were suggested for use in their selection: 



232 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

Personal Qualifications : 

1. Age 

The visiting teacher should not be more than forty-five years 
of age at the time of his appointment. 

2. Health 

A. Physical — above average 

B. Mental — should give evidence of stability and a wholesome 
well-balanced outlook on life 

3. Intellectual Capacity 

A keenness of mind that permits insight, analysis and compre- 
hension at a high level. 

4. Personality 

A. Sympathetic interest in people and their problems 

B. Ability to get along with others, personally and professionally 

C. Acceptance and appreciation of difference as represented by 

race, religion, government, social, and moral standards, etc. 

D. Personal integration conducive to steadiness and balance 

E. Adaptability 

F. Capacity to grow and develop 

5. Interest in the Counseling Job, supported by 

A. Some understanding of what the job involves 

B. Some understanding of purpose and requirements of the 
training program 

C. Successful teaching experience 

D. Interest in working with individuals 

HIGH SCHOOL EQUIVALENCE EXAMINATIONS 

Dr. Cromwell and Mr. Arthur Benson reported that there 
are now approximately 200 individuals taking the high school 
equivalence examinations each month. Of those who take the 
"comprehensive" tests, one half pass all. Of the half who fail, 
60 percent fail English and 40 percent fail all. The latter stand 
little chance of passing by repeating the tests. By intensive in- 
struction and study, many who have failed in English only can 
eventually pass. Most of those who take the tests want to use 
their certificates to gain admittance to advanced training. More 
and more county people are taking the equivalence examina- 
tions. 

Ten thousand pamphlets including questions and answers 
about the tests and the requirements for eligibility to take them 
have been printed for applicants including veterans and for the 
use of superintendents and high school principals. 

Thirty or forty persons come to the State Department office 
daily for information about the tests. Of these, about 25 want 
guidance. 

Complete examinations have been given to 800, of whom 
600 have received equivalence certificates. During 1946-47 there 
were 1603 new applicants who took the tests. See Table 123. 

In May 1947, the State Board of Education changed the 
regulations with regard to Equivalence Certificates and ap- 
proved the revision of standards. 



Visiting Teachers; High School Equivalence Examinations 233 



The revised standards make it possible to award High 
School Equivalence Certificates to more than 700 candidates 
who failed to meet previous standards but who qualify under 
the new standards, which, however, are still higher than those 
of other states. The new requirements provide that candidates 
must make either (1) an average standard score of 50 or* 
higher on the entire examination with no score below 40 on 
any one of the five parts, or (2) a standard score of 45 or 
higher on each of the five parts. 

The interim period betv/een an examination and reexamin- 
ation was lengthened from three to six months. Eight testing 
centers in the State were authorized. Regulations for the ac- 
ceptance of scores on tests administered by other agencies were 
established. Administrative relationships in the State Depart- 
ment office were clarified. 



TABLE 123 

High School Equivalence Examinations in Maryland, July 1946 — June 1947 



New Applicants 



Num- 
ber 

Tak- 
ing 

Tests 



Earning 
Certificate 



Num- 
ber 



Per- 
cent 



Total Applicants* 



Num- 
ber 

Tak- 
ing 

Tests 



Earning 
Certificate 



Num- 
ber 



Per- 
cent 



NON-APPLICANTSt 



Num- 
ber 

Tak- 
ing 

Tests 



Passing 



Num- 
ber 



Per- 
cent 



County 



1,603 



138 
156 
155 
111 
125 
130 



126 
145 
141 
136 
108 
132 



715 



50 
44 
63 
69 
49 
102 



44.6 



43.5 
46.8 
41.3 
40.5 
38.4 
36.9 



39.7 
30.3 
44.7 
50.7 
45.4 
77.3 



2,411 



202 
250 
246 
181 
188 
208 



199 
231 
191 
179 
183 
153 



1,169 



108 
134 
125 
86 
84 
94 



96 
80 
80 
86 
80 
116 



48.5 



53.5 
53.6 
50.8 
47.5 
44.7 
45.2 



48.2 
34.6 
41.9 
48.0 
43.7 
75.8 



148 



89 



60.1 



50.0 
59.4 
53.8 
60.0 
80.0 
54.5 



52.9 
53.8 
85.7 
52.9 
83.3 
80.0 



♦ Includes re-tests and USAFI applicants. 

t Includes high school graduates who took the tests at the request of colleges. 

t The standards were lowered as of May 27, 1947. Earlier applicants who were 
not "originally considered entitled to certification and who met the new standards, 
wiU'receive certificates later. 

Includes 48 colored applicants. 

o Estimated. 



Total State 

Baltimore City 

USAFI 

Total Counties.. 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Harford 

Howard 

Montgomery .... 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's ... 

St. Mary's 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



234 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

ON-THE-JOB TRAINING 

The veteran and his employer are regular visitors in per- 
son, by phone and by mail at the Maryland State Department 
of Education to request approval of setting up On-The-Job 
Training programs. In Maryland the Governor has designated 
the State Department of Education as the approving agency. 

During the summer of 1946 requests from employers to set 
up Veteran training programs, designated ''On-The-Job Train- 
ing," reached their peak. On-the-Job counselors in the State 
Department of Education were literally swamped with hundreds 
of new referrals each week. By the end of August 1946 about 
2,668 firms had received certificates and had veteran training 
programs under way. 

In this same month the orginal G. I. Bill of Rights (Public 
Law 346) was amended. Because of the provisions of the new 
law (679), all firms previously approved, were required to be 
reinspected. Since that time over 2,000 more firms have been 
approved and practically all firms previously certified under 
Public Law 346 have been reviewed. 

In order for a firm to become approved for On-The-Job 
Training, a written application must be submitted to the State 
Department of Education for each job for which a veteran is 
to be trained. The application is required to cover the follow- 
ing information: Title of job objective, length of training per- 
iod, wages at the beginning and end of the training period and 
schedule of wage increases, training outline listing the major 
kinds of work to be learned and showing for each the job oper- 
ations and the approximate length of time for each, name and 
experience of trainer. 

The firm upon investigation by the certifying agency must 
indicate a willingness to meet certain standards, among which 
are : 

*"(a) The training content of the program is adequate to qualify the 

veteran for appointment to the job for which he is trained. 
"(b) There is reasonable certainty that the job for which the veteran 
is to be trained will be available to him at the end of the train- 
ing period. 

"(c) The wages to be paid the veteran for each successive period of 
training are not less than those customarily paid in the estab- 
lishment and the community to a learner in the same job and 
who is not a veteran, and are in conformity with State and 
Federal laws, and applicable bargaining agreements." 

Public Lav/ 679 establishes limits for the training period. 
In one group are those occupations which require two years or 
less of training. In the second group are the ''apprenticeships", 
requiring more than two years because of the skills involved. 
Written apprenticeship agreements between employer and 
trainee are required for the latter group as well as review by a 



♦Paragraph ll(b)2 of Public Law 679. 



On the Job Training 



235 



State or Federal Apprenticeship committee. The law also estab- 
lishes wage ceilings for single and married veterans. When these 
ceilings are reached government subsistence is discontinued. 

A firm interested in setting up veteran training programs 
contacts the Maryland State Department of Education. A rep- 
resentative of the department then visits the firm, discussing 
with the employer the requirements. After making the necessary 
investigation and securing the required written forms, the coun- 
selor submits his report to the State Department of Education. 
The Veterans Administration is then notified of the status of the 
firm and, if approved, a certificate is mailed to the firm. 

After the establishment is certified for training in a partic- 
ular occupation or occupations, the counselor revisits it periodic- 
ally in order to consult with the employer on the progress being 
made in carrying out the training. Should veterans be employed 
in other occupations in the same firm additional approval must 
be secured through the State Department. 

Approximately 4,800 firms in Baltimore City and the twenty- 
three counties have been approved for veteran training. A staff 
of 17 full-time and 11 part-time counselors with 7 clerical and 
stenographic assistants worked throughout the State to carry 
out the provisions of the law. Their salaries were paid from 
Federal and State funds. 

The State Department of Education has approved 81 per- 
sons to give "on-the-job farmer training." The trainees must 
have related off the farm instruction 200 hours a year which is 
being given by agriculture teachers assigned by the county 
superintendents. 



THE STATE TEACHERS COLLEGES 
New Curriculum at the Teachers Colleges 

In May 1947 the State Board of Education approved the Tentative 
Program for Students in Junior High School Education as agreed upon 
by a committee of the teachers college presidents and the state supervisors 
of high school education in session April 16, 1947. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

1. Students who qualify for junior high school teaching should be 
prepared to direct a "core program" and to teach one special sub- 
ject. The core program as planned by the state committee will 
be organized in terms of critical problems of current living and 
will include material from the social sciences, sciences, and lan- 
guage arts. The special subjects may be in these and other areas. 

2. The basic program during the first two years of college should be 
the same for junior high school teachers, for elementary school 
teachers, and for kindergarten-primary teachers. 

3. During the sophomore year some direct experience with children 
from kindergarten through junior high school should be given to all 
teachers college students. Other orientation experiences and ma- 
terials should be included in the sophomore program. 

4. In the third year of college, students will choose and begin one of 
the three education programs — kindergarten-primary, later ele- 
mentary, or junior high school. 

5. In the junior and senior years the program should include at 
least fifteen semester hours of elective courses. 

COURSES 

Semester Semester 
Hours Hours 



Prescribed courses — 

English: English Composition (including speech) 6 

English Literature 6 

Elective 6 18 

Social Science : History — European 6 

Geography 6 

American Civilization 12 24 

Science: Biological Science 6 

Health— Physiology 3 

Physical Science 6 15 

Art : Art Appreciation 3 

Arts and Crafts 3 6 

Mathematics 3 

Human Growth and Development (Psychology) 6 

Music 3 

Physical Education 6 

Education : The Junior High School Child and His 

Curriculum 10 

Student Teaching 16 

Total Prescribed 107 

Electives 21 



Eighteen hours of prescribed and elective courses will be required for 
specialization in a teaching subject. Each college will determine its own 
special offerings, depending on its faculty and laboratory facilities. The 
prescribed courses in the special fields should be uniform in the four 
colleges. They should be recommended by the subject departments of the 
four colleges and agreed upon by the State Superintendent's Committee, 
subject to the approval of the Superintendents' Committee on Certification. 
The elective courses should be left to the separate colleges. 

This program is submitted to the college faculties for study and ex- 
perimentation. Nothing has been settled. 

Junior Colleges 

Father Bunn of Loyola College was asked to appoint a com- 
mittee of five to advise the State Department of Education v^ith 
respect to revision of the standards for junior colleges adopted 
in 1939. 

The teachers colleges will include one or more foreign lan- 
guages in the curriculum of their junior colleges. 



236 



Curriculum and Graduates of the State Teachers Colleges 



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238 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Graduates and Enrollment of State Teachers Colleges 239 
TABLE 126— Enrollment** at Maryland State and Coppin Teachers Colleges 





Towson 






Total 
White Students 






Fall of 


City 


County 


Frost- 
burg** 


Salis- 
bury** 


County 


SfaLe 


Bowie 


Coppin 



Regular Day Enrollment 





184 


57 




241 


241 




124 




397 


101 




498 


498 




185 




506 


134 




640 


640 




225 




569 


125 




694 


694 


11 


225 


518 


602 


149 




751 


1,269 


23 


211 


411 


513 


197 


107 


817 


1,228 


36 


161 


275 


475 


201 


158 


834 


1,109 


81 


117 


268 


402 


192 


170 


764 


1,032 


104 


121 


315 


359 


178 


186 


723 


1,038 


128 


99 


346 


368 


173 


174 


715 


1,061 


120 


125 


298 


348 


161 


165 


674 


972 


109 


171 


348 


306 


111 


127 


544 


892 


106 


145 


289 


257 


136 


101 


494 


783 


122 


127 


230 


230 


116 


114 


460 


690 


99 


282 


178 


193 


124 


108 


425 


603 


100 


111 


193 


147 


137 


185 


469 


662 


96 


112 


284 


175 


131 


201 


507 


791 


116 


141 


290 


186 


170 


210 


566 


856 


138 


163 


340 


222 


212 


239 


673 


1,013 


177 


168 


322 


249 


223 


273 


745 


1,067 


131 


164 


277 


234 


221 


221 


676 


953 


150 


156 


210 


209 


195 


209 


613 


823 


155 


161 


172 


162 


145 


159 


466 


638 


120 


154 


141 


146 


96 


*154 


*396 


*537 


109 


130 


103 


134 


*83 


*120 


*337 


*440 


110 


134 


101 


166 


*150 


*163 


*479 


*580 


121 


122 


**204 


**251 


*329 


*248 


*828 


*1,032 


129 


125 


**309 


**301 


*304 


*390 


*1,030 


*1,304 


150 


164 



Summer Enrollment 



1942 . 


136 


137 


°217 


173 


°527 


°663 


1943 


119 


115 


154 


142 


411 


530 


1944 


77 


tl38 


76 


91 


t305 


t382 


1945 


45 


a73 


88 


79 


a240 


a284 


1946 


36 


64 


130 


130 


324 


360 



* Includes evening and extension students. ° Includes 22 taking Spanish. 

t Includes 60 high school students having six weeks instruction before teaching with special super- 
vision, a Includes five 6-week cadets. ** Includes enrollment in Junior College. 



TABLE 127 — Distribution of Enrollment in Maryland State Teachers Colleges 
and Coppin Teachers College by Clsss, Fall of 1947 





Tow 


sona 






Total 
















White Students 






Class 






Frost- 


Salis- 






Bowie 


Coppin 




City 


County* 


burg 


bury 


County 


State 




Freshmant 


138 


133 


115 


142 


390 


528 


52 


65 • 


Sophomoret 


115 


84 


84 


96 


264 


379 


39 


35 


Junior 


29 


51 


30 


33 


114 


143 


31 


21 


Senior 


27 


33 


11 


18 


62 


89 


28 


34 


Total 


309 


301 


240 


289 


830 


1,139 


150 


155 


Extension or Evening ... 






°64 


°101 


165 


165 






Resident Students 


38 


241 


74 


183 , 


498 


536 


150 




Day Students 


271 


60 


166 


106 


332 


603 


155 


Elementary School 


27 


213 


173 


117 


503 


530 


99 


574 



* Includes out-of-state students. 

t Includes junior college students: Towson — City Freshmen 47, Sophomores 53; County Freshmen 
25, Sophomores 21; Frostburg — Freshmen 56, Sophomores 43; Salisbury — Freshman 112, Sophomores 
41; Bowie — Freshman 1, Sophomores 3. 

° Includes nurses enrolled for a semester of work: 24 at Frostburg and 16 at Salisbury. 

a Distribution between City and County based on residence of student. 



240 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



J3 

a o 



0/ ^ 



I- 

a o 



ii 

a o 
o S 



Pi. ^ 



uauiOjW^ 



« jiH I J I ! j ; ;(N I ; ;rH : ! ; I I I ;(M ; ! \ ^ 

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; ; ; ; : : : : ; ; ; ; c<i 

"lo i i ! i i i i i i i i i i i Tc^ i i rc5 Tc^ i i \ «o~ 

(N ; ; ; : ; ; ; : ; ; ; ; im 

^ i i i i i i"^^ i '■ r^~* i \^ i i i'^^' i i i ^ 

OJ : ; : : \ ;;;;;;; ; : ec 

"o : rH i-( r« i i i i i i \ i i T^i i i i I >H i i i o~ 

i-H : ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; \ i-t 

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(M :;; IrH ;,-(;;; ; ; ! 04 



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Enrollment and Faculty State Teachers Colleges 241 
TABLE 129—1947 White Entrants to Teachers Colleges 



State 
Teachers 


Total 
Num- 


Percent Having Had Various High 
School Courses 


Percent from High, Middle, and 
Lower Third of Class 


Aca- 
demic 


Gen- 
eral 


Equiva- 
lence 


Com., 
Voc, 
Unclass- 
ified 


High 


Middle 


Low, 
Unclass- 
ified 


Equiva- 
lence 
Tests, 
Vet. 
Inati. 


Towson 


272 


71.4 


15.8 


1.8 


11.0 


48.2 


31.6 


16.9 


3.3 


City 


130 


72.3 


9.2 


3.9 


14.6 


40.8 


31.5 


20.8 


6.9 


County 


142 


70.4 


21.8 




7.8 


54.9 


31.7 


13.4 




Frostburg 


115 


50.. 5 


33.0 


2.6 


13.9 


33.9 


36.5 


27.0 


2.6 


Salisbury 


al63 


45.5 


47.5 




7.0 


40.1 


34.6 


25.3 





a Includes 16 who entered in February, 1947, and 5 who entered in September, 1947, with advanced 
atnding. 

TABLE 130 

White Freshmen Who Entered Maryland Teachers Colleges in September, 1946, 
Who Withdrew at the Request of the School, or Voluntarily, 
before September, 1947 



Towson 



City 



County 



Frostburg 



Salisbury 



Freshman Enrollment, September, 1946 

Withdrawals for Removal, Transfer, Death, or 

Military Service 

Withdrawals at Request of School 

Voluntary Withdrawals 

Percent* Withdrawn at Request of School 

Percent* of Voluntary Withdrawals 

Percent* of Total Withdrawals 



125 

23 
15 
25 

14.7 
24.5 

39.2 



130 

7 
30 
15 

24.4 
12.2 

36.6 



134 

23 
7 
36 

6.3 
32.4 

38.7 



156 
22 
t56 

41.8 
41.8 



* Excludes withdrawals for removal, transfer, commitment, military service, or death, 
t Includes 17 who were cadet nurses or enrolled in one-year pre-nursing transfer course. 

TABLE 131 

Faculty and Staff at Maryland State Teachers Colleges, 1946-47 



Staff 



Towson 



Frostburg 



Salisbury 



Bowie 



Coppin 



President 

Instructors 

Library 

Campus Elementary School 

Training Centers: 

County 

City 

Ofl^ce Staff _ 

Dormitory 



a8 



67 



c5 



a These 8 teachers are in 5 different schools. 

b One teacher in each of two Wicomico County schools; two teachers and three teachers in two 
Somerset County schools. 

c Two one-teacher schools, and one teacher each in one two-teacher school, and two three-teacher 
schools. 

d Includes resident physician and resident nurse. 



242 1947 Annual Report of AIaryland State Department of Education 

The State Board of Education on May 28, 1947 adopted the 
following resolution regarding Dr. Wiedefeld, President of the 
State Teachers College at Towson who requested retirement to 
take effect as of August 31, 1947. 

RESOLUTION 

With distinguished success, Dr. M. Theresa Wiedefeld, President 
of the State Teachers College at Towson, has devoted all her profes- 
sional life to teaching in the Maryland public schools, to supervising 
other classroom teachers, and to preparing teachers for the elementary- 
schools. She herself received most of her education in Maryland. She 
graduated from the Maryland State Normal School, now the State 
Teachers College at Towson, in 1904, qualified for her Bachelor's de- 
gree from Johns Hopkins University in 1925; and received the Doctor 
of Education degree from the same institution in 1937. 

Dr. Wiedefeld first taught for seven years in Baltimore County; 
became Supervisor of Primary Grades in 1911; next served her Alma 
Mater, the State Normal School from 1914 to 1919, first as critic 
teacher, then as principal of the Campus Elementary School; was 
Supervisor of Elementary Schools in Anne Arundel County from 1919 
to 1924; became Assistant State Supervisor of Elementary Schools 
in 1924 and served in that capacity until, in 1927, she was appointed 
State Supervisor of Elementary Schools. In each position she proved 
herself exceptionally competent. In 1937 the Board appointed her Pres- 
ident of the State Teachers College at Towson. 

Dr. Wiedefeld, throughout her professional life, has been a teacher 
of unusual ability. With her, teaching has been a creative art, and 
she has been able to stimulate others and to point the way to higher 
achievement. 

Dr. Wiedefeld was President of the State Teachers College dur- 
ing the difficult war years, when the enrollment was small and when 
the College operated on almost a twelve-month basis, in order to pre- 
pare teachers as rapidly as possible to replace those who went into the 
armed services and into war industries. During her administration 
the College experimented also with special cadet programs, including 
in-service training. She has recently led in preparing a program for 
the preparation of junior high school teachers. Earlier, it was as a 
by-product of a conference which she arranged at the State Teachers 
College that the present State-wide Child Study Program developed. 
Under her leadership the College has realized to a very high degree 
the full possibilities of a State Teachers College as a dynamic part of 
a public school system. 

It is with regret that the Board accepts Dr. Wiedefeld's request 
for retirement. She takes with her the appreciation and best wishes 
of the Board and the hope that she will enjoy the leisure which she 
so richly deserves, after many years of zealous and fruitful service. 

The appointment of Dr. Earle T. Hawkins, Director of In- 
struction on the Staff of the State Department of Education, to 
become President of the State Teachers College at Towson as of 
September 1, 1947 was approved by the State Board of Educa- 
tion on May 28, 1947. 



Retirement of Dr. Wiedefeld; Salary Schedules, Fees at State 243 

Teachers Colleges 



Salary Schedules for Instructional Staff at State Teachers Colleges 

Instructor with Minimum Maximum Increment 

Bachelor's Degree__$28O0 $3500 $140 

Master' Degree 3G00 4500 180 

Doctor's Degree ___ 4400 5500 220 

House 

President $6000 $7500 $300 rent 

free 

Vice President $500 over basic scale 

Principal Elementary 

School $300 over basic scale 

Director of Training _$300 over basic scale 

An instructor with the doctor's or mastei's degree shall start at the 
minimum of the scale for that degree, except that upon recommendation 
of the college president credit may be given for comparable experience 
such as college teaching or State or county supervision. 

When the scale is put into effect all instructors shall be placed on the 
step above where they are, provided that every one shall be placed on 
the minimum of the scale on which he belongs if his present salary is be- 
low the minimum. 

When an instructor has served ten years in one classification in the 
last five of which he shall have received the maximum rate of pay for the 
classification, the Board of Trustees, on the recommendation of the Presi- 
dent, may grant additional yearly cumulative increases of $100 for five 
successive years over and above the maximum rate of pay for said classi- 
fication. 

Salaries shall not be supplemented by free maintenance or by reduc- 
tion in cost of board and lodging. All special duties shall be paid for on 
a basis approved by the State Board of Education. 

When board and lodging are furnished by the college a fixed sum of 
$50 per month shall be paid to the college. 

Retirement allowances shall be based on the cash salary received, 
except that where a house is furnished the president as a part of the an- 
nual remuneration, a fair value of the rental shall constitute an addition 
to the salary for the purposes of retirement payment. 

Fees at State Teachers Colleges for 1947-48 as Fixed by the State 
Board of Education in May 1947 





Bowie 


Colleges for 


White Students 


Fees for 


Junior | 


Teachers 


Junior 


1 Teachers 




College 1 


College 


College 


1 College 


Tuition 










Maryland Resident .... 


$100 


$... 


$100 




Out of State Resident . . 


200 


200 


200 


200 




10 


10 


* 10 


* 10 




5 


5 


t 5 


t 5 




5 


5 


5 


5 








2 


2 




171 


171 


216 


216 



Books, supplies and equipment are available in the book store. 
• Two dollars additional at Frostburg 
t Five dollars additional at Salisbury 



244 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

The following report on Scholarships and Loan Funds at 
State Teachers Colleges was presented to the State Board of 
Education in February 1947 : 



Towson 

Scholarships 

Minnie W. Medwedeff Scholarship awarded annually $150 

Daughters of American Revolution Scholarship awarded annually 50 

Helen Aletta Linthicum Scholarships to be awarded at the direction of 

the trustees of the fund (1946-47) 2,000 

Loan Funds 

The Sarah E. Richmond Loan Fund $8,000 

The Lillian Jackson Memorial Loan Fund 50 

Class of 1914 Scholarship Loan Fund 135 

The Carpenter Memorial Loan Fund (for men only) 402 

Class of 1925 Loan Fund 90 

The Reese Arnold Memorial Loan Fund 100 

The Martha Richmond Loan Fund 180 

The Normal Literary Society Loan Fund 100 

Pestalozzi Loan Fund 100 

General Scholarship Fund 175 

Esther Sheel Memorial Loan Fund (Class of 1927) 500 

Washington County Alumni Unit Loan Fund 200 

Eunice K. Crabtree Loan Fund (Gift of Class of 1931) 200 

1933 Gift Loan Fund of Faculty and Students 700 

Pauline Rutledge Loan Fund (Gift of Class of 1934) 200 

Gertrude Carley Memorial Fund 450 

Pearle Blood Loan Fund (Gift of Class of 1940) 100 

Albert S. Cook Scholarship Loan (For Freshmen only) 100 

The Grace Boryer Downin Loan Fund 1,000 

Frostburg 

Loan Funds 

Alumni Loan Fund $1,644 

Garrett County Loan Fund in honor of F. E. Rathbun (for senior from 

Garrett County) 300 

Frostburg Rotary Club Loan Fund for Frostburg students 

Albert S. Cook Loan Fund 100 

Allegany County Federation of Women's Clubs Loan Fund 

part of State Teachers College Loan Fund 1,139 

Iota Alpha Sigma Fraternity for men seniors 

Little Theater Loan Fund for seniors 



Salisbury 

The Edna M. Marshall Memorial Loan Fund (from $25 to $150 per year for 



worthy juniors and seniors) $1,115 

The Samuel Chase Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution loans 

at low rate of interest 

Bowie 

The Maryland Congress of Colored Parents and Teachers Loan Fund $200 

Wings Over Jordan Loan Fund 213 



Eligible to students after first semester at college, a small interest charge is 
made. 

In February, 1947, the State Board of Education voted to 
discontinue regular summer sessions at the State Teachers 
Colleges. 

Dr. Pullen reported to the State Board of Education his op- 
position to recommendations made in the report of the Commis- 
sion on Higher Education for discontinuance of the State Teach- 
ers College at Frostburg which is very much needed to train 
teachers for the three westernmost counties of the state. He 
also opposed the plan of having jurisdiction over junior colleges 
under the proposed Board of Higher Education as proposed by 
the Commission. 



Scholarships, Loan Funds, Total and Per Student Costs 245 



TABLE 132 

Total and Per Regular Student Costs at State Teachers Colleges, 1930-1947 





Total 


Fees 
Paid 


Cost 


College 
Enrollment 


Percent 
Elemen- 
tary is of 


Average Annual Cost per 
College Student 


Year 


Current 
Expenses 


1 by 
Students 


to 
State 


Percent 
Average ^Resident 


College 
Enroll- 
ment 


Total 
k 


in 
Fees 


to 
State 

k 



TOWSON 



1930 


$314,699 


$64,660 


$250,039 


604 


49 


43 


$521 


a$107 


$414 


1932 


277,642 


57,201 


220,441 


582 


43 


46 


477 


a98 


379 


1934 


210,135 


79,108 


131,027 


450 


36 


54 


487 


6196 


291 


1936 


179,751 


50,286 


129,465 


330 


25 


75 


545 


6153 


392 


1937 


184,263 


65,395 


118,868 


438 


23 


54 


420 


6148 


272 


1939 


218,699 


81,737 


136,962 


531 


25 


47 


412 


6154 


258 


1941 


219,112 


82,597 


136,515 


482 


34 


49 


455 


6171 


284 


1943 


tl87,934 


53,264 


134,670 


*292 


38 


79 


644 


6183 


461 


1945 


J211,981 


46,227 


: 165,754 


*222 


50 


91 


955 


6208 


747 


1946 


250,048 


32,550 


217,498 


264 


54 


92 


947 


ml23 


824 


1947 


325,098 


64,302 


260,796 


454 


48 


52 


716 


mU2 


574 



Frostburg 



1930 


$76,581 


$13,221 


$63,360 


161 


43 


65 


$476 


a$82 


$394 


1932 


75,575 


9,809 


65,766 


113 


50 


166 


669 


a87 


582 


1934 


61,359 


21,545 


39,814 


115 


49 


171 


533 


6187 


346 


1936 


59,558 


22,415 


37,143 


130 


42 


161 


459 


6173 


286 


1937 


64,087 


23,444 


40,643 


131 


45 


153 


489 


6179 


310 


1939 


82,025 


33,895 


48,130 


204 


39 


93 


402 


6166 


236 


1941 


82,220 


36,535 


45,685 


210 


41 


85 


392 


6174 


218 


1943 


t69,071 


20,757 


48,314 


*116 


41 


167 


595 


6179 


416 


1945 


J85,601 


14,573 


171,028 


*73 


41 


221 


1,173 


6200 


973 


1946 


108,882 


11,281 


97,601 


91 


44 


179 


1,197 


n!l24 


1,073 


1947 


152,531 


30,820 


2121,711 


243 


29 


73 


628 


ml27 


501 



Salisbury 



1930 


$98,9301 


$27,456 


$71,474 


168 


88 


53 


$589 


a$163 


$426 


1932.... 


88,197 


20.475 


67,722 


124 


85 


79 


711 


al65 


546 


1934 


66,144;' 


24,267 


41,877 


114 


71 


102 


580 


6213 


367 


1936 


6'/, 672,1 


32,289 


35,383 


184 


41 


69 


384 


6192 


192 


1937 


70,185 


34,801 


35,384 


200 


40 


61 


351 


6174 


177 


1939 


89,119 


41,787 


47,332 


228 


49 


52 


391 


6183 


208 


1941 


84,281il 


40,444 


43,837; 


211 


55 


57 


400 


6192 


208 


1943 


t68,922|! 


23,185 


45,737i 


*143 


36 


59 


482 


6162 


320 


1945 


t93,031|i 


21,157 


J71,874| 


*103 


53 


92 


903 


6205 


698 


1946 


104,121 


22,184 


81,937 


153 


45 


61 


681 


TO145 


536 


1947 


145,226 


46,960 


98,266 


280- 


58 


34 


519 


TO168 


351 



Bowie 



1930 


$57,004 


$14,799 


$42,205 


108 


97 


61 


$528 


d$137 


$391 


1932 


47,790 


13,600 


34,190 


97 


97 


71 


492 


dl40 


352 


1934 


39,082 


13,385 


25,697 


89 


97 


65 


439 


el50 


289 


1936 


42,965 


13,571 


29,394 


86 


97 


79 


500 


el58 


342 


1937 


47,601 


17,673 


29,928 


111 


92 


59 


429 


el59 


270 


1939 


62,910 


19,069 


43,841 


158 


97 


65 


399 


/121 


278 


1941 


60,295 


19,270 


41,025 


140 


99 


86 


431 


gl^S 


293 


1943 


t56,693 


15,960 


40,733 


104 


99 


106 


545 


gloS 


392 


1945 


:76,536 


15,099 


:6],437l 


103 


98 


103 


743 


glib 


598 


1946 


93,0041 17,055 


75,9491 


121 


98 


81 


769 


hUl 


628 


1947 


108,2301 17,809 

i| 


90,421 


124 


100 


81 


873 


hUA 


729 



a Day students paid $20, women residents $200, and men boarders $72. 6Day students paid $100, 
women residents $316, and men boarders $128. d Resident students paid $120, day students $9. 
Service rendered by students, e Resident students paid $164, day students $19. f Resident student? 
paid $110, day students $15. Service rendered by students, g Resident students paid $140, day stu- 
dents $20. h Resident students paid $155 and day students $30. 

* Each cadet teacher is included as one-half a student. 

t Expenditures for ten-month period from Sept. 1, 1942 to June 30, 1943. 
t Includes bonus payments by State. 

k Entire cost of educating elementar\' pupils is charged against college students. 

m In accordance with Chapter 6 of the Laws of 1945, ttiition for white teacher training students at 
the Teachers Colleges was eliminated as of September, 1945. Board is $216. textbook and activities 
$20 for teacher training students planning to teach in Maryland. Junior college students pay $100 
additional. 

z Excludes $9,810 reserved for cajiital outlay. 



246 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 133 — Receipts and Expenditures t at State Teachers Colleges from 
July 1, 1946 to June 30, 1947 



College 


Average Enrollment 
in 


Receipts for Instruc- 
tion from 


Average 
Resident 


Receipts for Dormi- 
tory from 


College 


Elemen- 
tary School 


Students 


State 


Enroll- 
ment 


Students 


State 


Regular Session 


Towson 

Frostburg 

Salisbury 

Total White 

Bowie 


454 
243 
280 


235 
177 
96 


$17,638 
16,839 
20,590 


$218,033 
*93,157 
67,403 


216 
71 
162 


$46,664 
13,981 
26,370 


$42,763 
28,554 
30,863 


977 
124 


508 
100 


$55,067 
$1,688 


$378,593 
$63,188 


449 
124 


$87,015 
$16,121 


$102,180 
$27,233 



Expenditures 







Expenditures for Instruction 


Expenditures for Dormitory 




Total 
Expendi- 
tures 


Administra- 
tion 


Salaries of 
Instructors 


Other than 
Salaries 


Operation, 
Mainte- 
nance, 
Trans- 
portation 


Administra- 
tion 


Operation, 
Mainte- 
nance, 
Transporta- 
tion, Health 


Food 



Regular Session 



Towson 


$325,098 


$30,186 


$139,972 


$11,844 


$53,669 


$7,054 


$49,529 


$32,844 


Frostburg 


*152,531 


15,314 


70,807 


7,994 


15,881 


2,535 


20,888 


19,112 


Salisbury 


145,226 


9,592 


63,404 


3,618 


11,379 


7,023 


28,599 


21,611 


Total White. .. 


$622,855 


$55,092 


$274,183 


$23,456 


$80,929 


$16,612 


$99,016 


$73,567 


Bowie 


$108,230 


$5,472 


$38,873 


$7,037 


$13,494 


$4,556 


$22,358 


$16,440 



1946 Summer Session 







Receipts from 








Total 






Ex- 


State 




Enroll- 






penditures 


Aid per 


College 


ment 


Students 


State 




Student 


Towson 


100 


$3,872 


$4,637 


$8,509 


$46 


Frostburg 


123 


5,077 


2,084 


7,161 


17 


Salisbury. .„ _ 


130 


4,302 


2,135 


6,437 


16 


Total 


353 


$13,251 


$8,856 


$22,107 


$25 



* Excludes $9,810 reserved for building improvement and paving. 

t Receipts to budget items and those from sources other than students' fees and general funds from 
State appropriations are excluded. 



Total and Per Student Costs at State Teachers Colleges 247 



CHART 31 
1946-47 Cost per Teachers College Student 



19U6-U7 COST PER TEACHERS COLLEGE STUDENT 
TOTAL COST OF INSTRUCTION PER STUDENT 



Average 
Number of 
College College Elem. 
at Students Pupils 



State 
Teachers 



Towson 

Frostburg 
Salisbury 

Bowie 



State 
Teachers 
College 
at 

Frostburg 
Tow son 
Salisbury- 
Bowie 



213 
280 

1214 




Paid 

Total Cost State I | Student 



fa 



TOTAL COST PER RESIDENT STUDENT 



Resident 
Students 



Average 


Per 


Total 


Number 


Cent 


Cost 


71 


29 


$995 1 


216 


h5 


92h 1 


162 


58 


663 1 



Total Cost 



Paid by 
State I I Student 



12U 



100 



87h 




FABLE 134 — Inventories at State Teachers Colleges and State Department of 
Education as of June 30, 1947 



School or Department 


Land and 
Improve- 
ments 


Buildings 


Equipment 


Total 


Towson State Teachers College 

Frostburg State Teachers College 

Salisbury State Teachers College 

Bowie State Teachers College 

State Department of Education 

Vocational Rehabilitation 

State Teachers Retirement System 

Division of Library Extension 


$127,970 
80,591 
20,498 
36,714 


$1,302,348 
354,718 
700,046 
473,480 


$236,090 
66,115 
115,512 
77,297 
*33,713 
9,371 
6,549 
78,110 


$1,666,408 
501,424 
836,056 
587,491 
*33,713 
9,371 
6,549 
78,110 


Totals 






$265,773 


$2,830,592 


$622,757 


$3,719,122 



* Includes Vocational Education, Physical Education, and Bureau of Educational Measurements. 



THE DIVISION OF LIBRARY EXTENSION 

The Division of Library Extension of the State Department 
of Education is located on the third floor of the Enoch Pratt 
Free Library, 400 Cathedral Street, Baltimore 1, Maryland. 
Telephone : Mulberry 6580. 

The State Department staff met at the Pratt Library in 
November to see a film showing the use of the bookmobile of 
the Eraser Valley Library and to learn of the program of work 
of the Division of Library Extension which was presented by 
Miss Clark. 



TABLE 135 — Books and Pictures Lent by the Division of Library Extension 1946-47 to 



County 


Total 


Libraries 


Comm. 
Groups, 
Camps 


Indi- 
vid- 
uals 


Schools 


County 


Public 


College 
& Spec. 


White 


Colored 


Elem. 


High 


Elem. 


High 


Total Counties 

Allegany 


17,471 

507 
460 
6,705 
229 
244 
965 
620 

23 
609 
392 
838 
1,546 
406 

30 
817 
1,283 
894 

74 
311 
204 
123 

70 
121 

173 

17,644 


3,978 


4,999 

325 
228 
3,132 
160 
116 
27 
49 


825 
22 


800 


2,608 
42 


1,620 

35 
533 


1,984 

118 
122 
511 
9 
10 
244 
109 
8 
41 
34 


428 


229 


Anne Arundel 


75 






Baltimore 


219 


300 
"56 


1,931 
28 
62 
209 
76 
10 
30 
34 


79 
8 




Calvert 




24 










Carroll 




482 


3 
8 
2 

206 






Cecil 

Charles 






378 


3 

163 




Dorchester 




143 

228 




11 

55 


15 


Frederick 




41 


Garrett 


838 
1,268 
368 








Harford 


23 








8 


201 

5 


1 


45 








33 
30 
42 

37 


Kent 














Montgomery 




169 
64 






525 
300 


81 
131 
160 

53 
114 

23 




Prince George's 
Queen Anne's 


740 
385 


48 




174 


138 

—j 


St. Mary's 


21 
165 








Somerset 








25 






Talbot 


181 
123 










Washington 
















Wicomico 


46 
103 

4,999 


13 




11 

8 

173 
2,781 










Worcester 








10 
1,984 






Baltimore City 

Total State 


3,978 


825 


800 


1,620 


428 


229 





Type of Book 


By Type of Service Given 


Books Bor- 
rowed for 
Interlibrary 
Loans 


Grand 
Total 


One-Month 
Loan 


Long Loan 
Traveling 
Libs. 


Exhibits 


Pictures and 
Films 


Adult non-fiction 




4,849 
1,915 
1,708 


796 
1,733 
4,980 








Adult fiction 










Juvenile 










Total „ 










17,644 


8,472 


7,509 


1,480 


183 


3,163 





248 



Services of the Division of Library Extension 249 



Book and Information Service 

Who May Borrow? 

All who live v^ithin the State and outside the City of Baltimore — li- 
braries, schools, community groups, and individuals — may borrow in person 
or by mail. Residents of counties served by county libraries or of cities 
and towns served by public libraries should ask for these services through 
their local libraries. 

What May Be Borrowed: 

1. Books, Pictures, Pamphlets and Clippings — any title or any sub- 
ject of interest or for special purposes, such as community dis- 
cussion groups, club programs, school study, and debates; books 
for adults, young people or children. These may be kept for one 
month with the privilege of renewal for another month unless 
there is urgent need elsewhere. 

2. Traveling Libraries — collections of recreational reading — may be 
borrowed by county and public libraries, schools or community 
groups in rural districts, or in small towns. Suggestions for titles 
to be included are welcomed. If it is not possible to include all 
the books desired, substitutions will be made. Each request should 
state whether readers will be adults, young people or children, and 
the number of books wanted. School requests should state the 
grade or grades and the number of pupils who will use the collec- 
tion. These will be sent by mail unless the borrower states a 
preference for express. 

Collections may contain: 

Thirty to 100 books for schools, public libraries, and community groups. These 

may be kept for four months with the privilege of renewal or exchange. 
Up to 1,000 books for county libraries. These may be kept for a year. 

3. Exhibits — book displays, for children and for youth of school age, 
to help teachers, librarians, parents and children in choosing books 
for purchase, may be borrowed for two weeks. Special displays 
for group meetings may be borrowed. 

Exhibits may be borrowed for meetings of county or state-wide 
interest for the purpose of acquainting the public with the possi- 
bilities of library service to counties and schools, or on special 
subjects such as, family living or public health, agricultural prac- 
tices, etc. 

Requests for displays and exhibits should be made two weeks or 
more in advance of the time needed. 

Consultant Services 

The director of public libraries v^orks throughout the State 
to improve and develop libraries. She meets and talks with 
groups of citizens who are interested in better library service 
for counties, towns, schools and state institutions. She visits 
libraries and advises librarians, library trustees, teachers and 
administrators. Guidance in library organization, book selec- 
tion, budgets, personnel and community relations is given 
through visits, letters and the making of book lists and exhibits. 
Let the Division know your current problems and goals. Its 
staff can help you. 

The new State budget provides for a Supervisor of County 
and Institutional Libraries who will guide and help develop 
public library services in the counties, consult with librarians 
and County Library board members, demonstrate county li- 
brary service, and assist the Director in promotion of libraries 
in counties which have not yet created County libraries. She 



250 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 

will guide and develop library service in hospitals and correc- 
tional institutions and correlate their service with that of other 
libraries. She will be a specialist in books and materials for 
adults and in publicity for libraries. She will recruit librarians 
for public and institutional library service and advise training 
agencies in their education. 

Public Library Service 

The new State Budget also provides for a Readers' Adviser 
to select and send out materials to supplement the county and 
school libraries and to individuals in counties without public 
libraries. She will "be a specialist in the less usual materials 
and the sources for borrowing inter-library loans. 

A Catalog and Order Librarian will be in charge of the or- 
ganization of materials for efficient use and to guide organiza- 
tion in the counties with as simple methods as possible. 

The people of Maryland are working with great enthusiasm 
toward the goal of public library service for all the people of 
each of the twenty-three counties. The 1945 General Assembly 
passed the Public Libraries Law which gives the Boards of 
County Commissioners the power to establish and maintain 
county public libraries. When county tax money of not less 
than two cents on each one hundred dollars of assessed valua- 
tion of taxable property is made available for library support, 
the county is eligible for an annual grant from a state-aid fund 
for books, which ranges from 8^^ to 2^ per capita, according to 
the size of the county's population. 

Library service to all county residents is operating in Anne 
Arundel, Cecil, Garrett, Harford, Howard, Prince George's 
Queen Anne's, Talbot and Washington Counties. A county li- 
brary is a book and information service for all the people in 
every part of the county. Its resources are free to every resi- 
dent because it is supported by county taxes. It also distributes 
books and information by: 

Mail service on all rural routes. 

Bookmobiles, libraries on wheels, which stop according to an- 
nounced schedules in parts of the county without library 
centers. 

Libraries in cities and villages. 

Book collections in cross-road stores, post offices, community 
houses, schools and convenient centers. 

It furnishes ready reference information by telephone. 
Public libraries serve Cumberland, Westernport; Catonsville, Cockeys- 
ville, Dundalk, Essex, Middle River, Pikesville, Relay, Sparrows Point, 
Towson, Wilson Point; Prince Frederick; Federalsburg, Ridgely; Taney- 
town, Westminster; Cambridge, Hurlock, Vienna; Emmitsburg, Frederick; 
Chestertown; Bethesda, Gaithersburg, Kensington, Rockville, Silver Spring, 
Takoma Park, Patuxent River; Crisfield, Princess Anne; Salisbury, Poco- 
moke City, Snow Hill, 

Many organizations in counties which have not yet established county 
libraries with service to all county residents are studying county library 
possibilities and asking their County Commissioners to establish county 



Public Library Services and Appropriations 



251 



libraries. Such organizations are: the Maryland Congress of Parents and 
Teachers, the Homemakers, the League of Women Voters, the American 
Association of University Women, the Farm Bureau, the Grange, Kiwanis, 
Lions, Rotary, and several others. 

Library service to Negroes is given by all the county li- 
braries. Branch libraries especially for Negroes are operated in 
Annapolis, Catonsville, Turner Station, and Bethesda. The 
Cumberland, Sparrows Point and Towson Public Libraries serve 
Negroes. The C. Burr Artz Library of Frederick, the Rockville 
and Silver Spring Public Libraries lend to colored schools. 



TABLE 135-A — Appropriations by Source, for Maryland Libraries Open to the 
Public and Amount per Capita, Year Ending, June 30, 1947 



CoUNTYt 


Appropriations for Public Libraries 


Estimated 
Population 

July 

1947 


Total 
Amount 

per 
Capita 


Total 


County 
Funds 


City or 
District 
Funds 


State 
Funds 


other 
Funds 


Total Counties.... 
Allegany 


$276,342.64 

15,461.83 
14,182.50 
35,059.50 


$136,569.04 


$65,409 

14,000 
450 


$14,979.50 


$59,385.10 
1,461.83 


1,149,979 

94,423 
82,826 
197,636 
11,388 
17,930 
42,430 
28,332 
19,859 
28,994 
60,569 
23,495 
40,874 
18,533 
13,719 
119,602 
130,500 
14,462 
32,318 
20,736 
19,056 
73,040 
37,926 
21,331 

947,000 

2,096,979 


$.24 

.16 
.17 
.18 
.00 
.01 
.02 
.47 
.00 
.08 
.14 
.26 
.67 
.34 
.08 
.27 
.39 
.33 
.00 
.14 
.57 
.54 
.10 
.05 

.94 

$.56 


Anne Arundel 


*11,681.00 
*35,059.50 


a2,051.50 


Baltimore 




Calvert 








Caroline 


234.78 
688.76 
13,447.42 








234.78 
688.76 
204.90 


Carroll 








Cecil 


11,129.52 




2,113.00 


Charles 




Dorchester 


2,185.10 
8,764.91 
6,209.10 
27,334.37 
6,214.17 
1,096.88 
32,385.17 
50,769.52 
4,737.67 


900.00 
*750.00 
4,188.54 
15,073.00 
*4,472.15 
125.00 


500 
2,325 




785.10 
5,689.91 
262.56 
10,157.37 
368.02 
971.88 
5,757.17 
10,104.19 
1,208.67 


Frederick 




Garrett 


1,758.00 
2,104.00 
1,374.00 


Harford 




Howard 




Kent 




Montgomery 


26,628 
8,000 




Prince George's . 
Queen Anne's 


27,665.33 
*2,«50.00 


65,000.00 
579.00 


St. Mary's 




Somerset 


2,808.99 
10,785.73 
39,160.25 
3,803.73 
1,012.26 

888,807.00 

$1,165,149.64 


900.00 
4,800.00 
15,000.00 
*1,875.00 


200 
2,500 
10,000 
150 
656 

*753,807 

$819,216 




1,708.99 
3,485.73 
14,160.25 
1,778.73 
356.26 

130,000.00 

$189,385.10 


Talbot 




Washington. 




Wicomico 




Worcester 




Baltimore City.... 
Entire State 


$13,569-04 


65,000.00 
$19,979.50 



* Average for calendar years 1946 and 1947. 
a For half year only. 

b Maximum payment in 1946-47 limited to $5,000. 

t For detail regarding individual libraries, see Table XXIV, pages 303 to 305. 



School Libraries 

Libraries in Junior and Senior High Schools are showing 
marked improvement. Many of the elementary schools are 
building central library collections or adding many fine books 
to their classroom libraries. The Division is looking toward 
much fine work when a State Supervisor of School and Chil- 
dren's Libraries provided for in the State budget will be ap- 
pointed in the fall of 1947. 



252 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 135-B— Total and Per Pupil Expenditure by Beards of Education from 
Public Funds for School Library Books, Year Ending June 30, 1947 



Public Expenditures for School Library Books 





Amount 


Per Pupil Belonging 


L/OUNTY 




White 


Colored 




White 


Colored 




Total 










Total 














Hiie- 


High 


Tjle- 


High 




Ele- 


High 


Ele- 


High 






mentary 




mentary 






mentary 




mentary 


Total Counties.. 


$54,222.59 


$27,790.79 


$20|349.14 


$3,978.55 


$2,104.11 


$.30 


$.29 


$.38 


$.18 


$.29 


Allegany 


i.you.uu 


1 Odd AA 


634.00 


8.00 


12.00 


.13 


.15 


.11 


.05 


.12 


Anne Arundel 


1,628.37 


639.16 


816.53 




172.68 


.12 


.09 


.24 


.00 


.20 


Baltimore 


14,570.00 


8,673.85 


4,783.01 


939.77 


174.05 


.50 


.50 


.55 


.38 


.29 


Calvert 












.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


.00 


C&rolinG 


1,079.80 


349.00 


488.80 


142.00 


100.00 


.35 


.25 


.54 


.26 


.51 


Carroll 


1,034.22 


618.85 


415.37 






.16 


.16 


.19 


.00 


.00 


Cecil 


1,006.00 


411.00 


560.00 


35"ob 




.21 


.15 


.35 


.13 


.00 


Charles... 


2,087.83 


808.47 


686.98 


428.90 


163.48 


.52 


!56 


!89 


!30 


!46 


Dorchester 


*985.80 


*432.79 


*355.13 


*69.27 


*128.61 


*.23 


*.24 


*.32 


*.07 


*.37 


Frederick.... 


1,040.00 


637.50 


352.50 


25.00 


25.00 


12 


.12 


.12 


.04 


.10 


Garrett. 


2,'l67!48 


721.61 


1,445.87 






!49 


.22 


1.28 






Harford 


2,390.34 


1,281.88 


809.21 


180.49 


118.76 


.34 


.33 


.39 


:28 


.34 


Howard 


1,105.00 


510.00 


495.00 


30.00 


70.00 


.31 


.27 


.53 


.06 


.37 


Kent 


*917.56 


*399.11 


*174.34 


*328.21 


*15.90 


*.42 


*.41 


*.34 


*.61 


*.09 


Montgomery- 


6,758.33 


3,815.35 


2,083.14 


594.02 


265.82 


.39 


.38 


.40 


.41 


.50 


Prince George's 
Queen Anne's .... 


*6,108.25 


*3,469.05 


*1,902.19 


*558.07 


*178.94 


*.29 


*.31 


*.33 


*.19 


* 20 


*245.59 


*131.24 


*114.35 






*.10 


*.12 


*.19 


.*00 


*.00 


St. Mary's 


1,081.54 


265.02 


559.01 


6.78 


250.73 


.46 


.28 


1.05 


.01 


1.29 


Somerset 


1,030.61 


413.47 


248.67 


316.47 


52.00 


.31 


.33 


.33 


.35 


.13 


Talbot 


*206.10 


*33.00 


*92.74 




*80.36 


*.07 


*.03 


*.12 


*.00 


*.25 


Washington 


4,174.48 


1,697.61 


2,410.49 


20.30 


46.08 


.33 


.23 


.50 


.12 


.44 


Wicomico .. 


*1,600.89 


*851.18 


*486.31 


*197.83 


*65.57 


*31 


*.31 


*.43 


*.19 


*.18 


Worcester 


1,053.72 


335.65 


435.50 


98.44 


184.13 


.29 


.24 


.50 


.11 


.42 


Baltimore City 


3,333.86 


45.28 


2,932.42 


00.00 


356.16 


.03 




.11 


.00 


.04 


Entire State 


$57,556.45 


$27,836.07 


$23,281.56 


$3,978.55 


$2,460.27 


.20 


.20 


.30 


.08 


.16 



* Excludes payments by pupils, teachers and parents. 



SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM 

The federal appropriation for the school lunch program is available. 
Ten counties — Allegany, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Caroline, Dorchester, 
Frederick, Montgomery, Queen Anne's, Washington, Wicomico, and Balti- 
more City — desire to participate. Agreements are to be signed October 1st. 
To get permission to participate, a school must apply to the County Super- 
intendent, who applies to the State Department for approval. Funds are 
available for both food and equipment. Funds for equipment can be given 
even though money for food is not given; lunches, however, must be 
served. The maximum of federal aid which can be given toward the vari- 
ous types of lunch is 9, 7 and 2 cents, respectively. Schools cannot charge 
children over 20 cents for an A type lunch and over 4 cents for milk, the 
C type of lunch. The reimbursement is available for children only and 
not for adults who may be served. Some surplus foods are also available, 
e.g. potatoes and onions. 

The State Department is interested in all school lunch programs and 
not only in those which are aided from federal funds. The school lunch 
program is an educational program involving many learnings. It is not 
just a feeding program. It involves work with many members of school 
faculties, not only with home economics teachers, to help develop good 
nutrition as well as an appreciation of niceties which may be an outgrowth 
of the program. 



School Libraries and School Lunch Programs 253 



TABLE 136 — Number of Luches Served in the Federally-Aided School Lunch Program by 

County Cost-Type: 1946-47 



County 








Number 


of Lunches 


Served* 






At Cost 


At Less Than Cost or Free of Charge 


Total 


A* 


B* 


C* 


A* 


B* 


C* 


Total Counties.... 
Allegany 


5,019,514 

1,478,852 
162,320 
123,480 




234,798 


1,683,124 

86,247 
359,209 
99,458 


378,118 

181,390 
11,005 
3,924 


58,053 


79,885 

5,916 
21,606 
3,322 


7,453,492 

1,752,405 
554,140 
230,184 


Anne Arundel 






Baltimore 






Calvert 






Caroline 


75,152 
99,674 




32,410 
30,334 


9,489 
4,419 




651 
1,869 


117,70^ 
136,866 


Carroll 


570 




Cecil 




Charles 

Dorchester 


118,569 
164,275 
219',924 

35,011 
178,831 
122,127 

18,034 
786,119 
434,927 
2,781 


93,928 


21,633 
5,893 
23^970 
3,161 
119,791 
55,592 
6,795 
206,792 
505,772 
4,796 


15,854 
13,713 
20^240 
6,338 
11,471 
6,263 
1,253 
37,603 
39,110 
188 


49,041 


856 


299,881 
183,881 
265,807 

45,360 
312,913 
185,422 

26,082 
1,053,846 
1,052,043 

73,179 


Frederick 


1,673 






Garrett 




850 
2,820 
1,440 


Harford 






Howard 






Kent 






M ontgomery 
Prince George's .. 
Queen Anne's 
St. Mary's 


10,847 
43,141 
61,846 


934 
4,072 
3,395 


11,551 
25,021 
173 


Somerset 


65,161 
24,057 
737,632 
114,251 
58,337 

588,662 

5,608,176 




11,221 
7,390 
47,656 
44,101 
10,903 

2,658,201 

4,341,325 


444 
2,158 




78 
1,950 


76,904 
35,555 
785,288 
169,426 
96,608 

3,777,907 

11,231,399 


Talbot 






Washington 






Wicomico 




9,909 
3,347 

52,376 

430,494 




1,165 
617 

478,667 

558,552 


Worcester 

Baltimore City.... 
Total State 


22,793 
234,798 


611 
1 

58,054 


Area 


Percent of Lunches Served 


At Cost 


At 


Less Than Cost 


Total 


A* 


B* 


• c* 


A* 


B* 


C* 


Total Counties.. 


67.3 




3.1 


22.6 


5.1 


.8 


1.1 


100.0 


Baltimore City.... 


15.6 






70.3 


1.4 




12.7 


100.0 


Total State 


49.9 




2.1 


38.7 


3.8 


.5 


5.0 


100.0 



Type A lunch provides one-third to one-half of daily nutritional requirements. 
Type B lunch provides less than Type A. 
Type C lunch provides only milk. 



The state Department has funds to provide two supervisors, Mrs. 
Bowie and Mr. Reid, a bookkeeper and senior stenographer, all working 
under the direction of Mr. Seidel. Total expenditures on school lunches 
amount to approximately $3,000,000 with between $400,000 and $500,000 
coming from federal funds, 

A system of bookkeeping will be recommended which will conform 
with Department of Agriculture requirements and meet the ideas of the 
State Department of Education. Records will have to be kept in individual 
schools. Tenative forms will be printed for one year's use. 

Further discussion of the school lunch program presented at the Sep- 
tember meeting brought out the following additional background informa- 
tion : 



254 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Educaton 



TABLE 137 — Receipts and Disbursements of Funds for School Lunches, 1946-47 





Receipts 


Disbursements 




\_> W 1 1 


Federal Aid 


Payments 






i5aiance 
after 








by Pupils 














and /or 


Food 


Non-Food 


ments 




Food 


Non-Food 


Patrons 






Total Counties 


$470,086.92 


$51,896,06 


$i,oo4,ZyZ.DU 


^1 AOQ >1 1 ft OC 

!t>l,4i:o,419.3D 


$605,988.24 


$21,867.98 


Allegany 


128,126.05 


4,969.41 


294,674.57 


281,211.60 


191,862.27 


*45,303.84 


Anne Arundel 


21,792.98 


5,455.23 


/4, 651.30 


Q O TOO yl ft 


39,123.76 


*25,957.74 


Baltimore 


13,017.72 


5,155.63 


49,579.18 


40,360.55 


17,475.12 


9,916.86 


Calvert 














Caroline 


7,411.88 


806.18 


35,557.86 


29,738.69 


8,618.78 


5,418.45 


Carroll 


9,611.54 


1,793.53 


42,311.51 


36,125.06 


9,993.22 


7,598.30 


Cecil 




al,270.20 






al,270.20 




Charles 


15,617.61 


1,370.00 


17,931.49 


25,531.91 


6,979.65 


O Ani KA 


Dorchester 


14,406.60 


1 180.25 


42,459.19 


39,880.92 


13,862.80 


4,302.32 


Frederick 


18',806!35 


3i214!24 


109,082.83 


93,969.55 


32,039.43 


5,094.44 


Garrett 


3,214.21 


1,445.78 


64,540.11 


6,587.45 


61,695.95 


916.70 


Harford 


17,964.76 


2,408.85 


51,380.67 


46,080!70 


19',884'.75 


5,788.83 


Howard 


11,701.24 


1,335.00 


41,647.94 


39,405.65 


10,519.00 


4,759.53 


Kent 


1,681.51 


710.24 


4,716.70 


4,304.11 


3,044.11 


*239.77 


Montgomery 


c70,799.98 


5,509.72 


287,984.08 


257,750.34 


105,502.82 


1,040.62 


Prince George's 


cd48,270.36 


6,286.40 


176,636.96 


163,110.78 


54,970.91 


13,112.03 


Queen Anne's 


5,135.33 


894.00 


10,725.07 


11,670.71 


4,556.80 


526.89 


St. Mary's 




a325.00 






al20.15 


204.85 


Somerset 


5,129.20 


1,208.05 


26,245.71 


22,343.11 


8,433.87 


1,805.98 


Talbot 


1,906.76 


835.99 


11,011.88 


10,105.15 


1,947.00 


1,702.48 


Washington 


c57,599.64 


4,495.99 


180,386.86 


168,599.56 


52,190.02 


21,692.91 


Wicomico 


11,120.31 




49,304.26 


43,639.47 


15,640.94 


1,144.16 


Worcester 


6,772.89 


1,226.37 


23,464.43 


19,270.56 


6,256.69 


5,936.44 


Baltimore City 


89,141.15 


10,946.67 


735,650.14 


522,645.21 


273,614.36 


39,478.39 


Total State 


$559,228.07 


$62,842.73 


$2,269,942.74 


$1,951,064.57 


$879,602.60 


$61,346.37 



* Negative balance — paid from county funds and /or previous balances. 
a Capital Outlay: operations commenced in 1947-48. 

b Includes $27.74 paid by Parent-Teachers' Association for Loch Lynn School, subsequently refunded from Federal 
Aid. ^ 

c Refundable over-claims deducted: Montgomery, $167.16; Prmce George's, $252.03; Washington, $108.16. 
d Excludes $39.20 freight refund paid in error for transportation of surplus food. 



Many intelligent lay people are supporting the provision of funds to 
assist local schools in the organization of a truly educational non-profit 
school lunch program. The transition from a poor to a good lunch program 
is made easier if the faculty supports and works for the program. For 
example, in one county the item having the biggest sale is candy and that 
having the smallest is milk. In one elementary school, a child paid 34 
cents for a lunch including a hot dog sandwich and milk. In contrast with 
these conditions, the nutritional standards of the federal program are 
good. 

In September 327 schools have shown interest in the federal lunch 
program and 125 have made claims. Some principals are apprehensive of 
the possibility of making ends meet. Many lack equipment and labor. 
These schools need help. Eight counties have appointed supervisors of 
school lunches. The State Department Supervisors must work with them. 



School Lunch Program; Teachers Retirement System 255 



TABLE 138 

Contributions by Teachers to the Annuity Savings Fund of the Teachers' Retire- 
ment System of the State of Maryland for the Year Ended July 31, 1947, 
Number and Per Cent of May, 1947, County Teaching Staff Who are 
Members in Active Service 



County or Institution 


Amount 
Contributed Year 
Ending July 31, 
1947 


Mem 
Active 
May 

Number 


bers in 
Service 
, 1947 

Percent 


County: 

Anne Arundel 


ol,oyo.o4 


424 
306 


81 . 7 
66 .3 








626 


72 . 3 


Calvert... 




0,00.0. 


69 


87 . 7 


Caroline 




10,016.74 


96 


84.2 


Carroll 




19,009.56 


195 


80.5 


Cecil 




13,729.52 


128 


74.1 


Charles 




9,437.56 


90 


64.1 


Dorchester 




12,341.49 


120 


72.3 


Frederick 




< ,00 ( .oy 


242 


78 . 6 


Garrett 




y,D00.4 / 


99 


61 . 


Harford 




ly, ( uy. (v 


195 


75 . 4 


Howard 




a,iiiLc>.iLiL 


88 


68 . 7 


Kent 




8,179.86 


74 


86.9 


Montgomery.. 




63,135.47 


489 


71.0 


Prince Georee's 




56,509.39 


520 


68 . 1 


Oueen Anne's 


1 A OA 


73 


77 . 


St. Mary's 




5,269.02 


56 


56.7 


Somerset 




9,859.99 


99 


81.3 


Talbot 




8,881.t}4 


85 


73 . 8 


Washington 




43,727.61 


390 


84.5 


Wicomico 




18,525.81 


168 


88.9 


Worcester 




10,625.74 


111 


84.5 


Total Counties 




$528,929.26 


4,743 


74.5 


Teachers Colleges: 










Towson 




$8,392.57 


t47 


90.4 


Frostburg 




3,862.58 


t22 


91.7 


Salisbury 




3,420.69 


121 


95 . 5 


Bowie 




2,730.95 


tl7 


100.0 


Department: 










Education . . 




10,566.89 


t53 


100.0 


Retirement 




360.00 


3 


100.0 


Other Schools: 










Maryland Trainine School for Bovs 




2,815.09 


19 




Montrose School for Girls 


1,097.20 
689.30 

1,636.70 

2,866.12 
154.50 
685.62 

6,400.74 


7 
4 
10 
22 
1 
3 
43 




Maryland Training School for Colored Girls 




Rosewood State Trainine School 




Maryland School for the Deaf _ 






Weather Service 




Department of Research and Education 




Morgan State College 




Total Schools and Departments 




$45,678.95 
$574,608.21 


272 
5,015 




Grand Total 









t Excludes staff members who belong or will be eligible to belong to the State Employees Retire- 
ment System: Towson, 2; Frostburg, 2; Salisbury, 2; Bowie, 2; State Department of Education, 27. 



256 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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258 1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



TABLE 141 

Number of Cases of Certain Infectious Diseases Reported by Age Groups for 
Year Ending June 30, 1947 

(Data furnished by the State Department of Health) 



Disease 


Age Group 


Total 
Number 












Not 


of Cases 




0-4 


5-9 


10-14 


15-19 


20 + 


Given 




Total Cases 


1,462 


2,135 


402 


225 


1,206 


53 


5,483 


Scarlet Fever 


181 


299 


90 


31 


45 


7 


653 


Tuberculosis 


57 


73 


47 


72 


939 




1,188 


Chickenpox 


368 


759 


72 


20 


40 


16 


1,275 


Measles 


358 


483 


60 


39 


35 


11 


986 


Mumps 


77 


207 


41' 


13 


74 


6 


418 


Whooping Cough 


304 


213 


33 


2 


7 


8 


567 


Poliomyelitis 


25 


28 


13 


7 


15 




88 


German Measles 


47 


15 


5 


15 


6 


5 


93 


Rheumatic Fever 


5 


17 


16 


6 


10 




54 


Diphtheria 


36 


37 


20 


17 


22 




132 


Typhoid Fever 


4 


4 


5 


3 


13 




29 



TABLE 142 

School Dental Clinics Conducted under the Auspices of the Maryland State Department of 
Health, August 1, 1946 — July 31, 1947 

(Dale furnished by the Stale Department of Health) 





er of 
!ians 


Given 


* 


Number of Children 


Number of 


County 


umb 
Uini< 


0) 

So 


"> 

O 


Examined 




Fillings 


Teeth Ex- 


Clean- 


Treat- 


Total 










by Dentist 


Treated 


Inserted 


tracted 


ings 


ments 


Operations 


Total 


16 




24,158 


4,381 


8,312 


5,224 


1,481 


2,537 


17,554 


Allegany 


1 


Full 




4,867 


1,426 


646 


2,931 


371 


1,005 


4,953 


Anne Arundel.... 


3 


Part 




519 


320 


186 


338 


217 


112 


853 


Baltimore 


7 


Part 




2,886 


365 


1,548 


481 


99 


333 


2,461 


Frederick 


2 


Part 




585 


495 


1,164 


337 


105 


7 


1,613 


Montgomery .... 
Pr. George's 


1 


Full 




13,685 


736 


2,223 


412 


33 


776 


3,444 


1 


Part 




266 


199 


120 


121 


4 





245 


Washington 


1 


Full 




1,350 


840 


2,425 


604 


652 


304 


3,985 



The scope of service varies, either full-time or part-time, meaning one or more one-day clinics per month. 



Dental Clinics 

For the first time in a number of years, it is possible to report an 
increase in the school dental clinic service sponsored jointly by the County 
Boards of Education and the Division of Oral Hygiene, Maryland State 
Department of Health. It is felt that this increase reflects a slight ease- 
ment in the difficulties encountered in securing personnel in the past few- 
years. Report of clinic activities is given in the accompanying table. 



Infectious Diseases; Dental Clinics; List of Financial and 259 
Statistical Tables 



LIST OF FINANCIAL AND STATISTICAL TABLES 1946-47 



Subject of Tables 

Financial Statements 260-262 

I Number of Schools 263 

II Total Public School Enrollment 264-265 

III CathoHc Private Schools: Enrollment and Teaching Staff 266-267 

IV Non-Cathohc Private Schools: Enrollment and Teaching Staff . 268-270 
V Non-PubHc Schools: Enrollment and Teaching Staff 271-272 

VI Average Number of Public School Pupils Belonging 273 

VII Average Daily Attendance , 274 

VIII Aggregate Days of Attendance 275 

IX Average Days in Session; Percent of Attendance 276 

X Number of Teaching Positions, Public Schools 277-278 

XI Receipts from State and Federal Government 279 

XII Receipts from All Sources 280 

XIII Total Disbursements 281 

XIV Disbursements for General Control 282 

XV Disbursements for Instruction and Operation 283 

XVI Disbursements for Maintenance, Auxiliary Agencies, and Fixed 

Charges 284 

XVII Disbursem3nts for Debt Service and Capital Outlay 285 

XVIII Disbursements for White Elementary Schools 286 

XIX Disbursements for White High Schools 287 

XX Disbursements for Colored Elementary Schools 288 

XXI Disbursements for Colored High Schools 289 

XXII Cost, Enrollment, Attendance, Graduates, Courses in Individual 

County High Schools 290-295 

XXIII A. Enrollment by Subject in Each County High School except 

Junior High Schools 296-300 

B. Enrollment in Each County Junior High School 301-302 

XXIV Data re Public Libraries in Maryland 303-305 



260 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Financial Statements Public School Budget and Teachers Colleges 261 



Financial Statement for Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1947 



Source or Purpose 


Towson 

State 
Teachers 
College 


Frostburg 

State 
Teachers 
College 


Salisbury 

State 
Teachers 
College 


Bowie 
State 
Teachers 
College 


Receipts 


Balance Forwarded from 1945-46 

General Fund Appropriation 

Students' Fees, Regular Session 

Other Receipts 

Receipts to Budget Items 


$15,771.60 
265,341.00 
73,097.05 
13,315.93 
4,417.39 


$13,622.95 
132,630.00 
37,647.31 
260.50 
10,137.52 
1,000.00 


$7,008.49 
99,325.00 
50,306.17 
5,778.02 
6,784.38 
843.00 


$12,533.12 
90,321.00 
16,603.48 
1,557.61 
6,769.39 
1,052.00 


By Budget Amendment 

Total Funds Available 


$371,942.97 


$195,298.28 


$170,045.06 


$128,836.60 


Disbursements 


o 1 • ITT ^ o • 1 r> t- 
oalaries. Wages, and opeciai x ayments 

Motor Vehicle Repairs 


$236,549.82 
4,855.95 
508.00 
6,696.35 
750.00 
20.99 
1,935.46 
1,205.50 
435.00 
38,433.71 
290.36 
14,694.43 
1,059.50 
207.91 
1,615.79 
170.56 

3,299.87 
498.58 

243.83 
283.12 

2,320.19 
352.37 

2,132.51 


$113,671.06 
593.23 

2,438.56 
2,940.89 
46 62 
950.59 
330.25 
1,551.13 
19,111.58 


$103,125.20 
205.60 

A nOQ OA 

727.09 


$70,226.40 
2,768.44 
1,845.95 
4,244.43 
353.40 
19.20 
con oo 

349.45 
943.89 

1 V OCR QQ 

i ( ,yoo.yy 
681.19 
5,092.31 
196.35 
83.70 
611.58 




All Other Contractual Services 


941 17 
227^31 
1,099.84 
24,768.84 


Forage and Veterinary Supplies 


Fuel 


3,041.89 
149.99 
561.39 
251.55 


2,947.12 
498.56 
579.79 

1,211.47 
37.27 

2,496.30 




Medical and Laboratory Supplies 

Laundry, Cleaning and Disinfecting Supplies 
Refrigeration Supplies 


Educational, Vocational and Recreational 

Supplies 

Agricultural and Botanical Supplies 


1,945.12 
98.35 
441 08 
92138 




1,503.85 
36.35 
738.12 


Motor Vehicle Supplies 


AQA r\c 








1,236.44 




1,165.01 
32.29 
604.24 


1,101.01 
69.36 
889.35 


AU Other Supplies 


12.36 
119.65 
123.11 

73.68 
2.32 


Building Materials 

Motor Vehicle Equipment Material 




1,527.87 


12.50 




Highway Materials 




All Other Materials 








Office Equipment 


1,322.71 
2,557.41 
104.15 
150.00 


513.02 
677.72 
1,072.48 




225.98 


Household Equipment 


539.90 
623.67 


Medical and Laboratory Equipment 




Live Stock 




Agricultural and Botanical Equipment 






62.65 
18.58 
13.00 


Educational, Vocational and Recreational 
Equipment 


5,110.14 
234.45 
230.83 
327.14 
137.00 

1,269.14 
224.50 
11,804.14 

1,511.79 
11,038.59 

1,217.00 

8,660.01 


2,303.02 
4.47 


2,918.44 
9.73 




All Other Equipment 






215.48 




546.00 
241.73 


Insurance 


415.74 


421.76 


All Other Fixed Charges 


Cafeteria 


1,614.55 
1,525.70 
2,614.15 
1,750.00 
6,625.81 






Veterans Clearing Account 


2,190.18 
5,646.22 
3,346.50 
6,437.18 




Refunds of Students' Foes 


7,363.89 


Summer Session 


4,167.12 


$366,586.25 

759.04 
4,597.68 


$169,734.89 

26.15 
25,537.24 


$169,628.15 

1,093.98 
*677.07 


$122,121.36 


Unexpended Balance Returned to State 
Treasury 


Balance, June 30, 1947 

Grand Total 


6,715.24 


$371,942.97 


$195,298.28 


$170,045.06 


$128,836.60 



* Deficit. 



262 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



Financial Statement for Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1947 





State 
Department of 
Education 


Vocational 
Education 


Physical 
Education and 
Recreation 


Bureau of 
Educational 
Measurements 


Vocational 
Rehabilitation 


Receipts 


Balance, July 1, 1946 


$7,576.17 
74,076.00 


$96.44 
16,543.00 
30,156.23 
68.10 
2,749.00 


$186.30 
20,807.00 




$37.98 
26,500.00 
173,226.23 
2,140.86 
21,000.00 


State Appropriation 

Federal Appropriations 


$23,142.00 


Receipts to Budget Items 


3,285.27 
32,157.00 






Transfer by Budget Amendment 
Total Available 


3,150.00 


645.00 


$117,094.44 


$49,612.77 


$24,143.30 


$23,787.00 


$222,905.07 


Disbursements 


Salaries, Wages and Special 

Payments 

General Repairs 


$75,911.52 
83.80 
1,556.82 
7,588.51 
47.72 
5,126.56 
100.00 
3,041.06 

1,795.05 
1,606.91 
48.75 
3,963.78 

96.32 
2,379.92 
339.05 
249.18 


$42,306.95 
4.95 
139.11 
5,111.89 


$14,063.12 
29.49 
43.92 
997.57 
9.45 
599.66 


$18,433.85 


$92,240.39 


Motor Vehicle Repairs 




9.80 
11,325.57 


Travel 




Transportation 




Communication 

Other Contractual Services 


724.49 
19.50 
115.00 

337.10 
522.24 


125.00 
46.75 
49.79 

4,471.94 


3,361.19 
90,994.95 
1,530.53 

5,818.78 
135.53 


Office Supplies 

Educational, Vocational and 

Recreational Supplies 

Motor Vehicle Supplies 


448.34 

222.70 
298.06 
2,515.72 
61.88 

47.36 


All Other Supplies 




Office Equipment 






2,618.14 
12,672.68 


Educational, Vocational and 

Recreational Equipment 


15.49 




Child Study Program 




Rent 


147.50 
28.95 








Insurance 


19.51 
10.00 




19.41 


All Other Fixed Charges 

Motor Vehicles 


4,062.44 
5,003.05 








Prior Years 


76.29 


165.17 




23.71 


Total Disbursements 

Returned to State 
Treasury.. 

Transferred by 
Budget Amend- 
ment 




$113,000.44 
600.64 


$49,549.46 
63.31 


$19,531.95 

77.07 

4,250.00 
284.28 


$23,127.33 
131.61 


$220,750.68 
2,154.39 


Balance, June 30, 
1947 


3,493.36 




528.06 




Total 


$117,094.44 


$49,612.77 


$24,143.30 


$23,787.00 


$222,905.07 



Financial Statements State Department of Education; Number (.f 

Schools 



263 



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273 



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274 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



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Total Receipts and Disbursements 



281 



a 



I^C«3 — :C>C~wCOI^CMOC— eM^-»rci~CMt^cc— -^"^ 

cx:cMiccM — 05oicicd-^cMTr:c4C'^ccoci/i — cicMt^ 

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■ CM 
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CMC50C005-«f<eMOCCMOOCOCOCCCOI^'VOCeMOCCMCOTj< — 

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B.\LANCE June 30, 1947 


spnn^ 
auipiing 


CM CCOCIO -iC— ■ ■ ■ -O • ■•^— • C. 

loyri^o o • ■ • o • cMto • t^-<i< 
CM (-^ri — d :oco ; d ; coaS — 
Tj< t-lTPt^O .1^00 . . . .o . .cot~ . .»oco 
CM -"Ticoo .r^i~- . . . o . .i^eo . .ecoc 
-q"" o'cc'icod -co^d" • • ■ -o ■ ■ccd' • -o' — 

Ti<OCCMt^ CO— ■ • ■ O • rresi • CM-^ 

cm" 

^ « ■ 


r 1,929,518.00 
$4,503,760.42 


spanj 


$862,807.94 

c 196,516.12 
13,076.57 

000 oil 
2,041.48 

(/ 23,379.48 
z 2,286.96 
12,458.35 
82.67 
.05 

/t 62,713.77 
m 35,504.88 
37.55 
35,947.98 
26,080.3<» 

1 93,281.81 
14,212.40 

82,21 
n 3,459.31 
15,677.97 
2 1,514.18 
p 69,191.05 
38,853.49 
1,800.10 

$862,807.94 


s^uaraasjnqsiQ 


$26,354,941.64 

2,292,705.02 
1,594,636.14 
4,260,03 1.!)0 

372,612.04 
810,418.49 
()06,586.32 
487.325.67 
620,600.66 

1,144.610.45 
551,757.92 
887,996.55 
473,798.23 
303,965.22 

3,998.809.39 

3.044,621.17 
344.3 16..55 
382,665.93 
388,931.96 
377,6.59.03 

1,9.56,061.05 
726,123.98 
438,787.13 

16,786,625.70 

$43,141,567.34 




$3,174,963.65 

50,241.80 
108,541.33 
999,909.16 
9,999.74 
1,. 596.34 
26,162.93 
16,926.07 
4,888.18 
7,-557.67 
17,937.05 
28,326.91 
.56,112.47 
25,670.92 
2,992.76 
1,048,018.88 
438,128.93 
7,725.37 
409.77 
6,213.23 
482.81 
274,495.53 
38,163.04 
5,462.76 

372,504.93 

$3,.547,468.58 




$1,920,210.86 

275,195.00 
86,013.91 

290,141.67 
24,I77..50 
10,305.00 

30,886.50 
8,535.00 
66,951.42 
104,319.35 

23,.594.77 
28,406.35 

' '409,022.65 
230,791.75 
14,760.00 
90,459.99 
7,856.25 
17,000.00 
116,8.57..50 
61,613.75 
23,322..50 

1,958,255.00 

$3,878,465.86 


sasnadxg; 


$21,259,767.13 

1,967,268.22 
1 ,400,080.90 
2,969,981.07 
255,743.60 
361)! 7 10.70 
784,2.55.56 
558,773.75 
473,!)02.49 
,546,091.57 
1,022,354.05 
.523,431.01 
808,289.31 
419,720.96 
300,972.46 
2,.54 1,767.86 
2,375,700.49 
321,831.18 
291.796.17 
375.862.48 
360,176.22 
1,564,708.02 
626,347.19 
410,001.87 

14,455,865.77 

$35,715,632.90 



p SajBJg pUB 

sai^unoQ Suraiof 
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to ^ -c .-i ^ rr 



3 (;U3H 

Suipnpuj) 


$161,406.7:; 

11,912.30 
1 1,488.64 
33,075..59 
1,7,59.24 
3,160..32 
8,616.69 
4,828.92 
4,189.03 

4,310.06 
3,360.67 
6,028.75 
193.96 
3,265.64 
10,1.56.09 
12,.52.5.01 
2,641.83 
1,969.46 
9,958.87 
6,408.44 
6,398.07 
9,022.12 
2,072.32 

1,097,842.75 

$1,259,249.48 


saiouaSy 


$2,863,379.28 

346,719.44 
188,477.40 
290,272.03 
63,861.27 
68,622.62 
124,963.46 
70,266.80 
98,162.32 
94,188.61 
169,378.01 
108,169.27 
94,379.12 
7.5,96.5.16 
42,738.17 
269,030.18 
1 99,-330.09 
56,004.69 
60,173.98 
58,421.51 
,53,460.90 
161,0-56.-58 
92,844.11 
76,893.56 

828,700.53 

$3,692,079.81 




$826,891.26 

64,390.15 
57,559.70 
151,490.85 

7,809.71 

9,488.73 
14,647.00 
23,870.61 
13,865.20 
.30,910.23 
14,146.77 
14,925.26 
47,797.-33 
13,257.26 
1 1,667.46 
49,630.34 
132,508.56 
11,405.54 

9,944.45 
14,397.76 

9,811.68 
66,274.18 
28,.526.77 
28,565.73 

545,611.99 

$1,372,-503.25 


(J uoi^BjadQ 


$1,594,915.4(1 

166,734.42 
103,0.55.34 
222,377.48 
15,393.72 
19,.531..59 
43,444.92 
41,238.89 
44,524.00 
40,878.71 
63,48.5.31 
22,247.95 
63,100.36 
27,286.49 
20,584.98 
275,924.37 
187,493.54 
19,517.76 
18,994.28 
21,703.47 
19,826.94 
87,072.89 
41,6.59.92 
28,838.07 

1,549,008.04 

$3,143,923.44 


q noi}onj}suj 


$15,186,393.42 

1,333.211.20 
993,971.41 

2,196,583.32 
154,635.24 
246,880.40 
.572,951.98 
40.5,96 1.02' 
300,624.06 
360,799.60 
743,565.26 
351,954.93 
573,3.54.65 
288,023.31 
207,983.19 

1,8.5,5,078.31 

1,773,704.12 
220,959.79 
188,821.27 
2.59,0.33.15 
2.58,758.65 

1,201,64,5.41 
435,820.55 
262,072.60 

10,021,398.89 

$25,207,792.31 




$606,444.3; 

44,.300.7 1 
45. 104.'.! 1 
71 154.67 
12!284.42 
12,817.04 
18,995.00 
12,607.51 
12,4,57.88 
14,729.71 
24,236.64 
16,936.,35 
23,220.96 
14,212.78 
14,733.02 
81,024.37 
69.824.18 
11.0I6.,57 
11.892.73 
11. ,557. 72 
11,909.61 
41.434.28 
18.473.72 
11.519.59 

413,303.57 

$1,019,747.94 


County 


All Co... 

Aniiuiei 

Hallo 

Calvert . . 
Caroline . 
Carroll. . . 

(Veil 

Charles .. 
Doreh. . . . 
Frederick 
Carrett . . 
Harford . . 
Howard . 

Kent 

Mont 

P. (leo's.. 
Q. An. . . . 
St. Ma. . . 
Somerset . 
Talbot... 

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B. Cityt. 

State 



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$1,599,403.90 

5,943.06 
8,567.99 
666,848.53 
1,674.88 
848.17 
6,712.86 
13,868.17 
1,102.99 

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8,564.35 
14,032.06 
14,770.85 
220.40 
500,992.49 
281,050.50 
6,623.10 
409.77 
914.93 
482.81 
25,794.50 
28,608.20 
1,561.39 

082,301.73 
$1,681,705.63 


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Total 
Counties 

Allegany 
A. Arundel 

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Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 
Frederick .... 


Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgome'y 
Pr. George's 
Qu. Anne's 

Somerset 


Washington 
Wicomico .... 
Worcester.... 

Baltimore 
City 

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Alleg, 

A A run 
A. Arun. 

Balto 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll . 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dor. 

Fred, 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Mont 

P. Geo's. 
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Wash 

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163. 
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Bragg (Col.) 

Carver (Col.) 

Banneker (Col.) 

Calvert 

Brooks (Col.) 


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Lockerman (Col.) 

Carroll 

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Klmer Wolfe 

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Robert Moton (Col.) 


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292 



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Howard 
Elkridge 


M ! 

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i IN 

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Total 

Montgomery 

Leland Jr. 

Beth<>sda — Chevy Chase 

Montgomery Blair 

Richard Monteomerv 


Gaithersburg 

Takoma Park Jr 

M )ntgomery Hill Jr 

Sh rwood 

Damascus 


i 


Lincoln (Col.) 

Prince George's 

Hvatisville 

Maryland Park 

Grc-.-nbelt 


M M M M 

III 


i 

J 



294 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 



6 fi 

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$140. 
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$144. 
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207. 


$156. 
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$132. 
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mill H iiiiil H HN Hi gnnNMn 

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296 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 





Art 


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52 



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Enrollment by Subject in High Schools Except Separate Junior High Schools 




298 



1947 Annual Report of Maryland State Department of Education 





Art 


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INDEX 



A- (Continued) 



Absence of teachers, allowance for, 199-201 
Academic course, each high school, 266-271 
Accreditation of schools charging fees, 8, 9, 

31. 32, 183 
Administration, 165-166, 177-179, 185 

Conferences, 166 

Cost per pupil, 128, 129 

Expenditures, 282 

Percent for, 126, 127 

Superintendents, 2, 4-5, 10. 165-166. 193, 211, 
277, 282 
Admissions tax, 15, 28 

Adult education, 32, 121, 144. 168, 279, 284 
Agriculture, 158, 196, 213 
Adult education, 144 
Enrollment 

Colored, 75, 143 
Each high school, 296-302 
White, 73, 74, 80, 142 
Failures and withdrawals, white, 86 
Federal aid, 141, 142, 143, 144, 146 
Schools offering, 86, 296-302 
State supervision, 2, 145, 214 
Teachers, 86 
Aid from State and/or Federal funds to 
Counties and Baltimore 

Legislation 1947, 7, 10-12, 30-32, 194-196 
Distribution by type of fund, 1946-47, 279 
1946-1947, 124-125, 279 
1920-1947. 122-123 
State teachers colleges, 245-246, 260. 261 
Vocational education. 141-145. 260. 262, 279 
Vocational rehabilitation, 182, 260, 262 
Allowances for teachers' absence, 199-201 
Annuity income for state income tax purposes, 
19 

Appropriations 

County, 1947-48, 154-157 

1946-1947, 124-125, 260, 279, 280 

1920-1947, 122-123 

State, 1946-47, 124-125, 260, 279 

State, 1947-49, 30-32, 165 
Art, 218 

Enrollment. 73. 74, 75, 80, 290-302 

Teachers of, 86 
Assessable basis, 21, 151, 157-160, 186, 194 
Attendance 

Aggregate days of, 275 

Average daily. 274 

Index of elementary school. 47 

Law, 12. 183. 185 

Percent of, 45, 46, 47, 276 

Summer school pupils, 121 

Teachers at summer school, 100 

Workers, 7. 10, 178. 190, 210-211. 231-232. 
277. 282 

Audio-visual aids to instruction, 168, 197 
Auditorium-gymnasiums, 207 
Auxiliary agencies 

Cost per pupil for. 132. 133, 135, 138 



Auxiliary agencies (Cont.) 
Expenditures for 
Colored, 288, 289 
Total by purpose, 284 
White, 286, 287 
Percent of current expense budget, 126, 127 
Aviation commission, 12 

B 

Bands, orchestras, glee clubs, 81 

Basic aid per classroom unit, 7, 11, 32, 192, 

193, 260, 279 
Belonging, average number, 273 
Each high school, 290-295 
Per teacher, 101-106 
Births, number of, 7, 39-40, 208 
Board of Education, County. 22 
Board of Education, State, 2, 13, 260, 262 
Bond issues. 12. 13. 20. 21. 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 

27, 28, 29, 30 
Bonds outstanding, school, 151 
Books and instructional materials, 185 
Cost per pupil 

Elementary, 132, 135 
High, 133, 138 
Expenditures 
All schools, 283 
Colored, 288, 289 
White. 286, 287 
Percent of current expense budget, 126, 127 
State aid for, 10, 32, 260, 279 
Boys and Girls 
Enrollment 
By grade, 49 
Total 

Non-Public school, 266-272 
Public school, 264-265 
Graduates, High School, 60, 61-70, 72, 290- 
295 

Non-promotions 
Elementary, 52-57 
First grade, 52 

High school subjects, white pupils 
Each subject, 85 
One or more subjects, 83, 84 
Borrowing permitted counties, 24 
Budget(s) 

Local, county and Baltimore City 

1947-1948. 154-157 
State public school. 30-32, 165 
State teachers colleges, 31-32 
Buildings, grounds and equipment. 
Cost (see capital outlay) 

Financing, 7, 12, 31, 32, 176, 187, 190-191, 

192, 194, 195, 196 
Number of, 109 

State aid for, 7, 12, 31, 32, 176, 187, 190- 

191, 192, 194, 195, 196 
Status of, 176, 190-191, 207-208 
Value of school, per pupil, 152-153 
Buses, 16.149 



306 



Index 



307 



B-(Continued) 

Business education 
Enrollment 

Each high school. 296-300 
Total and by county. 73, 82. 141, 142. 145 
Failures and withdrawals. 85 
Schools having. 86. 296-300 
Teachers, 86 
By-laws re certification, 197-199 

c 

Cafeterias. 207, 208, 252 

Capital outlay, school, (see buildings) 

By sites, buildings, equipment, 285 

By types of schools, 150 

By year, 1920-1947, 123 

Colored. 135, 138, 288, 289 

State aid for, 7, 12, 31, 32, 176, 187, 190-191. 

192, 194, 195, 196 
White. 132. 133, 286, 287 

Census. 1946. 33-37, 257 

Census and attendance fund. 12, 32, 192, 279 
Certificates held by county teachers, 87-90 

Changes in requirements for, 197-199 

Classification of, 196 
Child care program, 183 
Child labor law, 19 

Child study program, 7-8, 31, 32, 198, 209-214, 

215, 226-228 
Classes 

Evening school, 121, 144 

Size of, 7, 9, 101-106, 168-169, 186, 190, 191, 

193, 194, 195, 196 

Special for handicapped, 57, 58, 59 
Summer school, Baltimore City, 121, 284, 
286, 287, 288, 289 
Clerks, 87, 178, 190, 197, 277 
Colleges 

High school graduates 

of 1946 entering, 66, 68, 69-72 
of 1947 entering teachers colleges, 63-65, 
290-295 

Junior, 8, 31, 32, 173-175, 236, 244, 279 
State teachers, 3, 12, 19, 31-32, 236-247, 260, 
261 

Training teachers appointed in Maryland 
counties, 1946-1947, 98, 238 
Colored schools conferences, 226-231 
Commercial (see Business subjects) 
Community life, 221-222 
Compulsory school attendance, 12, 183, 185 
Conference programs of 

Colored, 226-231 

High school principals, 216-218, 223-224, 228- 
229 

State department staff, 209, 262 
Superintendents, 165-208 
Supervisors 

Colored, 226-228, 229-231 

White elementary, 208-214 

White high, 225-226 



C- (Continued) 

Conservation, 217, 220, 221 
Consolidation 

Decrease in one-teacher schools, 115 

Schools closed by, 263 

Transportation of pupils, 146-149 
Consumer problems, 221 
Core program, 74, 236 
Cost per pupil, 129, 186 

Analyzed for elementary and high school 
pupils, 132. 133, 135, 138 

By states. 189 

By tjHpes of schools. 129. 130 
Colored elementary and high schools, 135- 
138 

General control, 128, 129 
Individual high schools, 290-295 
One-teacher schools, white, 129, 130 
State teachers colleges, 245, 247 
Transported, 146, 148 

White elementary and high schools, 129-134 
Costs, 281-289 

Counties to have uniform accounting, 12 
County unit, 177 

Courses in individual high school, 290-295 
Crippled children, services for, 57, 59, 256, 257 
Current expenses 

Cost per pupil, 128. 129. 130-138 
Colored. 129. 135-138 
Individual high schools. 290-295 
White schools, 128, 129, 130-134 
Expenditures 

Colored. 288-289 
Total, 281 
White, 286-287 
Total, 122, 123, 281 
Curriculum, 7, 165, 216, 218-222, 229-230, 236 

D 

Dates, opening and closing of schools, days 

in session, 38, 276 
Debt per pupil, 152 
Debt service 

1946- 1947, 152, 285 

1947- 1948, 154, 155 
Tax rate for, 161 

Dental program, 258 
Disbursements (see Expenditures) 
Distributive education, 82, 97, 142, 145 
Diversifie<i occupations, 142 
Driver education, 17 

Education a State responsibility, 183-185 
Educational institutions approval. 8. 9, 31-32, 
183 

Elementary schools, supervision, 198, 208-214 
Employment of youth. 36-37 
English, high school 
Enrollment 
Colored, 75 

Each high school, 296-302 



308 



Index 



E- (Continued) 

English, high school (Cont.) 
Enrollment (Cont.) 

White. 73, 74, 86 
Failures and withdrawals, white, 85 
Schools offering, 86, 296-302 
Teachers, 86 
Enrollment 

Adult, 121, 144 
Elementary, 43, 44, 264, 265 
Grade or year, 49-51, 76 
High school 

Course, each school, 290-295 
Growth in, 43, 44, 139, 140 
Subjects 
Colored, 75 
Each school, 296-302 
White, 73-74, 76-82 
Year, 49-51, 76 

Each school, 290-295 
White, 49. 60, 76 
Increase in, 7. 30, 41, 42, 43, 44, 139. 140. 
176 

Non-public, private and parochial schools, 

42, 43, 266-272 
Public schools, 41, 42, 43, 44, 186, 264-265 
State teachers colleges, 239-241, 245, 246 
Subject 

Colored high, 75 

Each high school. 296-302 

White high, 73, 74, 76-82 
Summary, public and non-public, city and 

county, 42, 43 
Summer schools, pupils, 121 
Total public schools, 41, 42, 43, 186, 264-265 
Equalization fund, 7, 11, 32, 186, 192, 193, 195, 
196, 279 

Equivalence examinations, 8, 31, 32, 233-234 
Evening schools and courses 
Enrollment, 121, 144 
Expenditures, 141, 144, 145, 284 
Expenditures, 281 

(See also general control, instruction, oper- 
ation, maintenance, auxiliary agencies, 
fixed charges, tuition to adjoining coun- 
ties, current expenses, debt service, ca- 
pital outlay) 
Colored schools, 288-289 
Current expenses, 122, 123, 281-284 
Elementary schools, 286, 288 
Evening schools, 141, 144, 145, 284, 285, 286, 

287, 288 
Health, 256, 284 
High schools, 287. 289 
Libraries, 251, 252, 284 
Lunches, 254. 284 
Salaries 

All schools, 283 

Elementary, 286, 288 
High, 139, 140, 287, 289 
Vocational teachers, 141-145 



E- (Continued) 

Expenditures (Cont.) 

State teachers colleges, 246-247 

Summer schools, 284, 286, 287. 288, 289 

Total, by major classifications, 260. 281 

Transportation. 146, 147, 284 

Vocational work. Federal, 141-145, 260, 262 

Experience of teachers, 91-92 

F 

Failures (see Non-promotions) 
Federal aid, 183 

Vocational education, 32, 141-145, 182, 260, 
262, 279 

Administration and supervisions, 145 
Salaries of teachers 

Baltimore City, 141, 145 
County day, 141, 142, 143 
County evening, 141, 144 
Fees in teachers colleges, 32. 243. 245. 246, 

247. 260. 261 
Financial statements 

County schools, 9, 20, 32, 279-289 
State public schools, 260, 262 
State teachers colleges, 260, 261 
Financing schools, 7, 11. 30-32. 168. 181-182, 

183-187, 192-196 
First grade 

Non-promotions. 53 
Reading readiness tests. 209, 226 
Fiscal research bureau, 14 
Fixed charges, 284 
French. Latin, Spanish 
Enrollment 
Colored, 75 

Each high school, 296-300 

White, 73-74, 80 
Failures and withdrawals, white. 85 
Schools offering, 86, 296-300 
Teachers, 86 

G 

General control 

Cost per pupil, 128, 129 
Expenditures, 282 
Percent for, 126, 127 
Glee clubs, bands, orchestras, 81 
Grade enrollment, 49-51, 76 
Graduates 

High school, 60, 217 

Entering teachers colleges, 63-65, 290-295 
From each school, 290-295 
Occupations of, 65-72 
Teachers colleges, 237-238 
Guidance, 31, 165, 179. 197. 198. 216 
Gymnasiums, 191, 207 

H 

Handicapped 

Employment of, 19, 35 
Expenditures, 57 
Home instruction, 31, 57, 279 
Hospital schools, 57 
Institutions for, 67, 272 



Indkx 



30'J 



H- (Continued) 

Handicapped (Cont. ; 

Opportunities for education of, 36, 57, 58, o9 

Receipts from State. 32, 57, 279 

Transportation, 57 
Health. 179. 204. 217 

Activities of State and County Departments 
of. 256-258 

Physical education association, 205-206 

Cost per pupil, 132, 133, 135. 138 

Expenditures 
All schools, 284 
By county health offices. 256 

Service program, 204 
Hearing, conservation of, classes and tests, 57, 

69 

High school equivalence examinations. 31, 32, 
181 

High schools 
Aid for, 11, 279 

Disbursements. 287, 289 
Growth in, 139-140 
Individual, 290-302 
Size of. 116-117, 118 

Supervision. 7. 8, 10. 30, 178-179. 193, 194, 

195, 198, 209, 214-215, 225-226 
Home economics 

Adult education, 141, 145 
Enrollment 

Colored, 75 

Each high school, 296-302 

White, 73, 74, 80 
Federal aid, 141-145 
Schools having, 86, 296-302 
Teachers, 86 
Home instruction of pupils, 57, 264, 265 

I 

Immunizations, 257, 258 

Incentive fund for buildings, 7, 12, 31, 32, 

192, 194, 195, 196 
Income payments, per capita, 163 
Income tax. state, 18, 162. 186 
Incorporated towns, levy for, 155, 156 
Index of elementary school attendance, 47 
Industrial arts (see also Trades and indus- 
tries), 199 
Enrollment 
Colored, 75 

Each high school, 296-302 

White, 73, 74, 80 
Schools having, 86, 296-302 
Teachers, 86 
Instruction 

Cost per pupil, 132, 133, 135, 138 
Expenditures 

Colored, 288. 289 

Salaries, supervision, books, etc., 283 
State teachers colleges, 245, 246 
White, 286. 287 

Percent of current expense budget, 126. 127 
Insurance 

County staff. 29 

Expenditures, 284 



I-(Continued) 

Interest payments, 152 
Inventories, 248 

J 

Janitors, engineers, firemen, 278 
Job training of veterans, 8. 181. 234-235 
Junior colleges, 8, 31, 32, 173-175, 236, 244, 279 
Junior high school, 199, 236, 301-302 
Juvenile court, 27 

Juvenile delinquency, 7, 10, 190, 202-204 

K 

Kindergartens; 49. 50. 51, 175-176 

L 

Labor laws, 19 

Languages (see English, French) 
Late entrants, elementary school, 47 
Latin, (see French) 
Legislation, 7, 8, 9-32. 165, 168 
Length of session, 38, 185 
Levies, county, 18, 154-157 
Libraries 

Expenditures all schools, 284 

Public libraries, 8, 26, 28, 31, 32, 168, 303- 
305 

Schools, 179, 197, 208, 251-252, 284 
Library extension division, 31, 165, 179, 248- 

251, 260 

Boards of Trustees, 8 
License fees, 14 

Licensing of schools, 8, 9, 31, 32, 183 
Lip reading classes. 59 
Loan funds, teachers colleges. 244 
Lowndes. T. G.. statement. 189-192 
Local control and support of schools. 186-187 
Lunch program, 31, 165, 182, 207, 208, 252- 
254, 279, 284 

M 

Maintenance 

Cost per pupil for. 132. 133. 135, 138 
Expenditures 

By type of repair, 284 
Colored. 288. 289 
White. 286, 287 
Percent of current expense budget, 126, 127 
Maryland's rank among states, 187, 188, 189 
Materials of instruction and books 
Cost per pupil for, 132, 133. 135, 138 
Expenditures 

Colored, 288, 289 
Total, 283 
White. 286, 287 
Percent of current expense budget, 126, 127 
State aid for, 10, 197, 279 
Mathematics, high school 
Enrollment 
Colored, 75 

Each high school, 296-302 

White. 73. 74. 79 
Failures and withdrawals, white, 86 
Schools having, 86, 296-302 
Teachers, 86 



310 



Index 



M- (Continued) 

Medical examinations 

Bus drivers, 31, 32 

Pupils, 204 * 

Teachers, 31, 32, 260 
Medical students, aid for, 23 
Men teachers, 98, 277, 278 
Mental health non-institutional service, 13 
Mental hygiene board, 15 
Mentally handicapped children, 58, 59 
Migration of population, 184 
Minimum program, 185-186 
Montgomery supervisor of school property, 11 
Motor vehicles, class A & D, 11, 16, 157, 158 
Music, high school, 80, 81, 217 

Enrollment 
Colored, 75 

Each high school, 296-302 

White, 73, 74, 80, 81 
Orchestras, bands, etc., 81 
Schools having, 86, 296-302 
Teachers, 86 

N 

Night schools (see Evening schools, adult 

education) 
Non-promotions, 190 

Elementary schools, 53-57 
First grade, 52 
Subject, white high schools 
Each subject, 85 
One or more subjects, 83, 84 
Number belonging, 273 
Each high school, 290-295 
Per teacher, 101-106 
Number of schools 

Having one teacher, 114, 115, 118 
Non-public, 266-272 
Public, 263 

Elementary, 114, 115, 118 
High, 116-117, 118, 119 
Nurses, public health, 179, 256 
Nutrition, 252, 254 

o 

Occupations of high school graduates, 65-72 
One-teacher schools 
Decrease in, 115 
Number belonging in, 116 
Number of, 114, 116, 263 
White 

Capital outlay for, 150 
Cost per pupil, 130 
Number belonging, 115 

per teacher, 101 
Percent of attendance, 45 
Salary per teacher in, 107 
On-the-job training, 8. 181, 235-236 
Operation 

Cost per pupil, 132, 133, 135, 138 
Expenditures 

By fuel, janitors' wages, supplies, 283 
Colored, 288, 289 
White, 286, 287 



O- (Continued) 

Operation (Cont.) 

Percent of current expense budget, 126, 127 
Orchestras, bands, etc., 81 

Overthrow of government, advocates not to 
hold office, 12 

P 

Parent-teacher associations, 164, 168, 169, 173 
Parochial schools, 34, 42, 43, 266-267, 271 
Part-payment of salaries, 10, 11, 30, 32, 195, 
260, 279 

Pensions, 10, 15. 22. 23, 25. 183 
Persistence to high school graduation. 61-62 
Philosophy underlying Maryland's education 

program. 166-189 
Physical education and health, 179. 204. 217, 

257-259 

Physical education and recreation, 31, 205- 
206, 262 

Appropriation for. 260, 262 
High school enrollment 
Colored, 75 

Each high school, 296-302 

White, 73, 74, 80 
Schools offering, 86, 296-302 
Teachers, 86 
Physically handicapped children, 57, 59, 264, 
265 

Population increase, 7, 39-40, 194, 208 
Presidents of teachers colleges, 3, 241, 242 
Principals, 177, 216-218, 223-224, 228-229 
Private schools, 8, 9, 31, 34, 42, 43, 169, 268- 
270, 272 

Programs of conferences (see conferences) 
Property, valuation of 

County and City, 158, 159, 160, 186 

School, 152-153 
Public improvements department, 17 
Pullen, T. G.. Jr., report to Governor Lane, 

166-189 
Pupil(s) 

High schools, 117, 118, 139, 140 
Non-public schools, 8, 9, 31, 34, 42, 43, 169, 
266-272 

One-teacher schools, 114, 115, 263 
Per teacher, 101-106 
Public school 

Enrollment, 41, 42, 43, 44, 186, 264-265 

Number attending, 274 

Number belonging, 273 

Percent of attendance, 45-47, 276 
State aid per, 7, 11, 32, 192, 193 
Transported, 146, 147, 148 
Purchase of equipment or property, 21, 22, 
206 

R 

Racing, funds from, use, 23 
Rank of Maryland, 187, 188, 189 
Receipts from 
All sources, 280 



Index 



mi 



R- (Continued) 

Receipts from (Cont.) 
Federal government, 279 

Evening schools, counties, 141, 144 
Teachers' salarieil, counties, 142-143, 145 
Vocational education, 141-145, 279 
State, 187-188 

Distributed by type of funds, 1946-1947, 
279 

1920-1947, 122-123 

Teachers colleges, 245-246, 260, 261 

Total and percent, 124-125 
Recordation tax, 18 
Recreation, 27-28, 204, 220 

Referendum on eligibility to hold office if ad- 
vocate overthrow of government, 12 
Rehabilitation, vocational, 2-3, 31, 32, 119-120 
Repair or utility men, 278 

Reports to be filed by State Departments, 13 
Resignations of teachers, 7, 93-94 
Retarded children, classes for, 58, 59 
Retirement system for teachers, 255 

Beneficiary of member of, 10 

Finances, 31, 32, 184, 255, 260 

Members, 255 

Reciprocity, 17, 183 

Reporting annuity for State income tax 

purposes, 19 
Staff, 3 
Roads to schools, 24 

s 

Safety education, 220, 221 

Salaries. 186, 190, 191, 193, 194 
Attendance officers, 282 
Growth in high school, 139, 140 
1947 Scale, 7, 9-10, 20, 30, 168, 169-173, 190, 
193, 196 

Percent of school budget, 126, 127 
State Department Staff, 165 
Superintendents, 10, 165-166 
Supervisors, 10, 168, 193 
Teachers, 7, 9-10, 20. 30. 168, 169-173 

Average per teacher, 106-113, 186 

Colleges. 243 

Cost per pupil, 132, 133, 135. 138 
Total 

Colored elementary, 288 
Colored high. 140, 289 
Vocational, 141-145 
White elementary, 286 
White high, 139, 287 
Sales tax, 19 

Scholarships, teachers colleges, 244 
School census, 33-37 

School lunch program, 31, 165. 182. 207, 208, 

252-254, 279, 284 
Schools, number of, 114-119, 263 
Science, high school, 198, 217, 221 

Enrollment 
Colored, 75 

Each high school, 296-302 
White. 73-74. 78 
Failures and withdrawals, white, 85 



S- (Continued) 

Science, high school (Cont.) 

Schools offering, 86, 296-302 

Teachers, 86 
Senior high school program, 218, 223 
Session, length of, 38 
Sex of teachers, 98, 277, 278 
Shops, 191, 207 
Sick leave. 199-201 
Sight conservation classes, 59 
Size of 

Classes, 7, 9, 101-106, 168-169. 186. 190, 191, 

193, 194, 195, 196 
Schools, 114-118 

Each high, 116-117, 118 
Elementary, 114, 115 
High. 116-117, 118 
Teaching staff, 114, 115, 116, 118 
Smoking prohibited, 25 
Social studies, 198, 217 
Enrollment in high school 
Colored, 75 

Each high school, 296-302 

White, 73-74, 77 
Failures and withdrawals, white high 

schools, 85 
High schools offering, 86, 296-302 
Teachers, 86 
Spanish (see French) 

Special classes for handicapped. 57, 58. 59 

Special high school teachers, 86 

State 

Aid per pupil. 7, 11. 32, 192, 193 

Aid for school buildings, 7, 31, 32, 192, 208 

Aid per teacher, 7. 11, 32, 19», 193, 279 

Aid to health, 256 

Aid to libraries, 8, 31, 32, 251, 260 

Aid to schools. 7, 30-31, 122-125, 168. 184-189 

By States. 187-188 

1920-1947, 122-123 

Showing various school funds. 279 
Board of Education. 2, 32, 189-192 
Department of Education, 2. 3, 31. 32. 165, 

181-182, 209. 262 
Department of Health 

Expenditures. 256 

School activities. 256-258 
Income taxes. 18, 162 
Public school budget, 30-32, 260 
Responsibility for education, 183-187, 194 
Sales tax. 19 

Teachers colleges, 3. 31. 32. 185, 236-247 
Teachers Retirement System. 3, 32. 183. 255, 
260 

Statistical tables. 259-305 
Stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping. 82 
Subjects studied in high school 
Colored, 75 

Each high school. 296-302 
White. 73-74, 76-82 
Substitutes, 201 

Summer conferences at Towson and Bowie, 7. 
32, 222-226, 229-231 



312 



Index 



S- (Continued) 

Summer school attendance 

Pupils, 121 

County teachers, 100 
Summer sessions, teachers colleges, 244, 246 
Superintendents, 2, 4-5, 10, 165-166, 193, 211, 

277, 282 

Supervision, Supervisors, 177, 185, 190, 193 
Colored schools, 226-231 
Cost per pupil for, 132, 133, 135, 138 
Cost, salaries, and expenses 

All schools, 283 

Colored, 288, 289 

White, 286, 287 
Curriculum, 7, 165, 216, 218-222, 229-230, 236 
Elementary school, 198, 208-214 
High school, 7, 8, 10, 30, 178-179, 190, 193, 

194, 195, 198, 209, 214-215, 225-226 
Names of, 2, 4-5 

Number of, 208, 277 

Percent of current expense budget, 126, 127 
Pupil personnel 7, 10, 11, 30-31. 193, 194, 

195, 196, 199 
Salaries of, 10, 168, 193 

State, 2, 3, 165, 181-182, 209, 262 
State aid, 7, 10, 11, 12, 168, 177, 178-179, 
193, 194, 195, 196 

Surplus Federal property, 206 

Survival through school, 61-62 

T 

Taxable basis, 21, 151, 157-160, 186, 194 
Tax dollar, distribution of school, 126-127 
Taxes, 14, 16, 17, 18, 186 
Tax rates, county, 11, 161, 186, 194 
Teacher (s) 

Aid per, 7, 11, 192 ' 
Academic, high school, 86 

Colleges, 3, 12, 19, 31, 32. 236-247, 260, 261 
Experience of, 91-92, 185 
Number of, 277-278 

For each high school subject, 86 
In each high school, 290-295 
In schools of each type 

Colored, 278, 288, 289 

Non-public schools, 266-272 

Public schools. 277, 278 

White elementary, 277 

White high, 277 
Total public school, 277-278 
Pupils per, 101-106, 168-169 
Qualifications, 87-90, 169, 185, 190 
Resignations, 7. 93-94 
Responsibilities for health, 168 
Salaries of, 7, 9-10, 169-173, 185 
Sex of, 98, 277, 278 
Sick leave, allowance for, 197-201 
Special high school, 86 
Summer school attendance of, 100 
Training institutions, 185, 236-247 
Turnover of, 7, 95-97, 99, 190 
Teachers' Retirement System 
Beneficiary of member, 10 
Financial statement, 31, 32, 183, 255, 260 
Reciprocity, 17, 183 



T- (Continued) 

Teachers Retirement System (Cont.) 

Reporting annuity for State income tax 

purposes, 19 
Staff, 3 

Teachers' contributions to, 255 
Tests, 197, 209, 215, 226 
Textbooks, 10, 197, 279 
Trades and industry, courses in, 290-295 

Enrollment, day schools 
Colored, 75, 141, 143, 145 
Each high school, 290-295 
White, 73, 141, 142. 145 

Evening schools, 145 

Federal aid, 141-145 

Schools having, 86. 290-295 
Trade schools, licensing, 181 
Training centers, teachers colleges, 241 
Training workers for war industry, 183 
Transportation of pupils, 146-149, 180, 186, 284 

Cost, total and per pupil, 146-148, 18Q 

Legislation re, 23, 24, 26-27 

Percent of pupils transported, 148 
Tuition charge, teachers colleges, 168, 245, 246, 

247 

Turnover in teaching staff. 7, 95-97, 99 
Twelve-year program, 7, 31, 168, 176, 182, 208, 
216, 220, 221 

u 

Uniform accounting for counties, 12 

V 

Value of 

Assessable property, 157-160 

School property, 152-153 
Veterans, 8, 31, 32, 181, 182 
Visiting teacher program, 7, 10, 178, 190, 199, 

231-232 

Visual and auditory education, 168. 197 
Vocational education. 2, 4-5, 32. 168. 216. 217, 
260, 262, 279 

Enrollment, day schools. 73, 75, 80, 142-143, 
145 

Evening schools, 141, 144, 145 

Federal aid, 141-145, 206 

State aid, 32, 260, 262 
Vocational guidance, 2, 4, 86. 145, 165, 179, 

197, 198, 216 
Vocational rehabilitation. 2-3, 31, 32, 119-120, 

168, 182, 260, 262 

w 

War emergency certificates, 199 
Wealth back of each pupil, 186, 187 
Wiedefeld, M. Theresa, resolution, 242 
Withdrawals of pupils 

Elementary, 47 

High, 85 

Teachers colleges, freshmen, 241 
Withdrawals of teachers, 7, 93-94, 170 
Workshops, 7, 32, 165, 198, 209-211, 215, 219, 

230-231 

Y 

Year, length of school, 38, 185 



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